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" The contrary,

" Gaze WHERE you should”—The old copies read

As when, to warn proud cities, war appears chen for " where."

Waged in the troubled sky, and armics rush

To battle in the clouds, before each van " — without he say, SIR-REVERENCE"-A very old

Prick forth the aery knights, and couch their spears,
Till thickeet legions close.

With feats of arms corruption of save-reverence, or Salve reverentia ? and

From either end of heaven the welkin rings. rased as a form of apology when any thing gross or offensive was said.

" — he denied you had in him xo right”—The moderu

construction would be, “ He denied you had in him a "- that is, an ELL"—“Or a Nell. This reply has | right;" but this was Shakespeare's phraseology, and that been strangely misprinted and inisunderstood by all the

of his time. commentators: they altered 'is' to “and,' because they were puzzled by the old punctuation, and because they

“ STIGMATICAL in making”—That is, marked or did not know thatóan ell' Flemish is three quarters of

matized with deformity. a yard. Dromio merely says, that .an ell,' or three quarters of a yard, “will not measure her from hip to

" Far from her nest the lapwing cries away—Shakehip.' ”—COLLIER.

speare has employed this simile in MEASURE FOR

MEASURE, act i. scene 5:* -armid and reverted, making war against her

With maids to seem the lapwing, and to jest, HEIR”—Theobald thought, and Malone concurred with

Tongue far from heart. him, that Shakespeare, in this passage about France, in It was used by many writers, from Chaucer downtended a covert reference to the state of that country

wards, and became proverbial. Rowley, in his Search after the assassination of Henry III. in 1589, when the for Money," (1609,) has, “ This sir dealt like a lapwing people were “ making war against the heir" to the throne,

with us, and cried furthest off the nest." This quality Henry IV. In 1591, Elizabeth sent over the Earl of of the lapwing to cry far from its nest, to lead people Essex to Henry's assistance, and the conjecture is that away, is well understood. the Comedy OF ERRORS was produced soon afterwards. In this opinion Johnson does not concur, and sees in the

A devil in an EVERLASTING garment hath him"passage nothing more than an equivocation respecting

Sergeants, such as the one who had arrested Antipholus, the corono reneris, a disorder which he supposes Dromio

were clad in buff, (Dromio just afterwards calls him 'y to impute to the kitchen-wench. There can be little

fellow all in buff,') and, on account of its durability, doubt that Theobald is right; for if no allusion to the

that dress is here termed an everlasting garment.' ”.

COLLIER. heir of France had been meant, hair would, probably, not have been spelt heire, as it stands in the oldest copy,

" A hound that RUNS COUNTER"-i. e. though the second folio converts it into haire. The or wrong way in a chase. The sergeant is said to run words “ arm'd and reverted” also would hardly have counter,' from his carrying debtors to the prison 80 been employed by Shakespeare, had he not intended called."-COLLIER. more than Johnson saw in the passage.

“- and yet Draws DRY-FOOT well"_" To draw dry “ Where America, the Indies"-" This is certainly

foot' is technical, and means to hunt by the scent of the one of the boldest anachronisins of Shakespeare ; for,

animal's foot."

"-COLLIER. although the period of the action of the Comedy of

One that, before the judgment, carries poor souls ERRORS may include a range of four or five centuries, it

to hell-i. e. " Carries them to prison (for which helt must certainly be placed before the occupation of the city by the Mohammedans, and therefore some centuries

was the cant term) before judgment had been given

against them; or, as Malone truly explains it, upon before the discovery of America."-Knight.

mesne process."-COLLIER. " – and made me turn i' the wheel-i. e. The wheel

“ — was he arrested on a BAND"-"Band” is the furning the spit, she being the kitchen-maid. This was ancient mode of writing bond, and synonymous with it. the old mode, by a cur-dog, as now in this country they Ben Jonson uses it in this sense. are made to churn. “Steel" and " wheel" seem intended to rhyme, and the elision “i' the,” making in the one

SCENE III. syllable, looks like intended doggerel, as Knight has printed it.

