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building, which has the appearance of a church distant plains and mountains of Moab. As I in miniature. The entrance is by a small door, glanced over these devoted waters, the passage to pass through which it is necessary to stoop of Scripture instantaneously came into my mind low; and, in an instant, the visiter finds himself in Suffering the vengeance of eternal fire! In the a small chamber, not seven feet long, and allow- midst of our enjoyment of scriptural antiquity, we ing just space for two persons to pass each other may not screen from our view the awful memobetween the wall and the tomb. The tomb, as I rials, which ever and anon present themseives : measured it, is six feet and a quarter long, three all the surrounding country seems endeared by wide, and two feet and a quarter high. Many the remembrance of innumerable acts of Divine splendid lamps, diffusing an oppressive heat, were mercy: but what we now see reminds me, that hanging above this venerated spot. The tomb God is a God of judgment; and Scripture leaves itself is white marble, and designates only the the mind in no doubt, as to the present sufferings PLACE where the Lord lay. A priest stood at the and the eternal doom of the inhabitants of this upper part of this small chamber, continually once fertile plain of Jordan. After gazing some sprinkling rose water upon the tomb, which shed minutes on the immense prospect, and vainly a faint perfume around. While we were gazing musing which point in the line of the mountains on this spot, two or three devotees came in, knelt, of Moab (for there are only a few very slightly kissed the marble, crossed themselves many times, elevated points) might be that Pisgah-top from
moved their lips as in prayer. Our singulari- which Moses was permitted to see this land of
before the view from this eminence. The whole
mountains. To the north, east, and south, it is If, however, the heart desire the solace of some surrounded by the deep valley, which, in its vaholy reminiscences, these may still be enjoyed, rious parts, has, at different times, borne the names pure and native, as the eye turns toward Mount of the brook of Cedron, the valley of Jehoshaphat, Olivet. There, no violence, or none that merits Tophet, and Gehinnom. On the west, the ground notice, has been done to the simplicity of the adjacent to the walls is, comparatively speaking,
level ground; but these walls, on the western In pursuance of our plan, we took horses, imme- part, take in a considerable number of habitations diately on leaving the church of the sepulchre, to which did not belong to the city, and did not in visit all the neighborhood of the Mount of Olives. fact exist, in the most ancient times. They in. Leaving the city by the gate of Jaffa, we wound clude Bezetha and Mount Calvary. Bezetha was our course round by the north-west angle of the added in the time of Herod and Pilate; and Mount walls, passed the gate of Damascus which is on Calvary, which now groans beneath the weight the north, and then began to descend into the vale of monastic piles, was probably open ground, cul. of the brook Cedron. The aspect of all this spot tivated for gardens, (John xix. 41,) at the time has been already described." We crossed the when He who suffered WITHOUT THE GATE (Heb. brook, passed the garden of Gethsemane, and be- xii. 12,) there poured out his soul unto death. It gan to ascend tho Mount of Olives somewhat to is not "difficult to conceive, observing from this the left of the direct path to its summit. The ad-spot the various undulations and slopes of the vantage gained by this was, that, by reaching a ground, that, when Mount Zion, Acre, and Mount point a little north-west of this summit, we had a Moriah constituted the bulk of the city with a deep more extensive view of the Dead Sea, of the im- and steep valley surrounding the greater part of mense irregular ravine which leads to it com- it, it must have been considered by the people of mencing at the valley of Jehoshaphat, and of the that age as nearly impregnable. It stands beau
MOUNT OF OLIVES.
PROBABLE SCENE OF THE ASCENSION.
