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LECTURE IX.

THE ENGLISH IDENTIFIED WITH ISRAEL.

“ Is not this the fast that I have chosen,

To loose the bands of wickedness;
To undo the heavy burdens,
And to let the oppressed go free,

And that ye break every yoke ?
Is it not to deal thy bread to the hungry,
And that thou bring the poor that are cast out to thy house:
When thou seest the naked that thou cover him,
And that thou hide not thyself from thine own flesh?
Then shall thy light break forth as the morning,
And thine health shall spring forth speedily ;
And thy righteousness shall go before thee,
And the glory of the Lord shall be thy rere-ward:
Then shalt thou call, and the Lord shall answer;
Thou shalt cry, and he shall

say,

Here--I."

It has been shown how Israel nationally can have come into Europe.--The difficulties all on the other side. --Gothic-Scythian Race.--Ancient Sacae and modern Saxon branchAre traced to the same quarter as that to which Israel had been carried captive: the borders of the Caspian.--The Saxons reach the North-west of Europe, and betake themselves to sea.-Come to the assistance of the Inhabitants of South Britain, against those of the North.--- Their Beauty : Two remarkable Circumstances connected therewith.--Saxon and Jewish form of Head.-- Justice and Truth.—Independence of spirit.—Interest in Public Affairs, and Tendency to Improvement.--Benevolence: its possession befits the design of God, with regard to Israel, and the present position of the English nation, for which they have been also intellectually gifted.--Promises to Israel, as acting worthy of her destiny.

Having previously shown that the Scriptures lead us to look for the lost tribes of Israel in the north-west,—in Europe; and that the whole scheme of Providence, especially with regard to the administration of the word, is correspondent to this expectation: we, in the Lecture before last, proceeded to see whether history favours our view; and we then saw that history, and the traditions of the north, do require this view, in order to clear up what is otherwise inexplicable. Between the third and sixth centuries, Europe, in a

manner, changed its inhabitants. The new race issued from the north-east, from the same quarter as that in which we saw that Israel had left the most distinct traces of their sojourn. In our last Lecture we saw that the Scripture recognized the facts accompanying this mighty migration of nations; and the circumstances of Europe then, and now,—when, if Israel were to see out of obscurity, and out of darkness, they might look for their ancient enemies, and would not find them,—even all that contended with them; SO

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HOW ISRAEL CAN HAVE COME INTO EUROPE.

[LEC. IX.

utterly have they been made a thing of nought. We then, also, saw that the whole phenomena of Europe, after that great change of its inhabitants, were correspondent to this view of the case. When the storm had abated, and when the atmosphere had cleared, and a distinct view could be had of how matters were settled, we saw that every thing, as far as it was looked at, gave unequivocal indications of its having been Israel who were given to possess the land, to the exclusion of the Romans and barbarians, both of whom had sought their destruction, and had robbed them of the homes they previously had been given, between the Don and the Danube, and in the neighbouring districts of the northern wilderness.

We now enter still more minutely into this latter part of our subject; and propose to take, as a specimen of the grand family of nations, one nearest home—the Anglo-Saxon branch. This, of course, is not taken to the exclusion of the others; but it happens to be the first that arrested the lecturer's attention,—one with regard to which it is of the most importance we should be resolved,--and one, to the evidence for which we have the most easy access.

It surrounds us on every side, and, hereafter, one of the most remarkable facts connected with this subject will be, that such multifarious and obtrusive evidence should have been so long disregarded.

We propose taking a view of the Anglo-Saxons chiefly anterior to their embrace of Christianity, at a time when their manners and institutions, political or religious, were uninfluenced by the Bible, as received through that medium. If, at that time, their physical appearance, their mental and moral character, their conduct in the private and public relations of life, their civil institutions, religious opinions, rites and ceremonies, and all else respecting them, be such as might reasonably be expected of Israel;- if there be no incongruity, but every correspondency in the case: surely we may say that the truth has been now ar

rived at, on this important, and hitherto most perplexing point ; and we may then proceed to see what should be its practical influence, which we believe to be no less important. If a young man had gone astray, (and this is the lost son,) what else could be done? The father knew the marks of the son, and has ascertained the direction in which he wandered ;all these he has clearly pointed out. Let us now see to whom they apply, The people to whom they all apply, and who are found at the time and in the place predicted, are, we may rest assured, the children of the promise ; the nations that were to

come of Jacob, the very seed of Abraham according to the flesh, as

well as the greater part of those who are also his children by faith.

