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to remark, that during all the early stages of its growth, and in fact until the seed is well set, the roots of the plants must be constantly under water; to effect this, different contrivances are resorted to, two of these, the chain-pump, and the bucket placed at the end of a lever, are represented in the third engraving.;
As soon as the young plants have reached the height of six or seven inches, they are pulled up, the tops are cut off, the roots carefully washed, and the whole planted out in rows, about a foot asunder. In the course of its growth, it is at times sprinkled with lime and water, which is said to destroy the insects and assist in enriching the soil; the greatest care is also taken to remove the weeds by hand, as fast as they spring up. In these tedious operations, the English agriculturist can form no idea of the perseverance and attention of the industrious Chinese. The first crop, for they obtain two in the course of the year, is harvested about May or June, and the second in October or November. The sickle employed for the purpose of reaping the rice, is like the European instrument, bent into the form of a hook, but the edge instead of being smooth, is notched like that of a saw, the straw and stubble left after the harvest, are burnt on the spot and left
to enrich the land. The threshing of the rice is performed in the usual manner with a flail, and the husks removed by bruising the grain in a kind of mortar, as represented in the small engraving. The next process, sifting or separating the husks from the seed, is shown in the back-ground of the fourth engraving. In the fore-ground of the same, is seen the mode of grinding it into flour, by means of a hand-mill worked by several men.
The chief food of the Chinese consists of this useful grain, prepared in various ways. They use no spoons at their meals, and it is curious to notice the dexterity with which two small skewers, called chopsticks,
are employed to jerk the rice into their mouths: a kind of wine is also prepared from the grain by fermentation.
One mode of cultivating the Rice, resorted to in Sumatra, differs so materially from that we have just noticed, that it ought not to be passed over without notice. This immense island is thickly covered with almost inexhaustable forests, and the natives, in the dry season, select a spot which they call a Laddang. The trees are then cut down, at the height of about ten feet from the ground, and after they have become tolerably dry, the whole are set fire to. If the laddang is of any extent, the conflagration continues for the space of a month. The husbandman has now to wait patiently till the rainy season sets in. If wet weather should occur unseasonably, after the trees are felled, and before they are sufficiently dry to be consumed, the crops would be much retarded, on account of the ground not being cleared in time.
At this season there are a set of impostors, Malay adventurers, who profit by the credulity of the husbandmen, by pretending to have the power of causing or retarding rain. The fee which the juggler receives for the practice of his deception, is at the rate of one dollar or more from each family. His mode of proceeding is to abstain, or pretend to do so, for
many nights and days, from food and sleep, performing trifling ceremonies, and remaining the whole time in the open air. If he sees a cloud gathering, he begins to smoke tobacco with great vehemence, walking about quickly and throwing the puffs towards the cloud, with all the power of his lungs. As soon as the rainy season has fairly set in, the seed is sown by making holes in the ground at equal distances, and dropping several grains into each; and this is all the trouble the careless native takes with his crop, until the time of harvest, the result of this want of care is, that it not unfrequently happens, that the whole of the seed is devoured by the birds. The whole of the Sumatrians, however, are not quite so regardless of their interests after it is committed to the ground, for, in some parts of the island, they construct a number of little wooden machines, which are placed round the fields connected by strings, and so formed, that a child by pulling a line can set them all in motion, and produce a terrible clatter.
Formerly, Rice used to be brought into England with the husk or rind removed, but of late years, a manufactory for the purpose of cleaning the grain has been established in London, and it is found that by being imported in the husk, it retains its flavour much better. In this state, it is sometimes called by its Sumatran name paddee. The value of Rice as an article of food, can hardly be too highly estimated. In the east, it is the chief dish of all orders jf people, from the sultan to the beggar.
In England, its consumption is rapidly increasing; he amount imported being at present 100,000 bags a year, while, only a few years back, it seldom exceeded 20,000. Experiments, on a small scale, have been made for the purpose of ascertaining the possibility of growing it in this country, but, as yet, without any chance of success.
One pound of rice-flour added to wheat, in the making of bread, much improves the quality of the loaves; and if the proportion of the rice is somewhat increased, the bad flavour of damaged flour is amended.