tiful for situation !-words which have perpetually soften and elevate the affections. When I reburst from my lips as I have surveyed all the sur-member, in future days, my visit to this unadorned rounding scenery, and this unique, crowning cen- solitude, I would endeavor to 'associate with it the tre of the whole. It is, indeed, builded as a city, spirit of those words—“If ye then be risen with that is compact together. (Ps. cxii
. 3.) The kings Christ, seek those things which are above, where of the earth, and all the inhabitants of the world, Christ sitteth at the right hand of God. Set your would not have believed that the adversary and the affections on things above, not on things on the enemy should have entered into the gates of Jerusa- earth. For ye are dead, and your life is hid with lem! (Lam. iv. 12. B. C. 588.) This was said Christ in God. When Christ, who is our life, shall nearly two thousand four hundred years ago.—appear, then shall ye also appear with him in And when, 650 years after, Titus besieged and glory." (Col. i. 1-4.) Here, therefore, metook this devoted city, he exclaimed, on viewing mory shall exhibit to my mind the scene of the the vast strength of the place, “We have cer- ascension !* tainly had God for our assistant in this war; and it was no other than God, who ejected the Jews
BETHANY. out of these fortifications ; for what could the hands of men, or any machines, do towards over After a short half-hour's ride from the summit throwing these towers?" (Josephus: B. vi. ch.9.) of the Mount of Olives, we arrived at the little vil
lage which bears the name of Bethany, now a miserable cluster of mud hovels. We were, first,
shown the grave of Lazaras. We had to descend We resumed our ride : descending by a rather many steps to see it, as it is now considerably steep declivity eastward, we lost sight of Jerusa- beneath the ground : it does not correspond with lem; and had, on our right, the slope of the moun- the idea formed in the mind from reading John xi. tain, beneath or on the sides of which the direct 38. On going round the village, one ruined house path leads from Jerusalem to Bethany. To this was pointed out, as the site of the house of Mary interesting village we were now directing our and Martha. steps. It is somewhere on this retired side of
We thought to take our repast here ; but as Mount Olivet, out of view of the busy city, that I the wind was blowing keenly, and threatened should be inclined to place the scene of the As-rain, we went into the adjacent field, and spread cension ; for it is said (Luke xxiv. 50, 51,) that our our carpet under one of the most beautiful and Lord led His disciples out as far as to Bethany, luxuriant olive trees that I ever beheld. The and then was parted from them, and carried up field was full of such trees. I had never, from into heaven. The previous conversation, as re- what I have seen of innumerable olive groves in lated in the beginning of the Acts of the Apostles various countries, conceived it possible for this tree (ch. i. 6—9,) would, probably, occupy some time to attain such richness and beauty. The soil all while walking toward Bethany; for we must not round must be peculiarly adapted to their growth; judge of the length of our Lord's discourses by and their flourishing aspect bespeaks also the ihe brevity with which the evangelists record hand of careful culture. We were surrounded, them. Here, the last sparks of earthly ambition during our repast, by the sheik, and other men were extinguished in the bosoms of the apostles ; with the children of the village, who kept a reand they were prepared to expect that purer fire, spectful silence while we ate, and afterward thankwhich was ere long to burst forth upon the day fully received what we spared for them. Our of Pentecost. Here, their Head was taken from party was now suddenly broken up by a heavy them; and two of the ministering spirits of his fall of rain. train, becoming visible to their eyes, interrupted their mute astonishment, and dismissed thein to est path; that, probably, described by St. Luke
We set off to return to Jerusalem, by the neartheir proper stations. Returning from this place in the gospel, chapter xix. verses 28–44. The to Jerusalem, the disciples would announce to Mary the mother of Jesus, and his brethren, and round the side of the mountain, and come almost
scene seems, in fact, to verify itself: as you wind all the
disciples—“ Though we have known Christ suddenly in view of the city, it needs no guide to after the flesh, yet now henceforth know we him
say, “This must have been the spot, where, as more! It is to the promise of his Spirit that we must now look : that Spirit will be given not many
* The remarks of bishop Hall, in his Contempladays hence, and will abide with us for ever!”
tions on the Resurrection, may very properly be inIn these reflections, and on this sequestered troduced in this place. There may be a kind of spot, I feel a more pure delight, than I could pos- carnality in spiritual actions. If, ó Saviour, we sibly attain in the tumultuous throng of worship- have heretofore known thee after the flesh, hencepers, who crowd the church of the sepulchre.-forth know we thee so no more. That thou livedst Here, silence and retirement, and the dreary here, in this shape, that color, this stature, that hagrandeur of the mountains before me, and the bit, I should be glad to know; nothing that conmild glory of the heavens above, all conspire to thou satest ; here thou layest; here, and thus, thou
cerns thee can be unuseful. Could I say 'Here
wert crucified; here, buried ; here, settest thy last Mount Olivet is a term which applies to an ex- foot ;' I should, with much contentment, see and tensive region of eminences all round, and not to recount these memorials of thy presence: but, if I any one point only; on the same principle as that shall so fasten my thoughts upon these, as not to look noticed under the head of Nazareth. The specified higher, to the spiritual part of thine achievements, distance, therefore--a Sabbath day's journey—is ap- to the power and issue of thy resurrection, I am plicable to many spots of this place.
