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and receive an additional pleasure from the God has designed us for a state of future hapnovelty or those objects about which they are piness, and for that heaven which he has reconversant.
vealed to us, than that he has thus naturally Revelation likewise very much confirms this qualified the soul for it, and made it a being notion, under the different views which it capable of receiving so much bliss. He would gives us of our future happiness. In the de- never have made such faculties in vain, and scription of the throne of God, it represents have endowed us with powers that were not to us all those objects which are able to gra- to be exerted on such objects as are suited to tify the seases and imagination : in very many them. It is very manifest, by the inward places it intimates to us all the happiness frame and coustitution of our minds, that he which the understanding can possibly receive has adapted them to an infinite variety of in that state, where all things shall be revealed pleasures and gratifications which are not to to us, and we shall know even as we are known; be met with in this life. We should therefore the raptures of devotion, of divine love, the at all times take care that we do not disappoint pleasure of conversing with our blessed Sav- this his gracious purpose and intention towards iour with an innumerable host of angels, and us, and make those faculties, which he formed with the spirits of just men made perfect, are as so many qualifications for happiness and likewise revealed to us in several parts of the rewards, to be the instruments of pain and holy writings. There are also mentioned punishment. those hierarchies or governments in which the blessed shall be ranged one above another.lv
No. 601.] Friday, October 1, 1914. and in which we may be sure a great part of our happiness will likewise eonsist; for it will “Ο άνθρωπος ευερλετός στρυχώς. not be there as in this world, where every one
Antonin. Lib. is. is aiming at power and superiority ; but, on
Man is naturally a beneficient creature. the contrary, every one will find that station the most proper for him in which he is placed, Tee following essay comes from an hand and will probably think that he could not which has entertained my readers once behave been so happy in any other station. I rore. These, and many other particulars, are marked in divine revelation, as the severalingredients of Notwithstanding a narrow contracted testour happiness in heaven, which all imply such per be that which obtains most in the world, a variety of joys, and such a gratification of we must not therefore conclude this to be the the soul in all its different faculties, as I have genuine characteristic of mankind; because been bere mentioning
there are some who delight in nothing so Some of the rabbins tell us, that the cheru- muchas in doing good, and receive more of their bims are a set of angels who know most, and happiness at second-hand, or by rebound from the seraphims a set of angels who love most. others, than by direct and immediate sensaWhether this distinction be not altogether im-tion. Now, though these heroic souls are but aginary, I shall not here examine; but it is few, and to appearance so far advanced above highly probable that, among the spirits of the grovelling multitude as if they were of argood men, there may be some who will be other order of beings, yet in reality their namore pleased with the employment of one fa- ture is the samne; moved by the same springs, culty than of another; and this perhaps ac- and endowed with all the same essential qua. cording to those innocent and virtuous habits lities, only cleared, refined, and cultivated. or inclinations which have here taken the deep- Water is the same fluid body in winter and in est root.
cummer; when it stands stiffened in ice as I might here apply this consideration to the when it flows along in gentle streams, gladspirits of wicked men, with relation to the deping a thousand fields in its progress. It is pain which they shall sufer in every one of a property of the heart of man to be diffusive: their faculties, and the respective miseries its kind wishes spread abroad over the face which shall be appropriated to each faculty in of the creation; and if there be those, as we particular. But, leaving this to the reflection may observe too many of them, who are all of my readers, I shall conclude with observing wrapped up in their own dear selves, without how we ought to be thankful to our great Cre- any visible concern for their species, let us ator, and rejoice in the being which he bas suppose that their good-nature is frozen, and bestowed upon us, for having made the soul by the prevailing force of some contrary quasusceptible of pleasure by so mahy different lity, restrained in its operation. I shall thereways. We see by what a variety of passages fore endeavour to assign some of the principal joy and gladness may enter into the thoughts checks upon this generous propension of the of man; how wonderfully a human spirit is hunian soul, which will enable us to judge wheframed, to imbibe its proper satisfactions, and ther, and by what method, this most useful taste the goodness of its Creator. We may principle may be unfettered, and restored to therefore look into ourselves with rapture and its native freedom of exercise. amazement, and cannot sufficiently express · The first and leading cause is an unhappy our gratitude to Hiin who has encompassed complexion of body. The beathens, ignorant 119 with such a prolusion of blessings, and of the true source of moral evil, generally charge opened in us so many capacities of enjoying ed it on the obliquity of matter, which, being them.