The bunched Oxen of the Hottentots not only submit to all kinds of domestic labour, but they become favourite domestics, and companions in amusements; and they participate in the habitation and table of their masters. As their nature is improved by the gentleness of their education, and the kind treatment they receive, they acquire sensibility and intelligence, and perform actions which we would not expect from them. The Hottentots train their oxen to war. In all their armies there are considerable troops of these oxen, which are easily governed, and are let loose by the chief when a proper opportunity occurs. They instantly dart with impetuosity upon the enemy. They strike with their horns, kick, overturn, and trample under their feet everything that opposes their fury. They run ferociously into the ranks, which they soon put into disorder; and thus pave the way for an easy victory to their masters. They are also instructed to guard the flocks, which they conduct with dexterity, and defend them from the attacks of strangers and of rapacious animals. They are taught to understand signals; and when pasturing, at the smallest signal from the keeper, they bring back and collect the wandering animals. They attack all strangers with fury; so that they prove a great security against robbers. They know every inhabitant of the kraal or village, and these they suffer to approach the cattle with the greatest safety. Hancock on Instinct,
The cases of disease with which the hospitals are filled tend to confirm, in a strong manner, the evils of Dramdrinking. There is little doubt that a large, if not the greatest, proportion of maladies which furnish the hospitals with patients, must be referred to this source. From official connexion with the City hospitals, and from rather an extensive acquaintance with the habits and afflictions of the poor, I have seen enough to convince me that drinking of spirits is a considerable source of disease and death, in the lower classes of society. It is not a moral pestilence alone,, but a physical scourge; and innumerable indeed have been the victims who have fallen beneath its power: many local diseases (even in surgery) are referable to the habitual use of spirits, and their destructive influence is constantly manifested in cases of sore legs,—a complaint which afflicts a very great proportion of the inferior orders in this town: the worst specimens of this disease are to be traced to the inordinate use of spirituous liquors, and they are commonly cases which never completely get well; and the subjects of them drag out their existence in going from one hospital to another, while they are rendered incapable of laborious exertions when thrown upon the country. Poynder.
The famous oriental philosopher, Lokman, while a slave, being presented by his master with a bitter melon, immediately ate it all. "How was it possible," said his master, "for you to eat so nauseous a fruit?" Lokman replied, "I have received so many favours from you, it is no wonder I should, for once in my life, eat a bitter melon from your hand." This generous answer of the slave struck the master 60 forcibly, that he immediately gave him his liberty. With such sentiments should man receive his portion of sufferings at the hand of God.- Bp. Horxe.
Let not the raillery or contempt of bad men laugh or fright you out of your duty; for why should the censures of fools hinder you from being wise?
It may, indeed, be thought strange to introduce Christian doctrines into philosophical studies; and yet why should it be so? Christianity is the great business of life. Not satisfied with having it as the white margin, merely to adorn the page of our history, we must have it the entire fabric on which the text is imprinted; and if we are thus to interweave it With every thing connected with ourselves, and with St. Paul to " count all things but loss for the knowledge of Christ Jesus our Lord," we ought to be equally earnest to incorporate it with every branch of knowledge we communicate to our children. We must apply to ourselves the commandment which God gave to the Jews j—" Thou must teach my words diligently unto your children j thou shalt talk of them when thou sittest in the house, when thou walkest by the way, when thou liest down, and when thou risest up." There is, therefore, no object of study which ought not to be studied in relation to Christianity.
Must we not stand rebuked before the heathen, when we remember the almost universal infusion of their idolatry into all the various occupations of life? Referring to the religion of ancient Rome, Mr. Gibbon tells us, " it was, moreover, interwoven with every circumstance of business or pleasure, of public or private life, with all the offices and amusements of society." And how interesting the reply of the Chickasaw Indian to Mr. Wesley, when he asked him if his tribe often thought and talked of their gods j "We think of them always," said the Indian j "Wherever we are, we talk of them and to them, at home and abroad, in peace and in war, before and after we fight, and, indeed, whenever,
and wherever, we meet together." Observations on
the Antiehristian Tendency of Modern Education.
It is a common weakness with men in power, who have used dissimulation successfully, to form a passion for the use of it. Dupes to their love of duping, their pride is flattered by it. He who fancies he must be perpetually stooping to the prejudices of his fellow-creatures, is perpetually reminding and reassuring himself of his vast superiority over them: but no greatness can long co-exist with deceit; the whole faculties of men must be exerted in order to noble energies, and he who is not earnestly sincere lives but in half his being—self mutilated, self-proscribed.-—Coleridge.
"WATCHMAN, WHAT OF THE NIGHT?"