never the better.” Bp. Hall's Works, vol. II. p. 511.
our Saviour came near to Jerusalem, he beheld wast angry with me, thine anger is turned away, the city, and wept over it !"
and thou comfortest me. Therefore with joy shall We were soon thoroughly wetted by the rain ; ye draw water out of the wells of salvation."* but, as it began afterward to intermit a little, we On the other side of the projecting hill, after were induced to pursue our original intention of passing under ground two or three hundred feet or going completely through the valley surrounding thereabouts, (for I do not pretend to speak with the city
exactness, these waters re-appear : and here
they are drawn off to irrigate a lovely spot, conVINEYARDS AND FLOCKS NEAR JERUSALEM. sisting of gardens and small fields, reaching from
this point of the acclivity down to the dell beneath; I only further noticed of the view eastward, where the brook Cedron, from the north, and the that, though the rocky country toward the Dead valley of Hinnom, from the south, unite in one : Sea, both northward and southward of the valley forming from thence the valley of Jehoshaphat. of Jehoshaphat, must evidently have been at all These gardens are, in summer, often frequented times very unproductive of corn, yet it possesses by the Turks, whom cool streams and the sight of the two qualities essential to the accomplishment verdure invite hither to repose themselves ; not of Jacob's benediction to Judah. I was led to without the soothing fames of the pipe. The sithis remark by passing through some well-culti- tuation of this spot appears to be that alluded to vated vineyards, the produce of which furnishes in Nehemiah iii. 15, and in 2 Kings xxv. 4, 5. Jerusalem with excellent wines. Along the sides Just over against the pool of Siloam, near the of these hills, also, we continually see flocks and bottom of the valley, and on the slope of a lofty herds : the sheep and goats in the immediate vi- mountain on the opposite side is a village which cinity of the city have a very picturesque appear- they call Siloa; it has a miserable aspect; many ance, as they are slowly driven into Jerusalem or the habitations being no better than excavajust before sunset, after which the gates are shut; tions from the rock, and the rest very meanly built and from their milk a great part of the support of houses. I counted, including both kinds, about the inhabitants is derived. Thus, when this fifty: the population inhabiting them could not exseemingly unpromising soil was cultivated in per- ceed two humdred. fection, it would answer exactly to the promise given to the tribe of Judah— Binding his foal
VALLEY OF HINNOM. unto the vine, and his ass's colt unto the choice vine; he washed his garments in wine, and his Continuing our route on the southern side of clothes in the blood of grapes: his eyes shall be the city, we next entered the valley of Hinnom; red with wine, and his teeth white with milk."* a deep ravine, closed in on the right by the steep (Gen. xlix. 11, 12.)
acclivity of Mount Zion, and on the left by a line Descending into the vale of Cedron, and cros- of cliffs more or less elevated. From some point sing the brook, at this time dry, we made our in these cliffs, tradition relates that the apostate course again westward, that we might pass by betrayer of our Lord sought his desperate end : the east and south side of the city, and enter at and the position of the trees, which, in various the western or Jaffa gate, from which we had ori- parts, overhang the brow of the cliff, accords with ginally set out. We passed by the Jewish bury- the common opinion of the manner of his death. ing-ground, south-east of the city.
