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the old city were removed, still none far too courtly to attribute any vert of his views were adopted. As soon exaggerated merit to the humbler class as the fire was subdued, whilst the of society. He describes them "ad ashes were yet alive, he was on the enduring this, the second calamity, wie ground, considering his plan for the undaunted firmness of mind; their en restoration of the city. He proposed one ample," he says, “may incline us to be main street from Aldgate to Temple Bar, lieve that not only the best natural, b . in the middle of which was to have been the best moral philosophy too, may 13 a large square capable of containing learned from the shops of mechanics. Il the new church of St. Paul, with a pro- was indeed admirable to behold with what per distance for the view all round, the constancy the meanest artificers saw a parish churches were to be rebuilt so the labour of their lives, and the supli as to be seen at the end of every vista port of their families, devoured in a of houses, and dispersed at sufficient instant. They beheld the ashes of their distances from each other; four piazzas houses, and gates, and temples, without were designed at proper distances; and the least expression of pusillanimity. 14 lastly, the houses were to be uniform, philosophers had done this, it had surrounded by arcades, like those in well become their profession of wisa Covent Garden; while by the water- dom; if gentlemen, the nobleness of side a large quay was to run, along their breeding and blood would have which were to be ranged the halls required it; but that such greatnesge 1 belonging to the several companies, of heart should be found amongst the with warehouses and other appro- poor artisans and the obscure multi-br priate mercantile buildings. If such a tude is, no doubt, one of the most plan (modified in some degree) had nourable events which ever happened." been effected, London, it must be con- -The Bishop's habits and prejudices fessed, would have far exceeded every led him to be surprised at finding 3 capital in the world. It may, how- greatness and forbearance amongst the ever, be doubted, whether the climate of lower orders of a free and indepen. this country is suited to covered ar- dent people. If he had not learnt bet. 1 cades; and with respect to the complete ter from history, the subsequent strug. regularity and uniformity of the streets, gles of those very persons, under the still fi although in theory this is captivat- greater calamities induced by the op-1 ing, in execution its effect is dull and pression of the Stuarts, would have disappointing. The total want of in- afforded him new ground for admiraterest and variety in those towns where tion. it has been adopted, such as Carlsrhue, Charles, during his residence abroad, Darmstadt, and Manheim, to which we had imbibed a taste for the arts, parmay add the New Town of Edinburgh, .ticularly for architecture, and amidst affords sufficient evidence in support of his sensualities and misgovernment was this position.

not unmindful of their advancement London experienced an unexampled Upon his deciding to repair St. Paul's, series of calamities. First harassed by to reinstate Windsor Castle, and to the civil war; next desolated by the build a new palace at Greenwich, plague; after this oppressed by the Wren (who to his other attainments exactions of the unsuccessful war of added a considerable knowledge of Charles; and last ravaged by the architecture) was sent for from Oxford dreadful fire, which laid the whole city in 1661, to assist Sir John Denham, in ashes. But with all this, the cou- the new surveyor general. In the same rage and the spirit of the people were year he took the degree of doctor of not borne down; and with one heart laws. and one mind, in the very reeking Denham was a partisan of the court ruins, the restoration of the city, with in the troublesome times of Charles I., increased grandeur, was undertaken. and was rewarded by his master with a It is difficult to refrain from entering at grant in reversion of the place of Surlength into the details of this dreadful veyor General of the Board of Works, to calamity, particularly when there are take effect on the death of Inigo Jones. such materials as the lively pen of As a poet and as a loyalist his merits are Evelyn (an eye-witness) affords; but it admitted ; but his reward might have is impossible not to note the mag- been more judiciously selected, for he nanimity of the people, as described was entirely ignorant of architecture. by the Bishop of Rochester, a writer “ It would have been ungrateful in the

king, on his restoration," observes Mr. attempted on so great a scale. The Elmes, with great simplicity, “ to have religious rites of the Greeks and Ro. discharged Denham, and unsafe to have mans were all performed in the open intrusted him with the execution of any air, either in the front of their temgreat work." Few men, it must be ples, or in the midst of the city; the admitted, could so ill afford to add early Christians, on the contrary, per. to the list of their acts of ingratitude secuted on all sides, sought refuge in towards their followers and dependants caverns and catacombs hid from the as Charles: Denham remained sur light of day, for the solemnization of Feyor with the salary, Wren was ap- the rites of their religion, until encoupointed his deputy-and performed all raged and protected by Constantine they the duties of the office. Although ap- first began to assemble openly in congrepointed, he held the place for some time gations, and to worship without fear. before he received any important public T he largest of the ancient enclosed employment; and the Infanta of Por buildings were the halls of Justice called tugal having brought the expensive Basilicæ, or Royal Houses; it is supdowry of Tangier, it was proposed to posed by some, that these were first Wren, on account of his knowledge in appropriated by Constantine to the geometry, to proceed there to survey and use of the Christian congregations, lirect the works at the mole, harbour, and being closed on all sides proand fortifications: this, however, he tected them from the fanaticism of wisely declined.