What, HAVE YOU got the picture of old Adam nem " — to the PORCUPINE"-Here, as in Hamlet, " and

apparell d'— Theobald, and some others, have interpo

lated this interrogatory, by inserting the words rid of like quills upon the fretful porcupine," and elsewhere

after “ What have you got?” They were not aware in the Poet, the old spelling is Porpentine, which seems that “What have you got?" is still a vulgar phrase for a distinct form of the word in the same sense, and per

“What have you done with ?" or "What is become of ?" haps ought not to have been modernized in any of these

and they puzzled themselves, and altered the language passages.

which Shakespeare thought fit to put into Dronnio's

mouth. The words, “picture of old Adam new apACT IV.-SCENE I.

parell’d,” allude to the suit of buff in which sergeants * Is GROWING to me”-i. e. Accruing to me.

dressed officially; referring to the skin which Adam

used for attire—a joke very popular among the old Enter DROMIO of Syracuse"_" From the Bay," dramatists. the old copies add, whither his master had not long before sent him, to ascertain whether any vessel was about

" he that sets UP HIS REST"-" This expression beto sail.

came proverbial, and was applied to a person who took

up any fixed position. It was generally used in the SCENE II.

card-game of Primero, but here it has immediate refer

ence to the rest of the morris-pike, and to the arrest by Of his heart's METEORS tilting in his face—This is an allusion to those meteors which, in superstitious

a sergeant."-COLLIER. times, were thought to resemble armies meeting in the than a MORRIS-PIKE”-i. e. A Moorish pike, a shock of battle. The same thought occurs in HENRY

well-known instrument of war.
IV., Part I., speaking of civil wars :-
Which, like the meteors of a troubled heaven,

All of one nature, of one substance bred,
Did lately meet in the intestine shock

by my LONG EARS"—Meaning, says Stevens, that And furious close of civil butchery.

his master had lengthened his ears by often pulling them.. Milton also finely employs similar imagery in the "-welcomed home with it, when I return"-Tite second book of " Paradise Lost:"

writers who maintain Shakespeare's acquaintance with

on a row.

classical literature, against Dr. Farmer and others, insist Al your IMPORTANT letters"_“Important" is used that this passage alludes to the oft-quoted eulogy of for importunate, as in Much ADO ABOUT NOTHING, Cicero upon his favourite studies :-“Hæc studia ado King Lear, etc. lescentiam agunt, senectutem oblectant, secundas res ornant, adversis perfugium ac solatiuin præbent, delec

"by what strong escape”-i. e. Escape effected tant domi, non impediunt foris, pernoctant nobiscum,

by strength; yet there is some probability that strong

is a misprint for strange. peregrinantur, rusticantur.”

Beaten the maids A-ROW”-i. e. One after another, “ — and bind ANTIPHOLUS and DROMIO"'--"And offer to bind him; he strives," is the direction of the old copies; but it is clear, from what follows, that they suc

His man with scissars Nicks him like a fool" ceed in binding both. The stage-direction in our text fol. "Fools,” says Malone, “were shaved and nicked in a lows Collier, and differs a little from many other editions. particular manner in our author's time, as appears by

the following passage in the Choice of Change, (1598 :) ACT V.-SCENE I.

* Three things are used by monks, which provoke other

men to laugh at their follies: 1. They are shaven and "— TAKE a house"-i. e. Go into a house, as we say notched on the head, like fooles,' etc.” "take shelter," and as people used to say, take sanctuary," which Antipholus and Dromio do inside “the - thy master and his man are HERE"- Meaning priory,as it is called in the stage-direction of the old that they are in the abbey; the speaker pointing to it. copy; but, as a lady abbess presides, it is probably an abbey, not a priory.

While she with HARLOTS feasted in my house"

Harlot was a term of reproach applied to cheats among It was the copy of our conference"-i. e. A large men, as well as to wantons among women. Horne part of our discourse : copy is often used in this sense Tooke says it originally meant a hireling, and derives by old writers, from the Latin copia : thus, Gosson, in his it from hire : it is used only to signity a servant in

School of Abuse," (1579,) talks of “copy of abuses," Chaucer's “Sompnoure's Tale," and in Ben Jonson's or abundance of abuses ;' and Cooper, in his Latin Fox,” for a general term of abuse, “out harlot" is ap“ Thesaurus,” translates copiose et abundanter loqui,” || plied to the hero of the piece. ** to use his words with great copie and abundance."

