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ordinary level of custom-few, very few, in re- land as Turkey, seems like an unprofitable idlenoss ality, practically deciding for themselves; that is, library, waste of money, or a dangerous indifreely and wisely-it must be painfully evident, cation of superfluous wealth. On religious subthat, in a country like Palestine, where the means jects, especially, the sacred books are claimed as of knowledge are so scanty, and the encourage the exclusive property of the sacred order; their ments to improvement less than nothing, he must possession of these docuinents, while it diminishes be indeed an extraordinary character, who should the mental power of their spiritual subjects, adds a exert, on rational principles, his liberty to choose mysterious eminence to their own dignity. Well in religion for himself. He must have emanci- aware of that popular frailty which leads men pated his mind from inveterate habits : he must gratuitously to admire and magnify every object have cast hereditary notions into the grave of his that lies beyond the reach of general examination, ancestors: he will be doing a kind of sacred vio- it becomes their interest to keep fairly out of sight lence to the public feeling; and he may reckon the standard records of their religion; while the upon the certain indignation and opposition of a mass of the community-in religious matters, ever small but energetic aristocracy, with whom alone more credulous than inquiring ; more prone to has rested, hitherto, the prerogative of thinking believe the veriest trifle, than to examine the both for themselves and for others.
grounds of faith—hear, with complacency, that It might be supposed that the existence of their religion is written in venerable and ancient sacred books among the different bodies would records ; known to a few. Thus it is, that almost furnish facilities for exploring where lie the errors every man in Syria has his passions, in reality, still of the various religious systems; and that appeal more firmly rivetted to his respective religious to such books, consequently, would lead, in some system, by the persuasion that it has been settled measure, to the discovery of truth. There is, no and drawn up in a dogmatical form-ready to doubt, some weight in this consideration. An au convince him, if skeptical
, or to overwhelm him, if thorized book is, at all times, a standard for in- schismatically disposed. He, therefore, neither vestigation. Most of the people of Palestine have doubts nor differs, nor even inquires. If he cansuch books, by them accounted sacred; such are not quote the contents of his sacred volume, he the Pentateuch—the Hebrew Scriptures-the yet remains attached to the abstract idea of its whole of the Old and New Testaments-the existence; bowing to his religious superior, as Koran-and the supposed books of the Druses.* the legitimate master of his mind and of his conBut, in Syria, what is the amount of this remark-science. that “truth lies in books ?" How many are the The enfeebling influence of this spiritual degracopies of these books, and in whose possession do dation of the mass of society is so manifest, that they rest? Where either copies of these books it is impossible for an intelligent person to have are scarce, or the art of reading not general, or much to do with the natives of these countries the reading of these books prohibited, what can it without perceiving, what appears to be sometimes avail to the benefit of the population at large, to a most perverse obliquity, at other times an unacbe persuaded,
countable deficiency of judgment. Their natural 'The truth lies somewhere, if we knew but where?
powers of forming an opinion have plainly been
either distorted or depressed ; rather, we may say, of books it may truly be said, that, to an unedu- both. It is surprising to see with what indiffercated country, they are, in all-respects, the con- ence they entertain a serious argument; they reverse of that which they are in an enlightened gard it as a thing out of their province. They nation. Where all can read, and all are free to have no notion of one continued line of reasoning. read, books seem almost to form an integral part The most frivolous reasons make an impression of the community; they affect the public mind on their minds, when supported by the authority they supply materials of friendly conversations of a name; while the most self-evident and imthey speak, and take part in the dialogue—they portant truths seem to have no weight, when the challenge trial at the bar of general opinion—they appeal is made to the conviction of their own conlive, and act; and are not forgotten if their services science. Occasionally biassed by some unknown have stood the test of experience, and proved motive, they appear for a while ardently to esbeneficial to society-they travel to far distant pouse the cause of truth; but soon they relapse countries they multiply their own species, and into some gross absurdity; and exhibit an inconbecome an immense and influential family as it sistency with themselves, of which they appear were, a world of separate, but not absent, spirits; neither ashamed, nor even conscious. It seems fit associates for those intellectual men who en- with them to be no great objection to a new opitertain and cherish their company. All this, and nion, that it is contradictory to one which pre: more, might be affirmed of the wondrous art of viously they had maintained with ardor. communicating and perpetuating our ideas, by That persons grown up to manhood should thus means of writing and printing. But in an ignorant remain, with reference to religious subjects, in land, all this is not. The copious materials of the infancy of understanding, is an indication that historical fact, of logical argument, of moral or they have but little feeling of moral responsibility. religious sentiment, which have been from time to How defective is their moral sense. The love of time committed to paper, are negligently kept, truth cannot, in fact, be regarded as characteristic and often consigned to oblivion. Study, in such a of the people of these countries. In all transac
tions, it is requisite to engage their interest, as Perhaps we might add the Acts of a very few the surest, often the only, guarantee to their keepof the Christian councils.
