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supposed, but I cannot speak from personal obser- on his accession, restricting it to three individuals vation, that they can bring fifty thousand men into only-Umthella, Tambooza, and Eoto (the Indoothe field. Each regiment is commanded by from na of Congella). two to ten principal officers, that are called In In a country where there is no written language, doonas, of which one is considered as the com- a stranger during a short residence, can obtain mandant; and these are assisted by an inferior class but a very cursory acquaintance with laws and who have charge of the different sections, and at- sanctioned only by custom and traditionary record; tend principally to the distribution of provisions, I shall therefore prefer offering a blank upon this and the shields, &c.
subject to advancing what may hereafter prove to During the reign of Charka, no soldier was be erroneous information, and content myself with permitted to marry until he had distinguished him- merely stating what crimes are capitally punished self in war.
At present this regulation has undergone a considerable modification ; but still in
Witchcraft. all cases the king's consent must be obtained, and this is seldom given but to the Umpāgate. It
Speaking evil of the King. is no unusual thing on any great occasion for the The houses of malefactors are always taking down; king to issue an order for a whole regiment to and the sticks by which they are beaten to death, marry; and, strange as such a degree would and the dress they wore, are thrown away, and sound to European ears, it would be a happy cir- never allowed to be used afterwards. cumstance if such sweeping orders were more Customs apparently of Jewish Origin.-1. Cirfrequent, as, unfortunately, there is no limit to cumcision. This rite, which is now obsolete, obthose who are excluded from this indulgence in tained until Charka's reign. He allowed it to go the number of the concubines they may choose into desuetude in his own person, and his examto take. This is done upon principle; and I have ple has been followed by the whole nation. heard it gravely asserted as one of the wisest 2. It is the usual custom, though not absolutely enactments for rendering a soldier efficient, by obligatory, for the younger brother to marry the keeping them thus aloof from family attachments, widow of his deceased brother. and unshackled by domestic attractions ! I natu- 3. On any apprehension of infection, one of the rally refrain from entering further into detail, hav- egeerkha (or doctors) passes through the town, ing only glanced at the surface of this painful bearing a bunch of small boughs or herbs, followsubject, which is so interwoven with their habits ed by a person bearing a large bowl of water, and character, that it is likely to present a formida- into which the boughs are frequently dipped as he ble obstacle to religious improvement. The ex. goes along, and the door and entrance of every ample of both Charka and Dingarn has tended house sprinkled. This took place during my first greatly to uphold this baneful system, neither of stay at Vukūnginglove, in consequence of seve. whom was ever legally married according to the ral of the people who had assembled at the dances customs of the country.
having, on their return home, been attacked with Unkünginglove, which is the present seat of sickness. Both the hut which I inhabited, and government, and by far the largest town in the that of my interpreter, were included, and even kingdom, is strictly an ekanda, officered by about the ground about the gateway of the town was twenty Indoonas, including Umthella and Tam- subject to this mysterious cleansing. booza, who, being the two national councillors and 4. The Festival of the First Fruits.This cushead Indoonas, are superior to all others. By far tom is not peculiar to the Zoolus, but obtains the greater portion of the soldiers composing this among all the neighboring nations, and appears regiment (about nine hundred strong) are chiefs now to be perpetuated for a double purpose-to of smaller towns, bearing the appellation of In- prevent improvidence in commencing upon the first doona or Umnumzana (head of a village); and it corn crops too early, and to afford an opportunity is evidently with a political view of state surveil- for assembling and reviewing the nation preparalance, that the most influential of these are formed tory to war. The first ripe corn is partaken of by into this description of body-guard, and that all in the king, before one of his subjects dares, under rotation are obliged to appear and reside for some heavy penalties, to taste it. Much ceremony is time in the capital, where they become not only observed, and the annual dances are then comhostages for the good conduct of those dependent menced, during the continuance of which the upon them, but are thereby prevented from plot- greater part of the nation assemble at the capital. ting any scheme for the subversion of the exist 5. A propitiatory Offering to the Spirit of the ing government. It may be unnecessary to add, King's immediate Ancestor.—No altar, prayer, or that the king has spies in all directions an office ceremony of any kind, is observed; the bullock is which is here held in no ill repute; and, conse- killed within the cattlefold, contrary to the ordinaquently, it is difficult to obtain information on many ry practice, and the flesh is cooked and partaken subjects, as the most trival conversation is often of in that very spot-an observance peculiar to reported to him. Considerable authority is dele- such occasions. gated to the principal Indoona of each ekanda, as Connected with this subject, I would merely rewell to inflict punishment as to reward ; and he mark, as a singular coincidence, that the proper is always entrusted with a supply of brass arm- name of Ham is not uncommon among the 200lets and collars for the decoration of those whom lus. On hearing it called once or twice, I made he considers deserving of such distinctions.