their persecutors. The early Christian During his progress in making plans Churches were constructed on the mofor the repair of the Cathedral, the del of these, and, up to the present state and condition of which he ap- period, have in some examples retained pears very minutely to have ascer their name. The original form of an tained, he was employed to give a de ancient temple was an oblong cella, or sign for the erection of the new theatre chamber surrounded with porticoes, or

Sheldonian) at Oxford, the principal where the side porticoes were omitted merit of which is in the scientific con there was always one in the front; but struction of the flat roof, which is 80 by in the basilica the porticoes were internal, 70 feet without any arched work or pillars there being no exterior portico or colonto support it, and is said never to have nade ; and the interior was divided by been surpassed. Plott, who in his rows of columns either into three or five history of Oxford has given a de- divisions. (Fig. 1. and 2.) In the centre tailed description of it, calls Wren the

Fig. 1.
English Vitruvius. Cambridge also was
not slow to require his services, and
his first commission was for a de-
sign for the new chapel of Pembroke
Hall, of which his uncle had been a
liberal benefactor. The celebrated li-
brary of Trinity College was also one
of his early works.

On the form of the early Churches.
Before we enter on the subject of the

Fig. 2.
erection of St. Paul's, confessedly the
second of the cathedral edifices in
Europe, it will not, we conceive, be
out of place shortly to trace the ori-
gin of the present form of Christian
Churches from the simple plans of the
Temples of antiquity. Those of the
Egyptians and Greeks were in the
figure of a parallelogram again divided
into squares or other parallelograms;
and it probably was not till the Pan-
"heon at Rome was erected, that the
irecian Tholos or circular temple was

division (fig. 1.) the judge administered plan of this Basilica is a square of the law; and the side aisles, or porticoes, about two hundred and fifty feet; the were occupied by the merchants and interior forms a Greek cross, i. e. one traders.

with equal arms: the aisles are termiThe first Christian Basilicas are re- nated at two ends by semicircles, and at ferred to Constantine, and about the year the other two by square recesses: the 324 he erected the grand one of St. Pe aisles are vaulted, and the centre (where ter's. It was divided into five aisles, run the aisles and transept intersect) forms ning from east to west, and was termi- the large square on which is raised the nated at the end by another aisle, or tran- dome, of about one hundred and ten feet sept, from north to south, in the centre in diameter. The dome is supported of which was a large semicircular niche, on the four arches and the pendentives, giving to the building an imperfect or spandrils, which connect the square form of a cross, which he especially plan of the arches, and gradually form directed, as a memorial of that mi- a circle at the level of their summit. raculous one which he had wit- In consequence of the true princinessed before his victory over Max- ples of this mode of building not being entius. The large aisle was enclosed discovered, the architects fell into many by forty-eight columns of precious difficulties, and it was only after experimarble, and the side aisles had forty- encing several failures, among them the eight columns of smaller dimensions: falling of half the dome, and adding the whole was covered with a flat strong buttresses, that they were enabled ceiling composed of immense beams to accomplish the glory of this magmicased with gilt metal, and Corinthian ficent design. These difficulties were, brass taken from the temples of Romu- however, obviated in the building of lus and Jupiter Capitolinus. A hundred St. Peter's, as in the dome and cone of smaller columns ornamented the shrines St. Paul's, by adopting a much larger and chapels; the walls were covered segment of a circle, and by inserting with paintings of religious subjects; strong chains in the stone work at the and the tribunal, or niche at the end, base of the dome immediately over the was enriched with elaborate Mosaics or arches, so as to give the lateral pressure inlaid marbles. A vast number of lamps a perpendicular bearing. illuminated the temple; in the greater Onthe revival of the arts, this Basilica, solemnities 2400 were reckoned, and the most magnificent and the last of 1360 of these were contained in an the Lower Empire, was that which most enormous candelabrum. It was on the influenced the form and character of site of this magnificent temple, which, the new temples. The Venetians in falling into ruins, was pulled down the tenth century copied with success by Julius II., that the present Basilica the best parts of the disposition of of St. Peter's was erected. In this Santa Sophia in the church of St. Mark, sort of building the intersection of the (now destroyed ;) and it was probably aisles and the transept produced a cen- the first of any extent which in Italy tre which it was natural to enlarge and was constructed with a dome supported make the principal in the composition; on pendentives or spandrils, and which this and the form of the Cross (the gave the idea imitated in St. Peter's, of embleni of Christianity) were the cause accompanying the great dome of a of the deviations from the ancient form church with smaller and lower domes, of the Basilica ; and the invention of to give a pyramidal effect to the whole. domes supported on pendentives added The church of Santa Maria del Fiore at a size and dignity to the centre, without Florence, from the magnitude of its interrupting the vista of the aisles. dome, and the skill which Brunelleschi