Say, Watchman, what of the night?
Do the dews of the morning fall? Have the orient skies a border of light,
Like the fringe of a funeral pall?
• The night is fast waning on high,
And soon shall the darkness flee,
And bright shall its glories be.'
But, Watchman, what of the night,
When sorrow and pain are mine,
No longer around me shine?
'That night of sorrow, thy soul
May surely prepare to meet,
And the morning of joy be sweet,'
But, Watchman, what of the night.
When the arrow of death is sped. And the grave, which no glimmering star can ight
Shall be my sleeping bed?
'That night is near,—and the cheerless tomb
Shall keep thy body in store,
And Night—shall be no more 1'
THE PRAYER OF KING CHARLES THE FIRST.
Having been informed by Mr. Lemon, that he had recently discovered, in the State-Paper Office, a prayer by King Charles the First, I became desirous to take a copy of it, for the purpose of forwarding it to the Committee of General Literature and Education, for publication in the Saturday Magazine. With the permission of the Secretary of State for the Home Department, I faithfully transcribed it. I was informed that it had never been published, but have ascertained that the prayer, numbered * four' in the Reliquitc Sacra Caroline, may be considered a mutilated edition of it. Having compared the two, it seems to me that the one now sent had been used by the King as his morning and evening private prayer, and that either the early copy had been very incorrectly made, or that, in the time of the King's sufferings, he had omitted the whole of the first paragraph, and then, having made some other alterations, had, by these means, converted it into a general confession and prayer for the pardon of sin.
The composition manifests a frame of mind, animated with the sublime truths of our holy religion; as such, it will be held in great estimation by every Christian. This private prayer of the king shows that his devotional feelings were not the result of adversity. This confession of sin, and prayer for pardon, it is evident, had been composed and made use of before the Rebellion.
Charles the First was born A. D. 1600, and was married in 1625, and in 1642 his political horizon was overcast. This original prayer is endorsed, in the same hand-writing, 1631; it was, therefore, written when he was thirty-one years of age, about six years after his marriage, and eleven before the commencement of the Civil War. The appearance of the MS. would seem to show its daily use, and yet it is in a good state of preservation, considering that it is two hundred years old. Mr. Lemon assures me that he is well-acquainted with the hand-writing of the King, and he feels certain that this prayer, throughout, was penned by King Charles himself; and, as most of the manuscripts relating to those eventful times, especially the King's correspondence, have been frequently examined by him, a much better authority upon this point, I suppose, could not be adduced. It is a prayer suitable to all sincere penitents, and would form a good daily prayer for pardon for the poor cottager as well as for the greatest prince. Rev. H. C.
A DAILY PRAYER, ENTIRELY IN THE HANDWRITING OF KING CHARLES THE FIRST, Copied from a MS. discovered in His Majesty's State-Paper Office.
"A PRAYER—1631. "Good Lord, I thanke thee for keeping mee this day; night
■ . ' I humblie beseeche thee to keepe mee this , night; r day
from all dangers or mischances that may happen to my boddie, and all evell thoughts which may assalt or hurt my sowel, for Jesus Christ his sake: and looke upon me, thy unworthie servant, who here prostrates himselfe at thy throne of grace, but looke upon mee, O Father, through the merites and mediation of Jesus Christ, thy beloved Sone, in whom thou art onlie well pleased; for, of myself, I am not worthie to stand in thy presence, or to speake with my uncleane lips, to thee most holly and sternal God; for thou knowest that in sinn I was conceaued and borne, and that ever since I haue lived in Iniquetie, so that I haue broken all thy Holly
Comandments, by sinful motions, evel words, and wicked workes, omitting many dewties I ought to doe, and comitting manie vyces, which thou hast forbidden vnder paine of heavie displeasure: as for sinnes, O Lord, they are innumerable; in the multitude, therefore, of thy mercies, and by the merites of Jesus Christ, I intreate thy Devyne Majestie, that thou wouldest not enter into judgment with thy servant, nor be extreame to marke what is done amiss, but bee thou mercifull to mee, and washe away all my sinnes with the merits of that pretius blood that Jesus Christ shed for mee; and not only washe away all my sinnes, but also to purge my hart, by [thy] holly spirit, from the drosse of my naturall corruption; and as thou doest add dayes to my lyfe, so (good Lord) add repentance to my dayes, that when I have post this mortal lyfe, I may bee a partaker of thy everlasting kingdom, throught Jesus Christ our Lord.—Amen."