some inquiry, and was told that it was generally Laws.-During the reign of Charka every prin- 'given to those who had a fierce countenance and cipal Indoona had the power of life and death; a voracious appetite; or in other words, who were but this has since been greatly curtailed, Dingarn, “hyena-men," as they were not inaptly designate 1.
Marriage. A remarkable distinction is made sequently, his life would be less liable to be cut by these classifying people in the designation even short by the ambition of his successor, or the inof their women.
trigues of his subjects. The latter object, con
nected with an evident desire to imitate his ta. An unmarried woman is called an Intömebi. A married woman, but without children, Umfaz. lented but inhuman brother, seems to be the sole
inducement with Dingarn to perpetuate this deA married woman, with children, Eneena. It is not regarded as a matter either of eti- partūre from the better practice of his forefathers.
His frequent boast, “ I am but a boy-I am too quette or of delicacy from which side the first young to marry,” although at this present moment proposal of marriage may proceed—the overture about forty years of age, when taken in connexion is as often made by the women as the men. In with the example of his predecessors, can have the former case, the pseudo bride, accompanied by no other rational meaning: another unmarried woman, proceeds to the resi
In connexion with this subject, there is a tragedence of her elect, some married women follow- dy too dark to be probed. Neither Charka nor ing them at a distance. Should the proposal be Dingarn ever allowed that they had any children, accepted, the matrons come up and commence and it would be instant death to any subject who singing: there are no words to the song, but it is should make such an assertion ! My inquiries on merely a melody sounds. On the next day a this particular were always met with evasion or beast is slaughtered, and the bride and bridegroom, constrained silence~a kind of inquisitorial blight with their friends, partake of the feast. It is at once palsied the tongue, which until that instant strictly required that every part of the flesh should had been communicative and loquacious. What be eaten; after which, the ceremony called In- could this mean? Two facts, painfully notorious, găăziso, or washing with beads, takes place. The will sufficiently explain. On one occasion, pernewly-married couple, with their friends, being haps from some faint expectation of its being assembled, a calabash of water and a basket of spared, an infant was presented to Charka—the beads are brought. The beads are first put into “hyena-man" instantly seized his own child by the calabash, and it is then presented to the bride, the heels, and, with one blow, deprived it of that who pours a little of the water first upon the life, which with such a father it could have been hands of her husband, and then upon those of her no privilege to enjoy. This horrid deed was only friends, who extend them for the purpose. She surpassed by the immediate murder of the agothen consigns the calabash to her partner, who, nised mother, whose eyes closed with the vivid in his turns, pours some of the water first upon impressions of the scene she had beheld. her hands, and then upon those of his friends, until it Dress and personal Appearance. Little can be is exhausted, when he returns it to her. The said on the first particular, with respect to the men, bride then throws the beads at his feet, which any whose undress, with the exception of a few dangof the party but himself are at liberty to pick up ling strips of fur suspended from the waist, is but and possess—in fact, it becomes a sort of scram- too notorious. Many of the younger women wear ble. This, as I am informed by a native, (for I merely a fringe belt, made of the fibres of a root; have never witnessed it,) finishes the ceremonies but a short skin petticoat, reaching nearly to the on such occasions—subordinate, however, to the bend of the knee, is the usual costume. Both all-important consideration of cattle ; for until men and women shave their heads close, the forthat is duly arranged, the consent of all parties is mer leaving only sufficient to attach the issigūko, held in abeyance.