The disposition of the ancient St. Pe- displayed in its construction,* alter's at Rome was followed by Constan- quired a celebrity that made the system tine in the church which he erected in of domes prevalent, till it was finally his new capital of Constantinople. This established in the church of St. Peter's being destroyed, Justinian employed the grand type of all others. It was Anthemius and Isodorus to erect a in the beginning of the sixteenth cel. magnificent temple that should immor- tury that Bramante formed the maga talize his name, and in this they first nificent design of suspending over the ventured on the novel construction of centre of the Basilica a circular temple adding a dome, remarkable for its diameter and fatness, over the centre. The

. See Vasari's Life of Brunelleschi,

as large as the Pantheon ;-raising, as was this splendid edifice, admitted to be he expressed it, the Pantheon on the the second for grandeur in Europe, Temple of Peace; and in the comple- completed in thirty-five years by one tion of this great work, Michael Angelo architect, under one bishop of London, was occupied till his death.

costing only 736,0001., which was raised

by a small impost on coals brought Chapter V.

to London; whilst St. Peter's, the

work of twelve architects, took one St. Paul's.

hundred and forty-five years to build, AFTER the nomination of the commis during the pontificate of nineteen popes. I sion for the building St. Paul's, much O ne of the principal objections to the discussion arose as to the plan. Wren's edifice is, that Wren chose two orders first design was to have but one order instead of one and an, attic story, as instead of two, and without any side in St. Peter's. That he intended to have oratories or aisles, these being only ne- adopted the single order (going from the cessary for the ceremonies of the church top to the bottom) appears from what of Rome: and this noble design appears we have before stated. But whilst Brain the beautiful model made by Wren, mante, for the erection of St. Peter's, and kept in the present cathedral. The had the quarries of Tivoli at his comside aisles, however, were added either mand, which yielded blocks of nine feet because their omission was considered in diameter, amply sufficient for his too great a departure from the usual columns, Wren had only the quarries of form of cathedrals, or (as is supposed Portland, and from them he could not by Mr. Spence in his anecdotes) because reckon on blocks greater than four feet the suggestion of the Duke of York in diameter, nor were even these readily (James II.) was followed, and he was procured ; on which account, and that willing to have them ready for the Roman he might keep the just proportions of catholic service as soon as an occasion his cornice, (which Bramante, by the should arise. The addition of the side failure of the stone, had been compelled aisles is to be lamented, as they narrowed to diminish,) he finally determined on the building and broke in upon the beauty the use of two orders. of the design ; and the architect (ob- The dome of the Pantheon is no serves Spence) insisted so strongly on higher within than its diameter; the the prejudice they were to the build- dome of St. Peter's is two diameters; ing, that he actually shed tears on and this appears too high, the other speaking of it; but he remonstrated too low : Wren took a mean proportion, in vain. It would seem that this sort which shows its concave every way, and of interference is a misfortune pecu. is lighted by the windows of the upper liarly incidental to architects. Few order, which permit the light to strike would pretend to have a voice in the down through the great colonnade that composition of a picture or the ar- encircles the dome without, and serves rangement of a group of statuary; yet at the same time for the abutment of the there is scarcely the work of any great dome itself, which is of two bricks thick, architect, in the execution of which he every five feet high having a course of has not in a great measure been com- bricks eighteen inches long bonding pelled to abandon his original design, through the whole thickness. In conand adopt the suggestions (often in- sequence of the prejudice in favour of congruous) of his employers. Michael steeples, and that no disappointment Angelo, in particular, was exposed to might arise of the new church falla like persecution, in his great work of ing short of the old one, Wren, to St. Peter's, and alike had the har- give a greater height than the cupola mony and beauty of his design impaired. would gracefully admit of, felt comAfter much cavilling the different objec- pelled to raise another structure over tions were removed; Wren received the first cupola. For this purpose he an express order from the king to pro- constructed a cone of brick, so as to supceed according to his own plans; he was port the vast stone lantern which surallowed to make what variations he mounts it. This cone was covered with pleased, and the whole was left to his own an oak roof, and this again with lead, management. In thirty-five years from in the same manner as the other parts the commencement of the building, the of the church. Between this outside highest and last stone was laid by Chris- covering and the briok çone there are topher, the son of the architect. Thus stairs to ascend to the lantern, lighted

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