eternal and independent, was incapable of There caonot be a stronger argument that chang: in any of its properties, even by the
Almighty Mind, who, when he came to fashion proceeding from a false notion men have taken it into a world of beings, must take it as he up, that an abundance of the world is an es. found it. This notion, as most others of theirs, sential ingredient in the happiness of life. is a composition of truth and error. That Worldly things are of such a quality as to lesmatter is eternal, that, from the first union of sen upon dividing, so that the more partners a soul to it, it preverted its inclinations, and there are the less inust fall to every man's prithat the ill influence it hath upon the mind is vate share. The consequence of this is, that not to be corrected by God himself, are all they look upon one another with an evil eye, very great errors, occasioned by a truth as evi- each imagining all the rest to be embarked in dent, that the capacities and dispositions of the an interest that cannot take place but to his soul depend, to a great degree, on the bodily tem prejudice. Hence are those eager competitions per. As there are some tools, others are knaves by for wealth or power; hence one man's success constitution; and particularly it may be said
becomes another's disappointment ; and, like of many, that they are born with an illiberal pretenders to the same mistress, they can selcast of mind; the matter that composes them dom have common charity for their rivals. Not is tenacious as birdlime; and a kind of cramp that they are paturally disposed to quarrel and draws their hands and their hearts together, fall out; but it is patural for a man to prefer that they never care to open them, unless to himself to all others, and to secure his own ingrasp at more. It is a melancholy lot this; terest first. If that which men esteem their but attended with one advantage above theirs, happiness were, like the light the same suffito whom it wouid be as painful to forbear good cient and unconfined good, whether ten thonoffices as it is to these men to perform them; sand enjoy the benefit of it or but one, we that whereas persons naturally beneficient of- should see men's good-will and kind endea. ten mistake instinct for virtue, by reason of the
vours would be as universal. difficulty of distinguishing when one rules theın
« Homo qui erranti comiter monstrat viam, and when the other, meu of the opposite cha
Quassi lumen de suo lumine accendat, facit, racter may be more certain of the motive that Nihilominus ipsi luceat, cum illi accenderit." predominates in every action. If they cannot confer a benefit with that ease and frankness “To direct a wanderer in the right way, is to light anwhich are necessary to give it a grace in the other man's candle by ones own, which loses none of its
light by what the other gains." eye of the world, in requital, the real merit of!" what they do is enhanced by the opposition But, unluckily, mankind agree in making they surmount in doing it. The strength of choice of objects which inevitably engage them their virtue is seen in rising against the weight in perpetual differences. Learn, therefore, like of nature ; and every time they have the reso a wise man, the true estimate of things. Delution to discharge their duty, they make a sa-sire not more of the world than is necessary to crifice of inclination to conscience, which is al
accommodate you in passing through it; look ways too grateful to let its followers go with
| upon every thing beyond, not as useless only, out suitable marks of its approbation. Perhaps but burdensome. Place not your quiet in things the entire cure of this ill quality is no more wbich you cannot have without putting others possible than of some distempers that descend beside them, and thereby making them your by inheritance. However, a great deal may enemies; and which, when attained, will give be done by a course of beneficence obstinately you more trouble to keep than satisfaction in persisted in; this, if any thing, being a likely the enjoyment. Virtue is a good of a nobler way of establishing a moral habit, which shall kind; it grows by communication ; and so be somewhat of a counterpoise to the force of little resembles ealthly riches, that the more mechanism. Only it must be remembered that hands it is lodged in, the greater is every man's we do not intermit, upon any pretence what particular stock. So, by propagating and mingsoever, the custom of doing good, in regard, il ling their fires, not only all the lights of a branch there be the least cessation, nature will watch together cast a more extensive brightness, but the opportunity to return, and in a short time each single light burns with a stronger flame. to recover the ground it was so long in quit. And lastly, take this along with you, that if ting: for there is this difference between men- wealth be an instrument of pleasure, the greattal habits and such as have their foundation in est pleasure it can put into your power is that the body ; that these last are in their nature of doing good. It is worth considering, that more forcible and violent; and, to gain upon the organs of sense act within a narrow comus, need only not to be opposed; whereas the pass, and the appetites will soon say they have former must be continually reinforced with enough. Which of the two therefore is the fresh supplies, or they will languish and die happier man-he who, confining all his regard away. And this suggests the reason why good to the gratification of his appetites, is capable habits in general require longer time for their but of short fits of pleasure-or the man who, settlement than bad, and yet are sooner dis- reckoning himself a sharer in the satisfactions placed ; the reason is, that vicious habits, as of others, especially those which come to them drunkenness for instance, produce a change in by his means, enlarges the sphere of his happithe body, which the others not doing, must be ness? maintained the same way they are acquired, The last enemy to benevolence I shall menby the mere dint of industry, resolution, and tion is uneasiness of any kind. A guilty or a vigilance.