ing their word. Neither is there any thing in the + Cowper's “ Hope."
institutions of the different govern ments, which
might serve as an effectual counterpoise to this the subjects pining, yet split into implacably hostile spirit of bad faith. Justice may casually be ob- parties--the Jews, ever the first to suffer, lingertained, and true evidence may sometimes be had ; ing out their days in a kind of living death ; apbut it is best not to hazard the experiment of parently hoping, yet manifesting none of the deseeking either.
light and energy inspired by the genuine taste of Where freedom of thought and principles of hope the Christians, professing the most benign integrity are rare, little of the ardor of enterprise, religion, yet exhibiting none of that spirit by which and less of the spirit of disinterested love to man, all men are to recognise the disciples of Christcan be expected. To professing Christians in innumerable sanctuaries, and shrines, and veneraSyria, it is difficult to convey an idea of the princi- ted places, and crowds of devotees making many ple of Protestant missions ; they seem to regard prayers; yet all beneath the frown of a jealous our projects as the schemes of a party; and never God, who looks with favor neither on the Jew, nor to have learned the signification of those words, on the Mussulman, nor on those who bear the We seek not yours but you. All that they have name, and the name only, of the Blessed Redeemformerly seen of Frank missionaries, must have er! The stern rebuke, perhaps also the tender prepared them to look with jealousy on the en- expostulation, of the prophet, may still be conceiv. trance of Protestants; nor can Protestants ever ed thrilling through the streets of this doomed succeed among them, but by maintaining entire city—“Wo unto thee, Jerusalem! wilt thou not purity of motive and consistency of conduct. By be made clean? When shall it once be ?" upholding the sacred duty of aiming at the con Whether the system of making a pilgrimage to version of all who are not Christians, and by ma- the holy city has a tendency to promote genuine nifesting a spirit willing to suffer for the cause of devotion, niay safely be left to be tried, on the Christ, the missionaries of the west may expect following considerations. He who leaves his quiet to be the means, both of evangelizing the uncon- home and regular employments for this errand, verted and of restoring the fallen and decayed the nearer he approaches to the holy city, the Christian churches to primitive purity in doctrine greater will be the crowd in which he will find and practice.
himself. His voyage probably will be in a small But it is time to draw a veil over this dark pic- vessel, with a great number of fellow-passengers; ture. One prominent object only shall be briefly many of whom, such is the lamentable superstinoticed. Deserted as this land now is—without tion of multitudes in these countries, will think it prosperous agriculture or commerce, and with lit- sinful to eat meat, but no sin to become intoxicatle of learning or piety—it still maintains its hold ted with wine or brandy, two or three days of the on the feelings of a large portion of mankind, as week, being fast-days. At every stage he is liacontaining within its boundaries that city, to ble to be thrown into such company. At Jerusawhich the professors of the three most celebrated lem, whether retiring to his convent, or visiting religions have been accustomed to look with irre- the holy sepulchre, or going his rounds with other sistible religious recollections. The Shechinah, devotees to visit sacred spots, he is almost always the holy sepulchre, and the mosque of the second in a crowd. A fervor of the spirits may, not unCaliph, have attracted, respectively, the almost- frequently, be excited, by persons feeling themadoring eyes of the Jew, the Christian, and the selves surrounded by a throng, who pray aloud, Mohammedan. To all of them, Jerusalem is as a beat their breasts, weep bitterly, and strike the prize!-so strong is the influence of that name, ground with their foreheads; but on a subsequent holding entire nations, for more than a thousand occasion, when some festival sets them for a short years, under its magic spell! Yet if—as it fitly space at liberty from the rigor of a long penance, may–Jerusalem be viewed as representing in they rush with no less eagerness into excess of epitome the religious state of that country, in riot. They consider it to be doing honor to a which it still seems to bear the character of a saint's-day, to feast luxuriously, so far as their metropolis, hardly could there be found a truer means permit. The convents, at these times, are emblem of the condition of Palestine. Thou sealest crowded : in the room which I occupied alone, up the sun; full of spiritual folly, and perfect in about ten feet square, pilgrims as many as ten wretchedness.