or ring, and the latter, a small tuft, called embeeti, The usual sum demanded is from four to six on the crown, which is carefully colored with red cows, according to the circumstances of the par- ochre; but neither are worn untill the individual ties, though, in the case of chiefs' daughters, has arrived at the age of maturity, prior to which from twenty to fifty, or one hundred head, are not the head of the young men are not shaved. unfrequent; not, indeed, by way of dower, but as Strange to say, the will of the king is as necessaa present to the father or nearest relative of the ry for the adoption of either of these badges as in lady, and partaking too much of the character of any other of his despotic acts, a whole regiment a commercial barter. For the acquisition of this being sometimes ordered at once to adopt the ring. species of property Dingarn has a great propen That there is some tradition associated with sity, often discarding a concubine, and obliging this peculiar costume, I have little doubt, but some wealthy subject to marry her for the sake of could never obtain a further reply to my frequent the herd of cattle which he must receive on the inquiries on the subject, than that it was an anuccasion.
cient custom, which, I believe, originated with this Among the Kafir tribes, the marriage ceremonies nation, though it has been adopted by many others. are much more significant. When all are assem- The method of putting it on is thus described :bled, a broom, a bowl, and a grinding-stone are pre- A piece of rush cut, and smoothed to the proper sented to the bride, and some assegais and an axe size and length, is closely twisted round with to the bridegroom, as indicatory of their different sinew, and formed into a circle by uniting the ends; occupations, while both are exhorted by the elders with sinew it is then sewn to the roots of the hair, of the place to industry and good conduct. which in every other part, even within the circle,
Both Jāma and Senzānakona were married, but is entirely removed, and the ring thus closely fitted Charka, in order to support his military system, on the scalp, and blackened over with the black broke through this rule, partly, it is supposed, by wax of a honeycomb, completed.
of example to his subjects, and partly under Being composed of several tribes and conquered an idea, that, as long as he continued unmarried, nations, a great difference of complexion is perhe would not be regarded as a veteran, and, con- ceptible among the Zoolus; some few are nearly
as light a copper color as the bushmen on the bor- appeared in this journal ; to have substitued the ders of the colony, but a dark chocolate is the native word, might have appeared like affectation; prevaling shade, though others, especially from with respect to the other two, they were easily the neighborhood of De la Gua Bay are jet black. dispensed with altogether. Dingarn himself is nearly so. The generality of the men are of the middle size, light, active, and ployed by way of salutation among almost every
As there is a peculiarity in the expressions emwell-proportioned, they are excellent walkers, and nation differing in language, it may not be out of will almost compete with the Syces of India in place to give here the precise terms used by the running. Although far from cleanly, crawling into Zoolus, with a literal nslation, their houses upon their bare knees, and accustomed to tread about with unconcern in all the filth of Salutation, Dakubona,
I have seen you. the cattle-fold, both men and women are fond of Reply, Yearbo, yes. bathing, for which purpose they generally repair
Debona wăna, I see you. to the nearest stream once a day, and after first sometimes Dea-fooma, smearing themselves over with blue clay, if it can be procured, by way of soap, return greatly em
Description of various implements and other articles bellished by the operation.