discontented mind, a mind ruffled by ill-fortune, Another thing which suspends the opera- disconcerted by its own passions, soured by tions of benevolence, is the love of the world ; neglect, or fretting at disappointments, hath not
leisure to attend to the necessity or unreason-Westminster. Scouring and breaking of win. ableness of a kindness desired, nor a taste for dows have done frequent execution upon the those pleasures which waiton benificence, which sex. But there is no set of these male chardemand a calm and unpolluted heart to relish mers who make their way more successfully them. The most miserable of all beings is the than those who have gained themselves a name most envious; as, on the other hand, the most for intrigue, and have ruined the greatest communicative is the happiest. And if you are number of reputations. There is a strange cuin search of the seat of perfect love and friend- riosity in the female world to be acquainted ship, you will not find it until you come to the with the dear man who has been loved by region of the blessed, where happiness, like a others, and to know what it is that makes him refreshing stream, flows from heart to heart in su agreeable. His reputation does more than an endless circulation, and is preserved sweet half his business. Every one that is ambitious and untainted by the motion. It is old advice, of being a woman of fashion, looks out for opif you have a favour to request of any one, to portunities of being in bis company ; so that, to observe the softest times of address, when the use the old proverb, “When his name is up he soul, in a flash of good humour, takes a plea- may lie a-bed." sure to show itself pleased. Persons conscious I was very sensible of the great advantage of of their own integrity, satisfied with themselves being a man of importance upon these occaand their condition, and full of confidence in a sions on the day of the king's entry, when I was Supreme Being, and the hope of immortality, seated in a balcony behind a cluster of very survey all about them with a flow of good-will: pretty country ladies, who had one of these as trees which, like their soil, shoot out in ex- showy gentlemen in the midst of them. The pressions of kindness, and bend beneath their first trick I caught him at was bowing to seveown precious load, to the hand of the gatherer. rai persons of quality whom he did not know; Now if the mind be not thus easy, it is an in- nay, he had the impudence to hem at a blue fallible sign that it is not in its natural state : garter who had a fiper equipage than ordinary ; place the mind in its right posture, it will im- and seemed a little concerned at the imperti. mediately discover its innate propension to be- nent huzzas of the mob, that hindered his neficence.'
friend from taking notice of him. There was indeed one who pulled off his hat to him ; and,
upon the ladies asking who it was, he told them No. 602.] Monday, October 4, 1714.
it was a foreign minister that he had been very
merry with the night before; whereas in truth Facit hoc illos hyacinthos. Juv. Sat. vi. ver. 110.
it was the city common hunt.
He was never at a loss when he was asked This makes them hyacinths.
any person's name, though he seldom knew
any one under a peer. He found dukes and The following letter comes from a gentleman, earls among the alderman, very good-natured who I find is very diligent in making his obser- fellows among the privy-counsellors, with two vations, which I think too material not to be or three agreeable old rakes among the bishops communicated to the public.