* In no place which he has visited, would be accommodated, when the season was did the author ever feel, so nearly touching him as full: others sleep at the door, on the terraces, or in Jerusalem, the corruption, the peril, and the at the church-porch. Let any reflecting Christian wretchedness, which seem to infect every thing say, whether such circumstances are calculated to dependent on Turkish government; in other prin- cherish or to extinguish the spirit of devotion; or cipal cities of the Levant, there is a more sensible whether the devotees are likely to be heard and feeling of protection, both from the habits of the accepted for their much speaking, or their innunatives and from the presence of European resi- merable bowings and prostrations. And what, dents ; but, here, almost none. Here, therefore, alas! remains to the pilgrim, after he has spent that anxiety which is suffered by all unprotected himself in this way, for weeks and months ? -a subjects of the Porte, was rendered more visible casket of beads !-some ornamented wax-canto European eyes. We lived in the midst of it, dles; one, especially, which has been lighted at and were daily conversant with its influence. All
, the holy fire !-and a paper, signed by the proper whenever in memory I reflect upon it, seems like ecclesiastical authorities, certifying that he has a vision of sorrow, destitute of relief-the Turk- visited all the holy places; and that, in brief, he ish government, grinding the faces of the poor- has, by his pilgrimage, done God service, acquired
merit, and procured the pardon of his sins, through
the intercession of the Virgin Mary and all the * Sce Ezek. xxviii. 12.
saints! Millions have come from far, to drink of
this poisoned fountain, which they have mistaken performed; a person, not the proper object of for the water of life!
prayer, is invoked; and the spirit of devotion towards her is stimulated, by the exhibition of pomp suited to gratify the lust of the eye. This kind of
idolatrous display is very general in the MediterAPPENDIX.
ranean ;* not less general, probably, than the reading of the Bible is in England !
Not unfrequently, this image of the Virgin
Mary is represented as bearing in its arms an IMAGE-WORSHIP, AND INVOCATION OF SAINTS. image of the child Jesus. That the name of
Jesus should be invoked, is scriptural; but, to Is not that man, think you, unwise, that will run mingle with our prayers to Him the admiration for water to a little brook, when he may as well go of His image, bowing down to it, or doing honor to the head-spring ? Even so may his wisdom be to it
, is idolatrous. In this act, the idolatry is juslly suspected, ihat will flee unto saints in time of single; whereas in the adoration of the image of necessity, when he may, boldly and without fear, de- the Virgin it is two-fold. clare his grief and direct his prayer unto the Lord These two subjects are discussed with the himself.—Homily of the Church of England con- greatest perspicuity and with unanswerable argucerning prayer.
ments, in two separate homilies of the Church of Shall God's Word—by God commanded to be read England: the one entitled, “Concerning prayer;" unto all, and known of all-for danger of heresy, as the other “ Against peril of idolatry.” In these they say, be shut up? And idols and images, notwith- discourses it is clearly established, that both these standing they be forbidden by God, and notwith- errors are repugnant as well to the sense of Scripstanding the danger of idolatry by them, shall they ture as to that also of the primitive Christian yet be set up, suffered and maintained, in churhes fathers. and temples ? O worldly and fleshly wisdom! ever It were vain to attempt adding any thing to the bent to maintain the inventions and traditions of matter of these two homilies. Superfluous, howmen, by carnal reason; and, by the same, to disan- ever, it will not be, to impress on the English nul or deface the holy ordinances, laws, and honor reader, in the present day, the great danger of of the eternal God !-Homily of the Church of departing from the purity of the Scriptures, and of England against peril of idolatry.
falling into the corruptions of idolatry.
The first document which we shall quote illusThe invention of other mediators between God trative of this subject, is one which is regarded by and man, than Christ Jesus; to be invoked, con- corrupt churches as authoritative, in establishing sequently, by prayer—and the attempt to conduct not so much the lawfulness as the duty of the religious worship with the help of graven images, use of images. It is the decree of the seventh or likenesses, or relics--these are two of the general council. greatest errors, by which professing Christians have defaced the gospel, and dishonored the God Definitio Sanctæ Magna et Universalis in Nicaa revealed to us in the Bible. They are combined
Synodi Secunda. and interwoven with all the religious notions and offices of the Romish and Oriental churches; After having made various introductory remarks, while this multiplication of mediators is an out- and repeated the first Nicene Creed, and recarage to the doctrine of the all-sufficient mediation pitulated the condemnation of different heresies by of Christ, as presumptuous as pagan polytheism previous councils, their definition of faith proceeds is to the doctrine of the unity of God.
