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THE

PRINCIPLES OF RHETORIC

BY

ADAMS SHERMAN HILL

BOYLSTON PROFESSOR OF RHETORIC AND ORATORY
IN HARVARD COLLEGE

UNIV. OF MICH.
CLASS LIBRARY

RHETORIC
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Aew Edition
REVISED AND ENLARGHD

NEW YORK •;• CINCINNATI ... CHICAGO

AMERICAN

BOOK COMPANY

Copyright, 1878, by Adams SHERMAN HILL.

Copyright, 1895, by ADAMS SHERMAN HILL.

AU rights reserved.

W. P. 5

Nam ipsum latine loqui, est illud quidem, ut paullo ante dixi, in magna laude ponendum; sed ·non tam sua sponte, quam quod est a plerisque neglectum: non enim tam praeclarum est scire latine, quam turpe nescire ; neque tam id mihi oratoris boni, quam civis romani proprium videtur.

CICERO: Brutus, xxxvii.

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PREFACE.

For the purposes of this treatise, Rhetoric may be defined as the art of efficient communication by language. It is not one of several arts out of which a choice may be made; it is the art to the principles of which, consciously or unconsciously, a good writer or speaker must conform.

It is an art, not a science: for it neither observes, nor discovers, nor classifies; but it shows how to convey from one mind to another the results of observation, discovery, or classification; it uses knowledge, not as knowledge, but as power.

Logic simply teaches the right use of reason, and may be practised by the solitary inhabitant of a desert island; but Rhetoric, being the art of communication by language, implies the presence, in fact or in imagination, of at least two persons, — the speaker or the writer, and the person spoken to or written to. Aristotle makes the very essence of Rhetoric to lie in the distinct recognition of a hearer. Hence, its rules are not absolute, like those of logic, but relative to the character and circumstances of the person or persons addressed; for though

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