And this is false you burden me wilhal-He retorts It was distinguished from copy, in its modern sense, by the expression previously used by Adriana. being spelled copie, when meaning plenty.

All gather to see THEM"-Collier restored the stage“ Sweet recreation barr'd, what doth ensue,

direction of the old folios, applicable to the two pairs of But moody and dull melancholy,

twins; while all the other editors, without any reason, Kinsman to grim and comfortless despair," etc. substitute him for “them.” Gray, the most exquisite culler and imitator of poetic images, has thus employed these ideas in his “Ode on

Why, here begins his MORNING story right”—The Eton College:"

morning story” is what Ægeon has told the Duke in

the first scene of this play.
Envy wan, and faded Care,
Grim-visag'd, comfortless Despair,

And thereupon these errors ARE arose"— This is And Sorrow's piercing dart.

the reading of all the folios, but it may be a question Lo, in the vale of years beneath,

whether Shakespeare did not write “ these errors all A grisly troop are seen,

The painful family of Death,
More hideous than their queen.

“ TWENTY-FIVE years have I but gone in travail"

The old copies read thus:“Kinsman to grim and comfortless despair," etc.

Thirty-three years have I but gone in travail Capell, in order to correct the supposed confusion in

Ot you my sons, and till this present hour the scx of melancholy, reads thus :

My heavy burthen are delivered.
But moody and dull melancholy, kins.

Twenty-five is the correct number; for Ægeon says, in
Woman to grim and comfortless despair.

a former part of the play, that he had parted from his Knight compares this to Canning's—

son seven years ago, when the boy was only eighteen, I studied in the U

making together the "twenty-five years." Niversity of Gottingen.

There is evidently some error in the next line, which While Stevens parallels it with the burlesque on Homer

seems best removed by Mr. Dyce's slight emendation On this, Agam

of “ne'er delivered" for are delivered in the last line. Memnon began to curse and damn.

The common text reads, on Theobald's conjecture

- nor till this present hour " And at her heels a huge infectious troop"-So the

My heavy burdens are delivered. old copies; Heath and Malone needlessly altered her to their, when, in fact, only one person is spoken of, viz.:

you the calendars of their nativity," etc. · moody and dull melancholy;" the next line

These “calendars" are the two Dromios. In act i. Kinsman to grim and comfortless despair,

Antipholus of Syracuse calls one of them “ the almanack is parenthetical. There is no reason why Shakespeare of my true date." should not make the personification of melancholy feminine, excepting that he had called her“ kinsman” in the

Exeunt all, except the two Dromio brothers"— The preceding line, which yet means no more than near

old stage-direction is, “ Exeunt omnes. Mane[n]t the

two Dromios and two brothers." Such may have been relation, without denoting the sex, just as Portia calls herself

the case ; but it is more likely that the two Antipholuses

went out with Adriana and Luciana, the two Dromios the lord Of this fair manor, master of my servants,

only remaining to conclude the play. I concur with Queen o'er myself.

Collier's suggestion that and is an error, and should be Singer proposes to read, just before, “moody madness." omitted ; and have adapted the stage-direction to that

To make of him a formal man again"-i. e. To restore him to his senses : to bring him back to the

SCENERY AND Local EMBELLISHMENTS.-The local forms of sober behaviour.

embellishments of this play, in the present edition, are The place of DEATH”—The original copy has depth, from those of the Pictorial edition, which are all copied which is followed in the second folio. Rowe made the or compiled from the best modern authorities, so as to emendation.

give authentic representations of the existing remains

* And


go thon

of ancient Ephesus, and views of the present state of tent to dine from home, but not .at the Tiger.' His that celebrated city, and of Syracuse.

resolve The engraving of the Temple of Diana, restored, is

That chain will I bestow principally founded upon the descriptions of Pococke,

(Be it for nothing but to spite my wife) who has given an imaginary ground-plan.

Upon mine hostess,The “ Antiquities of lonia," published by the Delet would not have been made by his brother, in a similar tanti Society, and the “ Voyage Pittoresque de la situation. He has spited his wife; he has dined with Grece." of M. Choiseul Gouffier, have furnished the au

the courtesan. But he is not satisfied :thorities for the other engravings of Ephesian remains.