thus :To exemplify this statement, it would be suffi “We define, with all accuracy and care, that cient to turn to ecclesiastical history, that part the venerable and holy images, fitly prepared with especially which refers to the eighth century; or colors and inlaying or any other matter, accordto quote the various liturgical books of Rome and ing to the fashion and form of the venerable and the East; or actually to visit their churches, and life-giving cross, are to be dedicated and placed observe the ceremonies of these denominations of and kept in the sacred temples of God; on sacred Christians.
vessels and garments also, on walls and tables, in In the following pages, a selection is made from private houses, and in public ways; but, chiefly, various authentic documents, which may serve to the image of the Lord and God our Saviour Jesus illustrate the character and tendencies of these Christ ; next, that of our unspotted lady, the two-fold kind of idolatry; a superstition, in which mother of God; those of the venerable angels, both the OBJECT and the MEANS of devotion are of and of all holy men. For, as often as these human invention, and alike opposed to the tenor painted images are looked at they who contemof the revealed will of God.
plate them are excited to the memory and recolAn image or picture of the Virgin Mary is set lection and love of the prototypes, and may offer up, in a church, in the corner of a street, in a to them salutation and an honorary adoration : not private room, or before the eyes of a sick or dying that which, according to our faith, is true worship man: or, perhaps, it is carried in procession, gor- (tarpeiav,) and which pertains to the divine nature geously arrayed; while the gazing multitude, alone; but in like manner as we reverently apwith uncovered head and bended knee, cry in prayer, “ Mother of God, hear us !-mother of
The author is here speaking from pretty extenGod, pray for us!” This instance is adduced, as sive means of observation in Malta, the lonian IsPustrating the complex act of idolatry hereby lands, Greece, Asia Minor, Egypt, and Syria.
proach the type of the venerable and life-giving Century viii. Chap. 3. Vol. III. p. 122, Boston cross, and the holy gospels, and the other sacred edition. things, with oblations of censers and lighted Seven years after this first public and glaring capers, according as i his custom was piously esta. establishment of the doctrine of image-worship, blished by the ancients. For the honor done to the both the doctrine and the council which esta. image redounds to the prototype; and he who blished it were condemned by a council held at adores the image, adores in it likewise the sub- Frankfort, on the Maine, consisting of 300 bishops. ject described.”—Labbai Concilia, Tom. VIII. Thus, within the compass of forty years, three Col. 1206 & 1526.
councils were held, each consisting of 300 bishops To these declarations are appended the signa- or upward; of which, two condemned, while only tures of the bishops and others : the first two are one decreed, image-worship. This one, however, the signatures of two presbyters of Pope Hadrian, having Papal and Patriarchal sanction, is called a acting as his vicegerents: the third is the signa- general council. Such is the influence of authoture of Tarasius, Patriarch of Constantinople : ritative names to beguile simple minds, unfurnishthe fourth is that of the Patriarch's assessor, ed with the knowledge of Scripture. Certainly, "acting," as he says, “ on behalf of the three if the children of professing Christians, in Roman apostolicalthrones of the east, Alexandria, Antioch, Catholic and Eastern countries, were taught to and Jerusalem.". Then follow the signatures of repeat the second commandment, their unsophisthe remaining bishops, each one signing himself ticated minds would inquisitively turn to the images avačios, or, apaprwios, or, claxiosos: then follows a and pictures by which they are surrounded; and series of reiterated anathemas.