We before saw that the Scripture leaves captive Israel in the north, in the cities of the Medes, and in other places in the northern possessions of Assyria. Now it is a remarkable fact, that to this very quarter are the Anglo-Saxons traced by Sharon Turner, in his valuable history of this people. Where Israel was lost, there the Saxons were found. Here are two puzzles which have been long enough before the historians :- Whither went Israel, the most important people as to the promises and purposes of Jehovah? Whence sprung the Saxons, the most distinguished of all the families of mankind in the providence of God; and especially as to the benefits he hath bestowed upon them, and enabled them to bestow upon others? Why should we needlessly create a difficulty, and make the Most High work contradictively, and produce miracles without a cause? Why cut off the people to whom the promises were made, and whom He said he would not utterly destroy, although he would seem to do so? Why cut people, and in the sarn another people gether unk

[graphic]

LEC. ix.]

PERSONAL APPEARANCE OF THE ENGLISH.

99

blended with the children of Ham; but as to ancient Israel, much is said of their fairness. Correspondent to all this, is the description of the Anglo-Saxons, upon their coming into Britain. They are described as being "fair of complexion, cheerful of countenance, very comely of stature, and their limbs to their bodies well proportioned." Two most remarkable events, in the history of this people, are connected with their beauty: these are, their first settlement in the country, and their conversion to Christianity. As to the former, we read that the kinswoman of Hengist, one of their first leaders, so won the heart of the British monarch, that he delivered himself over to her counsels; and so left the greatest and most valuable part of the island to be possessed by her countrymen; whilst he retired, and began to build for himself in Wales.

We are also told, that when, after the settlement in Britain, some of their youths were exposed as slaves, in the markets at Rome, they so attracted the attention of Gregory, afterwards Pope, that he stopped to ascertain what they were, and whence they had come;

and

upon being told they were Angles, he said they were rightly called angels. "It suits them well," said he," they have angel faces, and ought to be co-heirs of the angels in heaven." So powerfully did the sight of these youths impress his imagination, that he ceased not until he procured a mission from Rome, consisting of Austin and other monks, for the conversion of their countrymen. There are examples, at that period, of English youths being, because of their beauty, preserved from execution, even after having been sentenced to death.

It may be gathered from Scripture, that considerable attention was, among the Israelites, paid to the dressing the hair; and among the Anglo-Saxons and Danes, fine hair was considered one of the greatest ornaments; and they were at no little pains in setting it off to the best advantage. Now, fine and well-dressed hair is not readily found among a rude people;

it rather indicates that the race possessing it, have, like Israel, been very long under mental training.

One of the very first things which struck me in this enquiry, and which indeed puzzled me exceedingly, before I knew how to solve the problem, was the great similarity of the Jewish head to the English. If, thought I, these are of two different sons of Noah, the one of Japhet, and the other of Shem, how is it that they are both reckoned of the same, the Caucasian, family, and of the same most improved branch of that family? Those who have looked at the heads of the different races, and diligently compared them; and seen them to be, in general, so strongly in contrast to the European head,--far their superior in beauty and power—will readily acknowledge that this is no minor matter. The Jewish and English head, are of the same general form; and, what is far from being the case among the several branches of the Caucasian family, they are of the same size,

one of the largest, the very largest, possessing any pretension to beauty. The head is high, and has an ample anterior development; but is by no means deficient in the domestic propensities behind; so that it is rather elongated, than round, and the sides are perpendicular rather than sloping. The size and form of the head, serve, much more accurately than complexion, to identify a race. Even the difference that does exist of form, between the English and the Jewish head, serves to corroborate our view; correspondent as it is to the difference of character between the two families of Israel, as pointed out in Scripture.

One of the principal things in which Israel was educated,--and a strict attention to which was interwoven with all their private and national concerns, and which may be expected to distinguish the race, -was justice and a regard to truth, as averred in the presence of the heart-searching God. Their laws were not merely put upon public record ; they were made familiar to the understandings of the people from

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THE SAXONS INVITED INTO BRITAIN.

[LEC. IX.

now called Jutland, and having spread out to the three smaller islands, North Strandt, Busen, and Helig-land, betook themselves much to a seafaring life; and gave considerable trouble to their enemies the Romans, by the skilfulness and courage of their attacks upon the western provinces of the empire. They early made descents on Britain; so that, even while the Romans held possession of the island, an officer had to be appointed to guard from their attacks the eastern coast, which began now to get the name of the Saxon shore. When what were called the Barbarians, began in earnest to avenge themselves on Rome, (which certainly had, upon the whole, shown but little mercy to them,) then were the Romans obliged to contract their empire; to withdraw their forces from the more remote provinces, in order to defend those that were nearer the centre, and more valuable. They left the Britons

to manage matters for themselves. These had, through disuse, it is said, become incapacitated either for counsel or for war, so that, when left by the Romans, —who had previously kept all, as it were, in their own hands,—they felt themselves quite unable, single-handed, to meet the dangers that surrounded them. The Scots and Picts came pouring in upon them from the north; whilst the Saxons renewed their descents upon the eastern coast. The idea seems to have struck the Britons, of playing off these enemies the one against the other, and they were so far successful. The Saxons came into the pay of the Britons. that it was at the earnest request of the Britons, that the Saxons now visited South Britain, to defend it against their brethren of the Pictish line, who had already come into the possession of the eastern coast of Scotland. However this may be, certain it is, that they did come, and fight successfully for the Britons. They were given the isle of Thanet ;-afterwards they obtained the county of Kent, and so onward they proceeded, until the far greater part of the island came into their possession. The origi