used by the Zoolus. The war dress consists of a thick, full kilt, com The shield is made of ox hide, with a stick seposed of cats' tails, descending nearly to the knee, cured down the middle, and ornamented at one the shoulders and upper part of the body are deco- end with leopards' fur, it reaches from the ground rated with the long hair of ox tails, and the head to about the mouth of a moderate sized person ; is protected by an otter skin cap; the whole has in windy and in wet weather they are almost usea very
martial appearance. The common tails less, and, in the latter case, are frequently rolled worn at other times, a few in front, and some up when on a march. The Zoolus prefer attacklonger and more widely apart behind, are strips of ing in open ground, contrary to the practice of the wild cat and monkey skins, and worn with the Kafirs, and seldom throw, but stab with their short fur outside.
spears, of which a bundle of five or six are usually Language.--Although the Kafir and the Zoolu taken when going to war; but arms are seldom languages are very simnilar, there are not only borne in their own country, excepting when on a many words in the latter which are not found in hunting expedition, or making a journey, and then the former, but the signification of the same word a single umkonto, with one or two straight sticks, frequently differs in both. In the Zoolu, the clicks is all they require. The shields of every regiment are far less frequent, and from this, and other pe. are as nearly as possible of the same color, and culiarities, it is considered by those competent to by this they are often distinguished : thus the judge, as at least a purer language than the Kafir, white and the black Clomanthleen ; white is the if not that from which it was originally derived. favorite color, and has a good effect, contrasted
There can be no doubt that it is spoken over a with the black skin of the bearers; such are the considerable tract of the interior country, not only shields of the Unkūnginglove men. by the tribes acknowledging Umselekaz to the north-west, but by a people under a chief named
Musical Instruments. Sopůza, nearly due north of Unkūginglove, inhabit The calabash attached to the bow, increases ing a country about the parallel of De la Goa and softens the sound produced by striking the Bay, and also throughout the territory of another string with a short stick. powerful chief further north, called Sotchangan, A common reed pipe perforated by keys, and so that it may be considered as universal between blown like a child's penny trumpet, though at a the 31st and 36th degrees of south latitude, and, distance the sound is not unpleasant ; the same with the exception of a small territory bordering simple instrument I have also seen used for a simiDe la Goa Bay, from the sea coast to the 29th lar purpose by the natives of Tahiti and other degree of longitude.
islands in the south seas. While on this subject, it may be as well to re A goat or sheep's leg bone, from which a sound mark, that notwithstanding it has been hitherto is produced by blowing across the smaller end, as the habit of all writers on this part of Africa to children do into the pipe of a key. The shrill employ the following terms, caross, kraal, and notes of some of the wind instruments employed assegai, as respectively indicating a skin cloak, a in the band of the late Dey of Algiers, have often native village, as also a cattle fold, and a dart or grated my ears, but the sudden jar produced by spear, not one of them have any signification in this far surpassed any thing of the kind I ever any of the native languages now spoken, and are endured. So much has already been effected by generally believed to have been a corruption of the surprise of a galvanic shock, that it may be a Dutch and Hottentot, but it will only be necessa- question how far a beneficial result may not, in ry to give the Zoolu terms which exactly corres- some extreme cases, be produced through a dif. pond with the Kafir, in order to show the absur- ferent organ, by means of this instrument of oral dity of perpetuating such an innovation.
torture. In every great dance it was always inIngoobo any garment, either cloak or petticoat. troduced, and as invariably sent me to the oppoUmzi a village.
site side of the ring. My memoranda of the Lesibaia a cattle fold.
names of these instruments have been lost, but I Umkónto a dart or spear.
doubt not, from the above description, which I
believe contains nearly all that can be said upon Jlad not the term assegai already become so this head, the profession will sustain it without fanular even to an English ear, it would not have much regret.