they would ask, “ If we are Christians, how can All that can be urged in favor of the honoring these things be?" Nor would all the imposing and adoring of images will be found in the copi- arts of ecclesiastical domination be able to extinous collection of Papal , Patriarchal, Episcopal
, guish this divine spark of conscientiousness. It and other letters, decrees, dialogues, dissertations, would not require the arm of an Iconoclast : the &c. from col. 645 to col. 1600, being 478 very lips of babes and sucklings would sufice to democlosely printed folio pages, in the volume just quot-lish image-worship. ed-far more than most Europeans, in the present Agreeably to the decrees of the seventh counage, would endure to read on this subject; yet cil, every bishop of the Greek church makes a all too few to blot out this one argument on the formal declaration of his belief in the lawfulness opposite side, THE LORD THY GOD IS A JEALOUS GOD. of image-worship. In the last of the three conThis counter-argument, however, they have taken fessions which he repeats with a loud voice at his good heed to dispose of, by throwing the second consecration,* are these words—“I adore, relacommandment out of all their catechisms! tively, but not as worshipping," oxetikus all' ov da
From col. 1043 to col. 1194, is contained the terrikws, “ the divine and venerable images; those “ definition” AGAINST image-worship; set forth by also of Christ, and of the most holy mother of Gregory, bishop of Neo-Cæsarea, and 338 other God, and of all the saints : and the honor, which bishops, in that council
, which the upholders of 1 pay to these images, I transfer to the prototypes." image-worship call “ the false seventh council.” The council of Trent has rivetted the doctrine With it is interwoven a refutation by the deacon, of image-worship so fast on the Romish church, John. In these 76 pages, the whole conflict may that it is impossible for that church to return to be seen conducted, as it were, by single combat. the simplicity of the gospel, without formally ab. The language of the refutation is not remarkable, juring the acts of the council. The doctrines of in soine passages, for its courtesy.
the meritorious intercession of the Virgin Mary Labbæus states the number assembled in the and of the saints, and their tutelar influences over second council of Nice to be 350 bishops, many persons and places, are likewise more explicitly archimandrites, very many monks, and some sena- established by that council, than had been done tors sent by the emperor; all under the presidency before ; although the spirit of dependence on these of these four dignitaries-the Patriarch of Con- false mediators had long since prevailed in the stantinople, two representatives of the Pope, and churches both of the east and the west. Most deepthe Patriarch's assessor. (Vol. VIII. col. 650.) ly, indeed, is it to be lamented, that, by every genuThis council assembled A. D. 787. It is the last ine Romanist, the acts of that council are regardof those in which Constantinople and Rome united; ed as dictated by the Holy Spirit, no less than the and constitutes what both agree to call a general Bible itself
The substance of the decrees of that council, "I am anxiously looking,” remarks our great on this and all other religious subjects, is concenecclesiastical historian, Milner, " for the features trated in the form of an oath, set forth by Pope of the church of Christ in this very gloomy period; Pius IVth; to which all beneficed persons, not and seem to think that her existence was most only of the ecclesiastical but even of the military probably to be found in the churches lately plant- orders, (regularium quorumcunque ordinum, etiam ed, or in those which were then in an infant state. militarium,) are required to swear.f Our own island (Great Britain) was decidedly at that time against idolatry. The British church
See in the Euchologion, Tatis eni Xespotovla 'Ezisexecrated the second council of Nice, and some even of the Italian bishops protested against the
† The document above mentioned is here subgrowing evil. Nor is it probable that the churches joined. It contains an epitome of the Roman faith, of Germany, now forming, were at all disposed to creed and avowing his belief of it, as a portion of
in the form of an oath. After reciting the apostle's receive it . ... France itself had, as yet, shown the creed of the holy Roman church, ihe party no disposition positively in favor of idolatry.”- taking the oath proceeds
who the anger
Intimately allied to these idolatries is the cus- merit and doing honor to God.* When the autom of performing pilgrimages to Jerusalem and thor visited Greece, some years ago, he purchasother holy places, under the notion of acquiring ed a small quarto volume, in Greek, entitled, “A
Manual, concerning the superlative excellence of
the holy city Jerusalem, and the holy and life“I most firmly admit and embrace the apostolical it-and the benefit of worshipping there;" by
giving sepulchre of our Lord of giving alms to and ecclesiastical traditions, and all other observances and constitutions of the same church. Also, i Chrysanthus, Patriarch of Jerusalem. admit sacred Scripture, according to that sense ports to be “printed in the holy city, in the year which has been held and is held by holy mother 1728, in the month