Sinners are like idle swimmers, that go carelessly floating down the stream, rather than exert themselves to swim against the current and gain the bank. They must reach the sea at last, and when they hear the breakers, and see the foaming crests of the waves, they become alarmed; but it is too late; the stream is now too strong for them, their limbs are benumbed and enervated from want of exertion: and unfitted and unprepared, they are hurried into the ocean of eternity. F.
Virtue is not a mushroom that springeth up of itself in one night, when we are asleep or regard it not; but a delicate plant, that growefh slowly and tenderly, needing much pains to cultivate it, much care to guard it, much time to mature it. Neither is vice a spirit that will be conjured away with a charm, slain by a single blow, or despatched by one stab. Who, then, will be so foolish as to leave the eradicating of vice, and the planting in of virtue into its place to a few years or weeks? Yet he who procrastinates his repentance and amendment grossly does so: with his eyes open, he abridges the time allotted for the longest and
most important work he has to perform: he is a fool.
In Mr. Amyot's very interesting Account of the Life of the late Mr. Windham, prefaced to the edition of that gentleman's speeches in Parliament, is the following anecdote, which deserves to be more known than it is :—
** Nothing," says Mr. Amyot, "so highly offended him, as any careless or irreverend use of the name of the Creator. I remember, that on reading a letter addressed to him, in which the words, 'My God !' had been made use of on a light occasion, he hastily snatched a pen, and before he would finish the letter blotted out the misplaced exclamation."
There is to difference, and a wide one, between practising moral duties, and being a christian. Christianity is a religion of motives. It substitutes. an eternal motive for an earthly one: it substitutes the love of God for the love of the world or the love of self. There may be, and are, many persons, who practise temperance and other virtues which Christianity inculcates, but who never think of doing so because they are be inculcated. It would be as absurd to ascribe a knowledge of mechanics to savages, because they employ the lever; or of the principles of astronomy to brutes, because, in walking, they preserve the centre of gravity; as it is to call such persons christians. A christian is one, whose motives are christian faith and Christian hope, and who is, moreover, able to give a reason of the hope that is in him.^—Archbishop Whatkly.
The pious George Herbert built a new church at Layton Ecclesia, near Spalding, and by his order the reading pew and pulpit were a little distant from each other, and both of an equal height; for he would often say, "They should neither have a precedence or priority of the other; but that prayer and preaching, being equally useful, might agree like brethren, and have an equal honour and estimation."——Life of Herbert.
The skin of the chameleon is composed of a sort of small, scaly grains, and, under ordinary circumstances, is of a greenish-gray colour. The general form of the body reminds one of the lizard, but the trunk is compressed, and the back highly ridged or cutting. The occiput, or hinder part of the head, is elevated pyramidically; the eyes are large, projecting far outwards, yet almost entirely covered over by the skin, except immediately opposite the pupil. What is still more singular, the eyes are capable of moving independently of each other, taking different directions at the same moment. There is no visible external ear; the tongue is fleshy, round, and capable of being greatly lengthened; the teeth are threepronged. Each of the feet has five toes, but these are separated into two portions (one containing two and the other three toes) by the skin, which covers them entirely to the nails. The tail is long and round, and capable of grasping twigs or branches, to sustain the animal. The lungs of the chameleon are so large, that when inflated to the utmost, the whole body becomes almost transparent. With the different degrees of inflation, the surface undergoes changes of colour, owing to the variations produced in the distribution of the blood, and not, as has been fabled, by the animal assuming the colour of the body upon which it happens to be placed.
It is scarcely possible to witness any thing more curious or beautiful than the transitions from hue to hue, exhibited by the chameleon, when aroused to motion. The chameleons are all exceedingly slow, dull, and almost torpid. The only part which they move with celerity is their long tongue. This organ is clothed, at its extremity, with a viscid, gluey mucus, and is darted out for the purpose of capturing insects, upon which the animal subsists. As they feed but seldom, and are frequently seen inhaling the air, to inflate their bodies as above-mentioned, ancient observers concluded that they fed altogether on air; but closer attention to their habits has shown that they require a diet rather more substantial. Three or four species are well known, and are natives of Africa and the Molucca islands. They pass their lives altogether upon trees, feeding upon small insects, for which their construction shows them to be perfectly adapted
ANNIVERSARIES IN AUGUST. MONDAY, 26th. 55 b. C. Julius Cttsar first landed in Britain on the beach Between Deal and Dover, loll A.D. Orrllana, a Spanish adventurer, sailed up the Maranon, and so discovered it to be a river, though of such immense extent as to have been mistaken for an ocean. 1793 Toulon given up to the English, with the arsenal, and the
shipping in the harbour. 1795 Trincomalee, a Dutch settlement in the Island of Ceylon, taken by the English.