Method of Smelting Brass.
they utter a shrill whistling noise, which, from
habit, the cows attend to and become more quiet. The bellows is worked by directing the cow's horn, which forms the nozzle of two leathern bags,
Issigoongu, or bowl for containing outchualla into the larger end of an eland's horn, and alter (native beer.)It is composed of black earthennately raising and depressing them, by which ware made by hand without the aid of a wheel. means the opening at the top is closed or shut
Wooden spoons—The smaller one, merely the with the hand. The crucible is sunk its whole longitudinal section of a calabash, is the most depth into a bed of ignited charcoal, to the lower frequently used, though both are often dispensed part of which the extremity of the eland's horn is with. directed, and in this manner the metal is molten, Snuff calabash, and spoon.— The snuff is comand either run into bars for forming throat rings posed of dried dăcca ground with burnt aloes; the and armlets, or into smaller clay moulds for the spoon is of ivory. knobs and studs with which the women frequently Issitūgo-túgo or scraping-knife.—Made of ivory, ornament their girdles and ingoobos (petticoats.) and used in hot weather to scrape the moisture The crucible is composed of a coarse sand stone, from the forehead and face. procured in many parts of the country, and capa
Having now embodied the few memoranda to ble of sustaining any degree of heat without split- which I have alluded, I will pass at once to the ting. The greater proportion of this metal is pro- Journal, which commences about this time. cured from the Portuguese settlement at De la Goa, an intermediate tribe of Zoolus near the Bay conveying it for them to Unkūnginglove or Congella, and receiving in return ivory and cattle.
JOURNAL. There is no doubt that the whole of this trade might be transferred to Port Natal; indeed Din
Saturday, April 251h.—In consequence of the garn has expressed as much, provided he is as number of Zoolus who at different times have well supplied with brass, which is generally sent taken refuge here, and the frequent threats of reout in bars about a foot long and an inch in thick- prisal from Dingarn, which have recently become
Iron is abundant in many parts of the more alarming, a meeting of the Europeans was country, but it is only worked in the mountains, held this afternoon, at Mr. Cane's, to devise some about the head of the Amatikoola, whence suffi- plan for our mutual security: After some little cient is procured for the heading of all their asse- discussion, on which many plans were advanced, gais, axes, and hoes.
it was unanimously resolved, that, as this appearEgoodu, or Smoking Horn.—The tobacco is ed to be a favorable opportunity, a treaty, based placed at the end of a reed introduced into the on the following terms, should. if possible, be enside of an ox's horn, which is filled with water, tered into with Dingarn, viz. Provided he will and the mouth applied to the upper part of the guarantee the lives and property of every indivihorn. The quantity of smoke which is inhaled dual, white and black, now residing at Pori Natal; through so large an opening, unconfined by a we, on our part, engage to repel with all our mouth-piece, often affects the breath, and produces power, and never more to receive any deserter much coughing ; notwithstanding which, the na- from his dominions; and immediately to acquaint tives are particularly fond of it. Tobacco com- him of the circumstance, should any of his people posed of the dried leaf of the wild hemp, here call- elude our vigilance. It was at the same time ed Dăcca, is in general use, and has a very stupi- agreed that no deserters should be given up until fying effect, frequently intoxicating ; on which some arrangement of this nature had met with his occasions they invariably commence, long and sanction. Having been requested by the meel. loudly, to praise the king—a soliloquy which has ing to undertake the negociation, I made aroften disturbed me, though at some distance from rangements for commencing the journey as early the hut whence it proceeded. Dăcca is indige- as possible. nous throughout the country, and tobacco is frequently seen growing wild near deserted villages,
Sunday 26th. but it has, I understand, been imported. Though “Ye are not your own, for ye are bought with a smoking is comparatively confined to few, all, price, therefore glorify God in your body, and in without exception, are passionately fond of snuff, your spirit, which are God's." (1 Corinth. vi. and no greater compliment can be offered than to 19, 20.) share the contents of a snuff-calabash with your Servants of a God of love! neighbor. For this purpose the hand is extended, What a privilege is ours ; and a certain quantity shovelled in my means of a Let our hearts be fixed above, small ivory spoon, the whole of which is then Let us yield Him all our powers. sniffed off from the palm of the hand; and worse than a Goth would that barbarian be, in their esti
Think, oh! think the price He paid, mation, who would wantonly interrupt a social Free and costly—-'twas His blood ! party so employed. Often have I been obliged, What a debt on us is laid, patiently, to await the disappearance of the last Washed and ransomed in that flood. grain, rather than too harshly urge them on, even when on a journey requiring speed.