of September, to be distributed church, to whom it belongs to judge of the true gratuitously for the benefit of the holy sepulsense and interpretation of the sacred Scriptures: chre.” It consists of upward of 63 pages, treatnor will I ever receive or interpret it (Scripture) ex-ing on the subjects proposed. These are followed cept according to the unanimous consent of the by a solemn circular letter from Pæsius, Patriarch faihers. I also profess that there are truly and pro- of Constantinople, in aid of the holy sepulchre; perly seven sacraments of the new law, instituted by printed in Greek, Wallachian, and Slavonian. our Lord Jesus Christ, and necessary, though no! The following extracts from the work will serve for each singly, yet for the whole human race; viz: to convey to the reader some idea of the genuine treme unction, orders, and matrimony: and that tendency of superstition, in debasing the temper, they confer grace: and that, of these, baptism, con- and style, both of those who rule and of those firmation, and orders cannot be reiterated without who serve. sacrilege: I also receive and admit the received and The Patriarch of Jerusalem, on enumerating approved rights of the Catholic church, in the the various holy places, objects of veneration at solemn administration of all the above-mentioned Jerusalem, commences with the following attack sacraments. I embrace and receive all and each of upon the opinions of the reformed churches those things, which, in the holy council of Trent, have been defined and declared concerning original
“The wicked man, says the sacred Scriptures, sin and justification. I, in like manner, profess that falling into the gulf of sin, becomes a scorner; in the mass is offered to God a true, 'proper, and being darkened, and having his mind and conpropitious sacrifice for the living and the dead and science defiled. Such are certain new heretics, that, in the most holy sacrament of the eucharist, sprung up in the west; opposing themselves there is truly, really, and substantially, the body and among other things to the reverence
and worship blood, together with the soul and divinity of our of the holy places of our Saviour. But, let false Lord Jesus Christ; and that there is made the prophets arise, let heretics appear, let schismatics change of the whole substance of the bread into the spring up, let them promise heaven to their folbody and the whole substance of the wine into the lowers, let them threaten eternal punishments to blood, which change the Catholic church calls tran- those who do not follow them, let them boast substantiation : I confess, also, that, under each kind alone, the whole and entire Christ' and the true sa-themselves to be angels from heaven, let them crament is taken. I firmly hold that there is a pur- work signs and powers, let all the world follow gatory; and that the souls
there detained are helped them, let some of them blaspheme the faith and by the suffrages of the faithful. Also, that the others the traditions of the universal church of saints reigning together with Christ are to be vene- Christ, let them revile the ecclesiastical ministers rated and invoked, and that they offer prayers to and servants of Christ, let the earth be shaken, God for us; and that their relics are to be venerated. let the sea roar, let the heavens fall, let these and I most firmly assert that the images of Christ and of all other things like them happen ; but let the the mother of God, ever Virgin, and also of the other word of God stand, as revealed in the Holy and veneration is to be granted them. I affirm also Scriptures and in the sacred fathers. Wisdom that the power of indulgences was left by Christ in shall be justified of her children. Let the nations his church, and that the use of them is highly sala- worship each one the God that it has chosen for lary to the Christian people. I acknowledge the holy Catholic and apostolical Romish church, to be mo * The connection between idolatry and pilgrimther and mistress of all churches; and I pledge and ages is well set forth, in a single sentence of one of swear true obedience to the Roman pontiff
, succes- the homilies of the Church of England—a sentence, sor of the blessed Peter, prince of the apostles, and in which, if critical neatness be not found, yet every vicar of Jesus Christ. Also all other things, hand-sensible reader must admire the busy, thick-set aced down, defined, and declared by the sacred canons cumulation of facts and feelings; giving, in few and general councils, and chiefly by the most holy lines, more matter of thought, than many modern council of Trent, I undoubtingly receive and pro- pages are wont to furnish. "Yea, and furthermore, fess: and, at the same time, all things contrary, and the madness of all men professing the religion of all heresies whatsoever condemned, rejected, and Christ, now by the space of a sort of hundred years, anathematized, I, in like manner, condemn, reject, and yet even in our own time in so great light of and anathemalize. And this true Catholic faith, the gospel-very many running on heaps, by sea out of which no one can have salvation, which at and land, to the great loss of their time; expense, present I voluntarily profess and truly hold, I, the and waste of their
goods ; destitution of their wives, said A. B. pledge, vow, and swear that I will hold children and families; and danger of their own and confess the same entire and inviolate to the last bodies and lives, to Compostella, Rome, Jerusalem, breath of my life, most constantly, God being my and other far countries, to visit dumb and dead helper: and that I will take care as far as lies in me, stocks and stones.” that the same shall be held, taught, and preached by t Τυπωθεν εν τη Αγια Πολει εν "Ετει αψκη κατα μηνα my subjects, or by those the care of whom pertains | Σεπτεμβριον. Παρεχεσθαι δωρεαν εκ μερους του Παναγιου to me by my office. So God help me and these holy Tapou. We are not aware of any printing-press at gospels of God."
present existing in Jerusalem,