“In short I collected, from bis whole discourse
that he was acquainted with every body, and In order to execute the office of the love knew nobody. At the same time, I am mistacasuist of Great Britain, with which I take my ken if he did not that day make more advances self to be invested by your paper of Septembcr in the affections of his mistress, who sat near 8, I shall make some farther observations upon him, than he could have done in half a year's the two sexes in general, beginning with that courtship. which always ought to have the upper band. Ovid has finely touched this method of maAfter having observed, with much curiosity,the king love, which I shall bere give my reader in accomplishments which are apt to captivate fe- Mr. Dryden's translation. male hearts, I find that there is no person so irresistible as one who is a man of importance,
• Page the eleventh. provided it be in matters of no consequence. * Thus love in theatres did first improve, One who makes himself talked of, though it be Aud theatres are still the scene of love ; for the particular cock of his bat, or for prating
Nor shun the chariots, and the courser's race;
The Circus is no inconvenient place, aloud in the boxes at a play, is in a fair way of
Nor need is there of talking on the hand, being a favourite. I have known a young fel Nor Doce, nor signs, which lovers understand ; low make his fortune by knocking down a con
But boldly next the fair your seat provide,
Close as you can to hers, and side by side : stable ; and may venture to say, though it may
Pleas'd or unpleas'd, no matter, crowding sit; seem a paradox, that many a fair-one has died
For so the laws of public show's permit. by a duel in which both the combatants have Then find occasion to begin discourse, survived.
Inquire whose chariot this, and whose that horse ;
To whatsoever side she is inelind, About three winters ago, I took notice of a
Suit all your inclinations to ber mind. young lady at the theatre, who conceived a pas. Like what she likes, from thence your court begin, sion for a notorious rake that headed a party And, whom she favours, wish that he may win." of catcalls; and am credibly informed that the
Again, page the sixteenth, emperor of the Mohocks married a rich widow | within three weeks after having rendered him.
"O when will come the day by heaven desigu'ds
When thou, the best and fairest of mankind, self formidable in the cities of London and Drawn by white forses, shalt io trhuurph ride,
Call this AMede, and thatter for the
With conquer'd slaves attending on thy side ;
My dog I was ever well pleased to see
Come wagging his tail to my fair-one and me; O day of public joy, too good to'end in night
And Phobe was pleas'd too, and to my dog said, On such a day, if thou, and next to thee
Come hither, poor fellow ; and patted his head. Some beauty sits, the spectacle to see ;
But now, when he s fawning, I with a sour look li she inquire the names of conquer'd kings,
Cry, Sirrrah! and give him a blow with my crook. or mountains, rivers, and their bidden springs;
And I'll give him another; for why should not Tray
Be as dull as his master, when Phæbe's away?
When walking with Phæbe, what sights have I seen, Invent new names of things unknown before ;
How fair was the flower, how fresh was the green! Call this Armenia, that the Caspian shore ;
What a lovely appearance the trees and the shade, Call this a Mede, and that the Parthiqu youth;
The corn-fields and hedges, and every thing mado! Talk probably : no matter for the truth."
But now she has left me, though all are still there,
'Twas nought but the magic, I find, of her eyes, No. 603.] Wednesday, October 6, 1714. Made so many beautiful prospects arise.
VII. Ducite ab urbe domum, mea carmina, ducite Daphnim.
Virg. Ecl. viii. 68.
Sweet music went with us both all the wood through, The lark, linnet, throstle, and nightingale too;
Winds over us whisper'd, flocks by us did bleat, - Restore my charms,
And cbirp went the grasshopper under our feet. My lingering Daphnis, to my longing arms.- Dryden.