And buy a rope's end, that will I bestow

Among my wife and her confederates, The “Supplementary Notice” of Knight's edition of

We pity him not when he is arrested, nor when he rethis play closes with an analysis of the peculiar charac

ceives the rope's end' instead of his ducats.' His teristics of the two pairs of twin brothers, which, though

furious passion with his wife, and the foul names he it may be somewhat over-refined, is yet very original

bestows on her, are quite in character; and when he

hasand ingenious, and has, too, so much truth in it, that we

Beaten the maids a-row, and bound the doctor,-cannot but transfer it to these pages:** Some one has said, that if our Poet's dramas were

we cannot have a suspicion that the doctor was pracprinted without the names of the persons represented

tising on the right patient. In a word, we cannot doubt being attached to the individual speeches, we should

that, although the Antipholus of Ephesus may be a know who is speaking, by his wonderful discrimination

brave soldier, who took • deep scars' to save his prince's in assigning to every character appropriate modes of life,—and that he really has a right to consider himself thought and expression. It appears to us, that this is much injured,—he is strikingly opposed to the Antiphoanquestionably the case with the characters of each of lus of Syracuse; that he is neither sedate, nor gentle, the twin brothers in the COMEDY OF ERRORS.

nor truly-loving;-that he has no habits of self-command; “The Dromio of Syracuse is described by his master that his temperament is sensual :—and that, although as being,

the riddle of his perplexity is solved, he will still find A trusty villain, sir; that very oft,

causes of unhappiness, and entertainWhen I am dull with care and melancholy,

- a huge infectious troop Lightens my humour with his merry jests.

Of pale distemperatures. Bat the wandering Antipholus herein describes himself:

“ The characters of the two Dromios are not so dishe is a prey to care and melancholy.' He has a holy

tinctly marked in their points of difference, at the first pirpose to execute, which he has for years pursued aspect. They each have their · merry jests ;' they each without success. Sedate, gentle, loving, the Antipholus bear a beating with wonderful good temper; they each of Syracuse is one of Shakespeare's amiable creations.

cling faithfully to their masters' interests. But there is He beats his slave according to the custom of slave- || certainly a marked difference in the quality of their beating; but he laughs with him, and is kind to him mirth. The Dromio of Ephesus is precise and antialmost at the same moment. He is an enthusiast, for thetical, striving to utter his jests with infinite gravity he falls in love with Luciana in the midst of his per

and discretion, and approaching a pun with a sly solemplexities, and his lips utter some of the most exquisite nity that is prodigiously diverting: poetry. But he is accustomed to habits of self-command,

The capon burns, the pig falls from the spit, and he resolves to tear himself away even from the

The clock hath stricken twelve upon the bell;

My mistress made it one upon my ckcek : syren :

She is so hot, because the meat is cold.
But, lest myself be guilty to self-wrong

Again :
I'll stop mine cars against the mermaid's song.

I have some marks of yours upon my pate,
As his perplexities increase, he ceases to be angry withi

Some of my mistress' marks upon my shoulders, his slave :

But not a thousand marks between you both.
The fellow is distract, and so am I,

He is a formal humourist, and, we have no doubt, spoke
And here we wander in illusions.

with a drawling and monotonous accent, fit for his part Bome blessed power deliver us from hence!

in such a dialogue as this :Unlike the Menæchmus Sosicles of Plautus, he refuses Ant. E. Were not my doors lock'd up, and I shut out? to dine with the courtesan. He is firm, yet courageous,

Dro. E. Perdy, your doors were lock d, and you shut out. when assaulted by the Merchant. When the · Errors'

Ant. E. And did not she herself revile me there?

Dro. E. Sans fable, she herself revil'd you there. are clearing up, he modestly adverts to his love for Ant. E. Did not her kitchen-maid rail, taunt, and scorn me? Laciana ; and we feel that he will be happy.