Freed from sin's debasing chain, Etoonga, or wooden milk pail, used only by the
Whose we are-Him let us serve;" king's herdsmen.-While collecting the cattle to Love should all our thoughts constrain, gether, and during the whole operation of milking, For nothing we can e'er deserve.
Tis for this on earth we're sent,
Health and strength are not our own ; Life itself is only lent,
On the altar to be thrown.
Now just such men as these I've seen, As wild to view-on slaughter keen ;
But, perhaps, you'll think I'm jesting; 'Twas but the other night I found The ruffians seated on the ground,
Each from his labors resting.
Living sacrifices here,
Let us consecrate each day, Let the love of Christ endear
Every trial by the way.
He who bought us still is nigh,
Though we are helpless, He has power, Grace and fulness to supply,
And shield us in the trying hour. Joyful then our course we'll run,
Till the promised prize we gain ; Sh re the glory Christ has won,
Behold Him who for us was slain.
Tuesday 28th.-Yesterday afternoon, at about four o'clock, I set out on my second visit to Dingarn, accompanied by a hired wagon, my interpreter, and two native servants, Umpondombeeni and Dingězwa. We passed the night on a hill three miles beyond the Umgăni, but were unable to proceed before half-past eight this morning; my horse, although knee-tied, having strayed back to the river. At half-passed twelve crossed the Uinslutie, and stopped to breakfast, proceeding again at twenty minutes past three. Throughout this country there is a high grass frequently inet with, which is very fragrant, at this season it was particularly grateful. The blade is broad and long, and the reedy stem, at the top of which are the seeds which emit the scent, often rising to the head of a person on horseback. The stem when dry is in general use among the natives as a firestick, and is the only substitute for a lamp which they possess. Advancing about half a mile, a view of the sea is obtained, but which is soon after obstructed by the hills ; on the left is a distant range of table-topped mountains, each terminating very abruptly. The chief employment of the Europeans about Port Natal is in hunting the elephant and buffalo; one party we had already passed, and as the evening closed in, and we were about to ascend a hill for our night's bivouac, we fell in with a second so grotesquely habited, and in so wild a situation, that I could not resist scribbling in my journal the following doggerel lines, in order to amuse the solitude while accompanying on horseback my wagon at its stately pace.
White, brown and black, of varied hue,
The sullen Hottentot and blithesome Kali;
Despised the toil of washing daily. Each proud Incosi* stood erect, Which added much to the effect,
The rest like monkeys crouched behind ; It would not many words require, To give an inventory entire,
Of all their habiliments combined. Four leathern trowsers duly worn With woollen 'frocks, some badly torn,
Two bonnets rouge—a hat crowned,
Were all the four white people owned.
One garment lasts them all their days;
And ape their moody masters' ways.
They'd sell their skin for brandy;
Whene'er they find them handy.
Some sea-cow fat devouring.
Like border bandits lowering.
With skins, and fat, and dogs, and game;
But fell with deadly aim. I've seen the savage in his wildest mood, And marked him reeked with human blood,
But never so repulsive made; Something incongruous strikes the mind, Whene'er a barb'rous race we find,
With shreds of civil life displayed.
In keeping with the scene ;
Seemed but a link between.
THE NATAL HUNTER.
In olden times we oft have heard, Though many deem those tales absurd,
Of half-tamed men called Buccaneers Who scoured the sea, and oft the land, On plunder bent, with sword in hand,
Cutting off noses, sometimes ears.
Now these men, as the story runs,
And blunderbuss, and spear;
Transfixing all with fear.
Native term for master or chief.