nal inhabitants were, by one means and another, excluded: so that Saxon laws, religion, and language, were universally established. These people had come over in different bodies, at different times, and planted a number of independent kingdoms, generally called the Heptarchy. These gradually merged into one kingdom; and, in the mean time, they adopted the profession of Christianity. The nation was fast degenerating into monkish sloth and superstition, when they were fearfully aroused by the rude incursions of the Danes; who were of the same origin with the Saxons, professed the same religion which the Saxons professed, at the time of their coming into Britain ;—they also spoke a dialect of the same language. The Danes bore sway, for some time, in the island; and, at length, became one nation with the Saxons; apparently throwing them back into partial barbarism, but really invigorating the English stock; and the more fitting this people for future greatness. After a time, the Normans came next; and produced another revolution in England; and another renewal of the northern blood: the Normans being a colony of the same people, who had settled in that part of France, which was after them called Normandy. These three great immigrations into England, have been all from the same source. We might take either the Anglo-Saxons, the Danes, or the Normans, as the particular subject of our enquiry; but, independent of other considerations, the Saxons seem to claim our principal attention, as having been the first comers, and the Angles as having given birth to the greatest body of the people.

One of the very first things to which our attention was drawn, in considering the case of ancient Israel, was their physical appearance,—their personal beauty: and this we saw was recorded, not merely of the mothers of the race, but specially of Joseph, whose posterity we seek to identify. The modern Jews, are many of them very dark complexioned, chiefly perhaps, as having become so intimately

Some say

LEC. ix.]

PERSONAL APPEARANCE OF THE ENGLISH.

99

blended with the children of Ham; but as to ancient Israel, much is said of their fairness. Correspondent to all this, is the description of the Anglo-Saxons, upon their coming into Britain. They are described as being “ fair of complexion, cheerful of countenance, very comely of stature, and their limbs to their bodies well proportioned.” Two most remarkable events, in the history of this people, are connected with their beauty: these are, their first settlement in the country, and their conversion to Christianity. As to the former, we read that the kinswoman of Hengist, one of their first leaders, so won the heart of the British monarch, that he delivered himself over to her counsels; and so left the greatest and most valuable part of the island to be possessed by her countrymen; whilst he retired, and began to build for himself in Wales.

We are also told, that when, after the settlement in Britain, some of their youths were exposed as slaves, in the markets at Rome, they so attracted the attention of Gregory, afterwards Pope, that he stopped to ascertain what they were, and whence they had come;

and upon being told they were Angles, he said they were rightly called angels. “It suits them well,” said he, “ they have angel faces, and ought to be co-heirs of the angels in heaven.” So powerfully did the sight of these youths impress his imagination, that he ceased not until he procured a mission from Rome, consisting of Austin and other monks, for the conversion of their countrymen. There are examples, at that period, of English youths eing, because of their beauty, preserved from execution, even after having been sentenced to death.

It may be gathered from Scripture, that considerable attention was, among the Israelites, paid to the dressing the hair; and among the Anglo-Saxons and Danes, fine hair was considered one of the greatest ornaments; and they were at no little pains in setting it off to the best advantage. Now, fine and well-dressed hair is not readily found among a rude people;

it rather indicates that the race possessing it, have, like Israel, been very long under mental training.

One of the very first things which struck me in this enquiry, and which indeed puzzled me exceedingly, before I knew how to solve the problem, was the great similarity of the Jewish head to the English. If, thought I, these are of two different sons of Noah, the one of Japhet, and the other of Shem, how is it that they are both reckoned of the same, the Caucasian, family, and of the same most improved branch of that family ? Those who have looked at the heads of the different races, and diligently compared them; and seen them to be, in general, so strongly in contrast to the European head,

-far their superior in beauty and power—will readily acknowledge that this is no minor matter. The Jewish and English head, are of the same general form; and, what is far from being the case among the several branches of the Caucasian family, they are of the same size,-one of the largest, the very largest, possessing any pretension to beauty. The head is high, and has an ample anterior development; but is by no means deficient in the domestic propensities behind; so that it is rather elongated, than round, and the sides are perpendicular rather than sloping. The size and form of the head, serve, much more accurately than complexion, to identify

Even the difference that does exist of form, between the English and the Jewish head, serves to corroborate our view; correspondent as it is to the difference of character between the two families of Israel, as pointed out in Scripture.

One of the principal things in which Israel was educated,--and a strict attention to which was interwoven with all their private and national concerns, and which may be expected to distinguish the race,—was justice and a regard to truth, as averred in the presence of the heart-searching God. Their laws were not merely put upon public record ; they were made familiar to the understandings of the people from

a race.

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