But now she is absent, though still they sing on,
The woods are but lonely, the melody's gone: THE following copy of verses comes from one Her voice in the concert, as now I have found, of my correspondents,'* and has something in Gave every thing else its agreeable sound. it so original, that I do not much doubt but it
VIU. will divert my readers.t
Rose, what is become of thy delicate hue 1
Does aught of its sweetness the blossom beguile ! • My time, o ye Muses, was happily spent,
That meadow, those daisies, why do they not smile? When Phæbe went with me wherever I went;
Ah! rivals, I see what it was ihat you dress'd Ten thousand sweet pleasures I felt in my breast : And made yourselves fine for ; a place in her breast : Sure never fond shepherd like Colin was blest!
You put on your colours to pleasure her eye,
To be pluck'd by her hand, on her bosom to die.
How slowly time creeps, till my Phoebe return! 11.
While amidst the soft zephyr's cool breezes I burn !
Methinks if I knew, whereabout he would tread, . With such a companion to tend a few sheep,
I could breathe on his wings, and 'twould melt down the To rise up and play, or to lie down and sleep :
Fly swifter, ye minutes, bring hither my dear, (load. I was so good humour'd, so cheerful and gay,
And rest so much longer for't when she is here. My heart was as light as a feather all day.
Ah, Colin ! old Time is full of delay, But now I so cross and so peevish am grown;
Nor will budge one foot faster for all thon canst say. So strangely uneasy as never was known. My fair-one is gone, and my joys are all drown'd,
Or cure my disquiet, or soften my pain?
To be cur'd, thou must, Colin, thy passjon remove; • The fountain that wont to run swiftly along,
But what swain is so silly to live without love? And dance to soft inurmure the pebbles among :
No, deity, bid the dear nymph to return, Thou know'st, little Cupid, if Phæbe was there,
For ne'er was poor shepherd so sadly forlorn. "Twas pleasure to look at, 'twas music to hear :
Ah! what shall I do? I shall die with despair!--
Take heed all ye swains, how ye love one so fair.'
No. 604.] Friday, October 8, 1714.
Finem Dii dederint, Leuconoe ; ncc Babylonios How pleasant their sporting, how happy their time,
Hor. Od. xi. Lib. 1. 1. When spring, love, and beauty, were all in their primo! Dut now in their frolics when by me they pass,
Ah do not strive too much to know I fing at their fleeces a handful of grass ;
My dear Leuconoc, Be still, then I cry, for it makes me quite mad
What the kind gods design to do To see you so merry while I am so sad.
With me and theo.
- Mr. Jobn Byron, author of the two papers on dream
| The desire of knowing future events, is one ing, No. 586 and 593.
of the strongest inclinations in the mind of "It has been said, on good authority, that the Phæbe man. Indeed an ability of foreseeing probaof this pastoral was Joanna, the daughter of Dr. Bentley, ble accidents is what, in the language of men. and that it was written, not so much from affection to she is called wisdom and prudence : but, not satisdaughter, as with the aim of securing the interest of the la doctor, in promoting the author's views with regard to
fied with the light that reason holds out, man. the fellowship for which, at the period of its composition. I kind bath endeavoured to penetrate more he was a candidate." Drake's Essays, vol. iii. p. 216. compendiously into futurity. Magic, oracles,
t Ansty made a most happy parody of these two lines omens, Jucky hours, and the various arts of in his Bath Guide.
superstition, owe their rise to this powerful "My time, my dear mother's, been wretchedly spent, cause. As this principle is founded in selfWith a gripe or a hickup wherever I went."
| love, every man is sure to be solicitous in
the first place about his own fortune, the them. They were each of them filling his course of his life, and the time and manner of pockets with gold and jewels, and when there his death.
was no room left for more, these wretcbes, If we consider that we are free agents, we looking round with fear and horror, pined shall discover the absurdity of such inquiries. away before my face with famine and dis. One of our actions, which we mnight have per-content. formed or neglected, is the cause of another This prospect of human misery struck me that succeeds it, and so the whole chain of life dumb for some miles. Then it was that, to is linked together. Pain, poverty, or infamy, disburden my mind, I took pen and ink, and are the natural product of vicious and impru- did every thing that has since happened under dent acts; as the contrary blessings are of my office of Spectator. While I was employiog good ones ; so that we cannot suppose our myself for the good of mankind, I was surprislot to be determined without impiety. Aled to meet with very unsuitable returns from great enhancement of pleasure arises from my fellow-creatures. Never was poor author its being unexpected ; and pain is doubled so beset by pamphleteers, who sometimes by being foreseen. Upon all these, and se- marched directly against me, but oftener shot veral other accounts, we ought to rest sa-at me from strong bulwarks, or rose up sudtisfied in this portion bestowed on us ; to denly in ambush. They were of all characters adore the hand that hath fitted every thing and capacities, some with ensigns of dignity, to our nature, and hath not more displayed and others in liveries ;* but what most surprishis goodness in our knowledge than in oured me was to see two or three in black gowns ignorance.