Dro. E. Certes, she did; the kitchen-vestal scoru'd you. “ Antipholns of Ephesus is decidedly inferior to his

On the contrary, the “ merry jests' of Dromio of Syrabrother, in the quality of his intellect and the tone of

cuse all corne from the outpouring of his gladsome heart. his morals. He is scarcely justifiable in calling his wife

He is a creature of prodigious animal spirits, running shrewish.' Her fault is a too sensitive affection for him. Her feelings are most beautifully described in

over with fun and queer similitudes. He makes not

the slightest attempt at arranging a joke, but utters what that address to her supposed husband :

comes uppermost with irrepressible volubility. He is Come, I will fasten on this sleeve of thine;

an untutored wit; and we have no doubt gave his tongue Thou art an elm, my husband, I a vine, Whose weaknes9, married to thy stronger state,

as active exercise by hurried pronunciation and variable Makes me with thy strength to communicate :

emphasis, as could alone make his long descriptions enIl aught possess thee from me, it is dross,

durable by his sensitive master. Look at the dialogue Usurping ivy, briar, or idle moss.

in the second scene of act ii., where Antipholus, after The classical image of the elm and the vine would have

having repressed his jests, is drawn into a tilting-match been sufficient to express the feelings of a fond and con

of words with him, in which the merry slave has fiding woman; the exquisite addition of the

clearly the victory. Look, again. at his description of

the kitchen-wench,'—coarse, indeed, in parts, but altoUgurping ivy, briar, or idle moss,

gether irresistibly droll. The twin-brother was quite conveys the prevailing uneasiness of a loving and doubt incapable of such a flood of fun. Again, what a prodi. ing wife. Antipholus of Ephesus has somewhat hard gality of wit is displayed in his description of the bailiff! measure dealt to him throughout the progress of the His epithets are inexhaustible. Each of the Dromios * Errors;'—but he deserves it. His doors are shut against | is admirable in his way; but we think that be of Syrahim, it is true;-in his impatience he would force his cuse is as superior to the twin slave of Ephesus as our way into his house, against the remonstrances of Bal old friend Launce is to Speed, in the Two GENTLEMEN thazar. He departs, but not in patience;'-he is con OF VERONA. These distinctions between the Antipho.

lases and Dromios have not, as far as we know, been "Perhaps Shakespeare, no longer able to restrain his before pointed out; but they certainly do exist, and comic humour, gave vent to it in this farce, in a sort of appear to us to be defined by the great master of char joyous desperation. Regarding it merely as a farce, acter with singular force as well as delicacy. Of course from the moment the “Errors' commence, nothing has the character of the twins could not be violently con equalled it. Until I saw it on the stage, (not mangled trasted, for that would have destroyed the illusion. into an opera,) I had not imagined the extent of the They must still

mistakes, the drollery of them, their unabated continuGo hand in hand, not one before another.

ance, till, at the end of the fourth act, they reached their

climax with the assistance of Dr. Pinch, when the au“ The myriad-minded man, our and all men's Shake dience in their laughter rolled about like waves. It was speare, has in this piece presented us with a legitimate the triumph of farce-of Shakespeare's art in all that farce, in exact consonance with the philosophical prin- | belongs to dramatic action. ciples and character of farce, as distinguished from com “Here, it might be thought, that puns could be propedy and from entertainments. A proper farce is mainly erly and plentifully introduced, where the twin brothers distinguished from comedy by the license allowed, and set the example of personal puns on one another; yet even required, in the fable, in order to produce strange there are few puns to be found. Truth is, the mistakes and laughable situations. The story need not be proba- alone are ludicrous, and the action is serious. To the ble ; it is enough that it is possible. A comedy would strange contrast of grave astonishment among the actors scarely allow even the two Antipholuses; because, al with their laughable situations in the eyes of the sperthough there have been instances of almost indistinguish tators, who are let into the secret, is to be ascribed the able likeness in two persons, yet these are mere indi. irresistible effect. The two Dromios (Shakespeare's vidual accidents, casus ludentis naturæ; and the verum addition, among other matters, to Plautus) form a requiwill not excuse the inverisimile. But farce dares add site link between the audience and the dramatis perthe two Dromios, and is justified in so doing by the laws sonæ ;-they invite us to mirth, otherwise we might of its end and constitution. In a word, farces commence half subdue it out of sheer principle."-Charles A. in a postulate which must be granted."--Coleridge. Brown.



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