In some parts of this ravine, the city is not visible :
the reason is, that there is a considerable portion POOL OF SILOAM.
of Mount Zion toward the south-east, which is at
present not inclosed within the walls of the city. A little further we came to the Pool Of Siloam, | This outer part is occupied, by the burying-place whose waters go softly: they have a current; but of the Christians, by an Armenian convent as it is almost imperceptible. I alighted to descend abovementioned without the walls, and by a very more than twenty steps, and taste the waters of small Turkish village : the rest of this portion of this fountain, at which, in ancient times, the Jews Mount Zion is arable land, laid out in fields; most were wont to celebrate a festival, singing the remarkably exhibiting, at the present day, the fultwelfth chapter of Isaiah. May they, once again, filment of the prophecy uttered first by
, Micah. sing aloud on this spot—“O Lord, though thou (chap. ii. 12;) and afterward quoted by Jere
miah (chap. xxvi, 18.) Zion shall be ploughed as a Jebus, afterward called Jerusalem, properly be
field. longed to the tribe of Benjamin; and the lot of Judah began on the south side of the valley of Hin
We returned, by the Jaffa gate, about three
The nom. (Joshua xv. 8, and xviii. 16, 28.) But as this o'clock in the afternoon, to our convent. character of the soil applics equally to the country view of the city on approaching it from the west, south of Jerusalem, and consequently illustrates exactly the blessing pronounced on Judah, the au * Bishop Lowth (Notes on Isaiah, chap. xii.) rethor does not withhold it, althongh it was originally lates this custom. "On the last day of the Feast of suggested by scenery strictly belonging to the tribe Tabernacles, the Jews fetched water, in a golden of Benjamin.
pitcher, from the fountain of Siloah, springing at After the taking of the strong hold of Zion by the foot of Mount Zion, without the city: they David, who was of the tribe of Judah, and the re- brought it through the Water-Gate into the temple; moval of the Ark to Jerusalem, this city seems to and poured it, mixed with wine, on the sacrifice as have become, in some sense, the property of that it lay on the altar, with great rejoicing.--Our Satribe; although the right of Benjamin seems never viour applied the ceremany, and the intention of it, to have been wbolly lost sight of.' (See 1 Chron. ix. to Himself; and to the effusion of the Holy Spirit, 3. Nehem. xi. 1–4.)
promised, and to be given, by Him."
from Jaffa, is exceedingly poor.
In the afternoon, we had a call from Ysa Petros. within sight of it, nothing appears to the eye but We arranged to have service, the next day, in a fore-ground, running nearly level up to the Italian; that he might unite with us, before my walls ; and these walls are not distinguished by departure, in religious worship. any appearance of boldness or elegance, but only In the evening
the Reverend Mr. Lewis arrived. serve to hide the city from the view. The coun- by way of Ramla. He has spent many days at try all around, at this part, is rocky and rugged. Damascus, Safet, and Tiberias; and gives an in
This excursion, being in several respects per- teresting account of the distribution of the Scripfectly new, was to me most refreshing and de- tures among Jews and Christians in the various lightful; and amply compensated for the incon- places on his tour. venience which we had suffered during the latter part of it, from frequent and heavy showers of ASPECT OF THE SABBATH IN JERUSALEM. rain.
Sunday, Dec. 14, 1823.—In the morning, Mr. BURIAL GROUNDS.
Fisk, Mr. Lewis, Pappas Ysa Petros, and inyself
united in divine service, in Italian. This is my I have not mentioned the different burial grounds last of four Sabbaths spent in the holy city. which we have observed: they are all separate, There is something very peculiar in the aspect and are as follows. The Christians bury their dead on Mount Zion: the Turks have a burying-city to vend their trinkets. There is, at Bethlehem, ground between the Damascus gate, and the gate a considerable manufacture of articles in mother-ofgoing out near the mosque of Omar; another also pearl, scollop-shells, &c. on which they engrave, in about a quarter of a mile from the Jaffa gate, on a rude style, pictures of Scripture history, especially the wayside going to the monastery of the Holy the Crucifixion, and figures of the Virgin Mary Cross : the Jews have their burying-ground on formerly have been, a great source of trade to these
and the saints. Beads, crosses, &c. are, or rather the north side of the valley of Jehoshaphat, over against where the temple anciently stood. It is been duly blest by the bishops, and attested as com
unpolished artisans: these articles, after having the idea of many, that the scene of the day of ing from the holy city, were exported to Europe, judgment will here take place, according to a where they brought, from superstitious devotees, no well known interpretation of Joel iii. 11-17; and small gain unto the craftsmen. One or two poor wothese children of Abraham seem to have chosen men have, however, ventured by stealth, with these this spot for the repose of their mortal remains, articles, into the city; from whom I purchased a to be ready to raise at the voice of the Judge, and few trifles, in consideration of their present poverty. receive the promised favor to their people. The One article which they exhibited was a model in scenery on this side of Jerusalem is peculiarly wood, inlaid with ivory, of the chapel built over the bold, and well suited to inspire feelings of subli- holy sepulchre. Of the various trinkets which they
showed, no one served better than this to illustraie mity and awe.