| among my enemies. It was no small trouble It is not unworthy observation, that super- to me, sometimes to have a man come up to stitious inqairies into future events prevail me with an angry face, and reproacb me for more or less, in proportion to the improvement having lampooned him, when I had never seen of liberal arts and useful knowlekge in the or heard of him in my life. With the ladies it several parts of the world, Accordingly, we was otherwise : many became my enemies for find that magical incantations remain in Lap- not being particularly pointed out ; as there land ; in the more remote parts of Scotland were others who resented the satire which they they have their second sight ; and several of imagined I had directed against them. My our own countrymen have seen abundance of great comfort was in the company of half a fairies. In Asia this credulity is strong; and dozen friends, who I found since were the club the greatest part of refined learning there con- which I have so often mentioned in my papers. sists in the knowledge of amulets, talismans, I laughed often at Sir Roger in my sleep, and occult numbers, and the like.
was the more diverted with Will Honeycomb's When I was at Grand Cairo, I fell into the gallantries (when we afterwards became acacquaintance of a good-natured mussulman, quainted) because I had foreseen his marriage who proinised me nany good offices wbich he with a farmer's daughter. The regret which designed to do me when he became the prime arosc in my mind upon the death of my comminister, which was a fortune bestowed on his panions, my anxieties for the public, and the imagination by a doctor very deep in the cu- many calamities still fleeting before my eyes, rious sciences. At his repeated solicitations made me repent my curiosity ; when the maI went to learn my destiny of this wonderful gician entered the room, and awakened me, by sage. For a small sum I had his promise, but telling me (when it was too late) that he was was desired to wait in a dark apartment until just going to begin. he had run through the preparatory ceremo- N. B. I have only delivered the propbecy of nies. Having a strong propensity, even then, that part of my life which is past, it being into dreaming, I took a nap upon the sofa where convenient to divulge the second part until a I was placed, and had the following vision, the more proper opportunity. particulars whereof I picked up the other day among my papers.
No. 605.] Monday, October 11, 1714. I found myself in an unbounded plain, where methought the whole world, in several habits | Exuerint sylvestrem animum ; cultuque frequenti, and with different tongues, was assembled. In quascunque voces artes, haud tarda sequentur. The multitude glided swiftly along, and I
Virg. Georg. ii. 51.. found in myself a strong inclination to mingle
-They change their savage mind, in the train. My eyes quickly singled out Their wildness lose, and, quitting nature's part, some of the most splendid figures. Several in Obey the rules and discipline of art. Dry!er. rich caftans and glittering turbans bustled
Having perused the following letter, and through the throng, and trampled over the for
e finding it to run upon the subject of love, I rebodies of those they threw down; uatil, to my
ferred it to the learned casuist, whom I have great surprise, I found that the great pace retained in my service for speculations of that they went only hastened them to a scaffold or
kind. He returned to me the next morning a bow-string. Many beautiful damsels on the
nel with his report annexed to it, with both of other side moved forward with great gaiety ;
Silwbich I shall here present my reader. some danced until they fell all along; and others painted their faces until they lost their noses. A tribe of creatures with busy looksl. * This is pointed at the hirelings employed by the minfalling into a fit of laughter at the misfortunes Prior. Atterbury, Dr. Freind, Dr. King, Mr. Oldsworth,
Jistry in the last years of the queen's reign ; Dr. Swift, of the unhappy ladies, I turned my eyes upon Mrs. Manley, &c