TUESDAY, 27th. 1551 The Grand Council of Geneva issued a decree, proscribing
the Roman Catholic religion in that town. 1802 The Docks at Blackwall were opened in presence of the Officers of the Crown, when an East Indiaman entered, decorated with the colours of the different nations of Europe. WEDNESDAY, 28th. St. Aicjstine.—The anniversary of the death of this eminent Father of the Church still retains a place in our Calendar, Uiouci the religious observance of it was abolished at the Reformation, lie was a native of Africa, and brought up in the Christian faith by hii mother Monica, though his conduct, while young, did little credit to her instructions. The preaching of St. Ambrose made a great impression on his mind, and induced him to study the writings of St. IViul, to which may be attributed the exemplary piety of his afterlife, as well as the vigour and powerful reasoning found in his works. He retired, with eleven companions, to Hippo, of which place he was afterward Bishop, where he exercised himself in prayer and meditation day and night.
16-15 Died, at Rostock, Hugo Grotius, a native of Delft, and one of the most learned writers of the seventeenth century. He was confined in the Castle of Louvestein for his adherence to the doctrines of the Reformation, and was only liberated bi the dexterity and affection of his wife, who caused him to be carried out in a chest, concealed by books. 1722 A dreadful hurricane in the West Indies, by which the Island of Barbadoes was greatly injured, and the Town of Port Royal, in Jamaica, totally destroyed. THURSDAY, 29th. J. collation of John the Baptist (see June 24.) 1680 Died the infamous Colonel Blood, rendered notorious by a daring attempt to steal the King's crown. FRIDAY, 30th. 70 . erusalem utterly destroyed by Titus. 1801 Alexandria evacuated by the French; this was the last pUoe
they retained in Egypt. . ,
180V Convention of Cintra, by which the French were allowed to evacuate Portugal, without molestation from the British forces. SATURDAY, 31st. 1688 Exp red, in London, John Bunyan, author of the Pifjrun'j Progress. He was the son of a travelling tinker, and a soldier in the Parliamentary army. He became a preacher ia a Baptist congregation at Bedford, and was a man of talent and piety
THE MONTH OF SEPTEMBER.
September retains the name originally bestowed on it to mark * position of seventh month in the Alban Calendar. It bore, for i short period, the various appellations of Gennanieus, AHttmaus, Herculus, and Tacitus, given to it by these several Emperors, who wished to arrogate to themselves, or were complimented by the Senate, with the honours bestowed on Julius and Augustus Casar. I heir popularity, however, did not continue long enough to confirm by custom the new appellative, and the month returned to its old designation, though, from the time of Numa, it had been the nintk. and not the seventh month of the year. It was dedicated to Vulcan, and as its termination (which is a combination of the Latin tstfeer, a showsr, implies, was the commencement of the wet season in Rome. The Saxons called it Gerst-monat; Gerst, or Barley, being thea in perfection, and an object of no small importance to them, thei: chief, or habitual drink, consisting of a fermented liquor made from Barley, and called Beere, or more anciently Ael, names still applied to our national beverage.
After the establishment of Christianity, this month was called by them Halig-monat, the Holy Month, from the numerous religkiiS ceremonies observed in the course of it.
September being the period of the Vintage, as well as of the Barley Harvest, in old pictures it is represented by a man clothed in purple, and crowned with clusters of black and white grapes. holding in his hand a few ears of corn and a balance, the latter m allusion to the sign Libra, which the sun enters on the 23rd of this month.
ANNIVERSARIES. SUNDAY, 1st. Thirteenth Sunday After Trinity. 1159 Died Nicholas Brekespeare, the only Englishman that ever
obtained the Pontifical Chair. On his exaltation, he assorced
the title of Adrian IV.: he was a native of Abbots' La is
Herts. 1804 A new Planet discovered by Mr. Harding, to which, m ai
Almanacs, we give the name of Juno; foreign astronomer*.
however, call it the Harding.
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