the expression translated in our English version,
silver shrines for Diana. (Acts xix. 24.) The origiDISTURBANCES AT BETHLEHEM.
nal is vaovs npyupous' and means silver models of the
temple of Diana. Whether made very small, or Saturday, Dec. 13, 1823.-The day being very entirely wrought in silver-or, if larger, inlaid or stormy, we were obliged to keep at home; which washed with silver-it is of little moment. In all I much regretted, as it abridged my opportunity the Levant, and in Roman Catholic countries, the of seeing the Jewish synagogues, as we had ap- Isaiah (See chapters xl. 19, 20, xli. 6, 7. xliv. 12–17.
pagan traffic, so inimitably described by the prophet pointed to do to-day. I had intended moreover, at all events, going to Bethlehem to-day, if the xlvi. 6,) continues in full activity: nor will they be weather should permit: but in this also, I was dis general council has declared it to be lawful, and
persuaded that this is idolatrous, because the seventh appointed. The reason of this delay in visiting, anathematized all those who think the contrary. the place of the nativity, was, that for several Very shortly after the author left Jerusalem, the days there has been a bad understanding between matter at issue between the governor of Jerusalem the government of Jerusalem and the men of and the men of Bethlehem came to a trial. The Bethlehem. These men are remarkable for their governor having interested in his service as many high and independent spirit; and have manifested of the neighboring Arab sheiks as he could, went a resolution not to stoop to the oppressive mea.
out with his forces, and was met in battle by the sures of the new governor. The Turkish soldiers some advantages, which led to a temporary accom
Bethlebemites. The men of Bethlehem obtained quartered upon them having probably behaved modation : they were to pay a sum of money to the with insolence, the Bethlehemites expelled them; governor; and he, on the other hand, was not 10 and these have been, we hear, sent back with no qnarier soldiers on the town, which had been the honor to Damascus: a reinforcement has arrived, principal point at issue. The Bethlehemites, howand was yesterday sent to Bethlehem. In case ever, fearing a surprise, still continued under arms; of my going, I should have thrown aside my Ori- and the governor threatened them, that the Pacha ental dress, and have dressed as an Englishman; himself of Damascus should come with all his which would have, at once declared me neutral in forces and compel them to admit a Turkish garrithe existing, quarrels of the country.
I still son: but the words of the men of Bethlehem were cherish the thought of going thither on Monday.* | ceded the battie. A few days before, the governor's
* fiercer than his. A wanion piece of barbarity pre
party found a poor old man of Bethlchem laboring * One of the consequences of the present war, be in the fields, and shot him; and fixed his head over tween the governor of Jerusalem and the men of the gate of Jerusalem, as if to whet their appetite Bethlehem is, that these men cannot come to the l for carnage.
of this day in these parts. We have never as
DEPARTURE FROM JERUSALEM. yet had, indeed, occasion to say, that the adversaries mock at our Sabbaths : but the sensation, aris
Monday, Dec. 15, 1823.-Yesterday, beyond all ing from seeing, that to the Mohammedans and expectation, after two days of stormy weather apJews this is a day of work, and that to the bulk parently likely to last, the sky cleared up, and I of professing Christians it is, alas! a day of more had resolved, should this day prove equally fair, than usual mirth, visiting, and feasting, abates to take my departure. Accordingly, with one of much of that spirit of sacred sympathy which the brightest mornings that ever greeted a pilDavid so touchingly describes- I went up with the grim's eye, I gave the word to move. At an early MULTITUDE of them that kept holy day. I was glad hour, Pappas Ysa and the Abyssinian priest were: when they said, Let us go into the house of the Lord! with me to take leave, and staid some time. The On this very spot, did David once delight in these Greek deacon, Cæsarius, called also in haste, to Sabbatic hours ! But what would he think, were say farewell: he is; himself
, under orders this day his spirit to descend from its eternal rest, to see to go with a party of the monks to the convent of his strong hold of Zion dismantled; and his Mar Saba, there probably to spend the Christmas brethren, for whose peace he prayed,' broken in festival. Various delays arose : in fact
, in this pieces by the oppressor? Were Solomon again country a good departure is always worth half-ato walk this earth, and view his unrivalled temple day's journey. I had only, besides my own and supplanted by the mosque of Omar; or could my, servant's horse, a mule's load of baggage, a Isaiah know that his evangelic raptures are still guide on horseback, and a muleteer on an ass : unrevealed to multitudes on this holy hill of Zion, yet, with this simple equipage, after having acand that the watchmen who should have kept tually taken leave of my brethren and passed two their stand day and night upon the walls of Jeru- or three streets, I discovered serious impositions salem have long since held their peace and sunk which the guide wished to pass upon me, and was into almost pagan stupor; or could the first apos- obliged to return and have, as usual, a conflict tles look round, and ask in this place, Who are
with that perverse thing—Arab temper. On these they that have kept the faith ?- what would be occasions, I have observed that it is only necesthe emotions of their re-embodied spirits! We, sary to be in the right, and to show yourself deso greatly their inferiors-not so devout, nor fer- cided and calm; upon which, after a few maligvent, nor conversant with divine mysteries as nant evolutions, the evil spirit becomes submisthey—yet fcel amazed and utterly down-cast, sive, and even tractable. Thus it was with my when we contemplate so many visible marks of guide, on the present occasion: finding himself departed glory.
detected, he hastened to repair his error; and,
with redoubled vehemence, laid both hands upon If
, however, the work now beginning here, be his green turban to assure me with their usual (as we would humbly trust it is) right in principle, oath, Upon my head,” that he would serve me and the workmen right in heart, we must not de faithfully. (See Matthew v. 36.) This is the comspise the day of small things. Two ministers of monest oath of the country, “On my head."* the church of England, one to the Jews and
At length all parties being brought round to good another to the Gentiles, and a minister from the humor, and Mohammed the guide the more so for distant shores of the new world, uniting in having been completely conquered, we made a seprayer with a native minister of the gospel in Jecond more successful departure. rusalem, form but a small assembly; but it is
REFLECTIONS ON LEAVING JERUSALEM. such a congregation as I once never thought to see. May our prayers for an increase of laborers At half past eleven o'clock, we passed the Dabe accepted and answered, by the Lord of the mascus gate of the city; and, in half an hour, Sabbath, exceeding abundantly above all that we reached the top of the hill, from which I had ask or think!
caught the first view of Jerusalem on my arrival, Our worship, besides the devotional part, con * Another most common oath with the Arabs is sisted in my discoursing on the closing verses of W'Allah ; an appeal to the Sacred Name. Occathe fifth chapter of the second epistle to the Co-sionally they strengthen this by W'en-Nabi, “ By rinthians : after which Mr. Fisk took up the ser. the Prophet.” The remark, an oath for confirmavice; and, with much feeling, discoursed from the tion is an end of all strife, is often curiously exemplininth chapter of Daniel; applying it, in a very tions. After wrangling a long while, with a vehe
fied by the Arabs, in their most common transacstriking manner, to the present circumstances of the suffering oriental churches.
mence and a pertinacity, which seems to shut out all hope of conciliation, they will (if suffered by
the traveller to take their own time) suddenly come In the evening, my American brother and my- to terms: their chief, who has watched the furious self spent an hour, as we had been used to do on debate, and in good part fomented it, marks the authe close of our Sabbaths, in mutually making spicious moment, clenches the question: gives the such friendly remarks as might be personally use. signal W'Allah, and at once all is settled; every ful to us in our common work. As this was our man proceeds to his post, whether it be loading or last conference, I am induced to put on record the uuloading animals, or setting off on a journey, &c. topic concerning which we then conversed and The man, who has a minute before defied and inprayed—“How best to secure the advantages, ing and fawning about him, with an officiousness
sulted the traveller to his face, will then come smiland avoid the evils, which may result from our still more disgusting than his previous rudeness. It studying the characters and consequently perceiv- is best, on these occasions, not to contend; neither ing the faults of Christian brethren?”
to rage, nor laugh, with them. (See Prov. xxix. 9.)