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sion and disorder. The Christians them came to their relief; and Alphonso of Cas. selves were divided by jealousy and sugar tile, joined by the Duke of Burgundy, and pịcion; crimes were committed with impu- other chiefs, drove Jusef back to Africa; nity; and licentiousness reigned throughoat and; shortly afterwards, the kingdom of Ara the kingdoms. Anarchy and confusion ragon was wrested from the Moors, by Alwould have destroyed both Christian and phonso, surnamed the Brave. The Arah Moslem power, when at length, a bright power began to decline; they despaired of star of glory arose in Spain-a hero, which their cause; and a blow, the most severe that country cannot too often boast of ; this that was ever given, was felt in the capture was Cid, -the illustrious and - brave Cid, of Lisbon, and the emancipation of Portuthe flower of chivalry, the most amiable and gal, which weighed down their power al: estimable of men, whom history has im- most beyond the hope of recovery. This mortalized, and romance represented in was effected in 1144, by Alphonso, the first brilliant and true colours. This cavalier was son of the Duke of Burgundy, who was procalled Rodrigo Diar de Bixar ; bụt was sure' claimed king. named the Cid, or Chief; and be first com- “ After this period, the powers of Nayarre menced his operations hy gathering and and Castile, for the first time in their conheading a species of Guerillas. He had quering progress, encroached upon Andalufought in the Moorish ranks, when they sia; when the Moors, alarmed for the safety were allied to Castile, of which crown he of the remnant of their possessions, took re, was a subject. Banished by his sovereign, fuge under the banners of an adventurer by he forgot not bis allegiance to his country; the name of Tomrut, a man of depraved chahe fought against the Moors, and sent his racter and impious zeal, and who, after a seprisoners to Alphonso, who had banished ries of troubles, schemes, and battles, died at him. His mind rose superior to petty or the age of fifty; and in the year 1149, the race grovelling animosities; he felt no anger of Almohades came into power. Cordova, against his enemies; cherished no senti- at this period, had lost great part of that ments of revenge against his oppressors. At bright, literary, and scientific character, length his services produced his recall, and which it possessed under the reign of Abderestoration to favour. His frankness and

rame III.

The schools languished, and open, manly conduct, joined to his love of the arts could no longer flourish amidst retruth, once more offended Alphonso, and bellion and carnage. Those schools, how, Cid was once more banished. He marched

ever, produced some distinguished men, with his troops forthwith, and took Valentia particularly Abenzoar, the chemist and phyby storm; for banishment to him was the sician, and Averroes, the poet and civilian, signal for new acts of valour. He could both of whom shed a lustre on the charachave wrested the crown from the king of ter of Mussulmen. The Almohades partial... Castile, and held it without fear; but he was ly governed in Spain, and territory was dis a patriot, and he died at an advaneed age, puted with them, inch by inch, Portugal be.. crowned with glory. He left only one son; came the seat of war: Arragon and Castile, who, in a duel for a paltry cause, lost his united with the king of Leon, defeated the life. His two daughters were wedded to Arabs, and killed Abou-Jakoub, at the seige the princes of the bouse of Navarre. These of Santarem. It was then that the Mussulwere the ancestors of the Bourbon race, of men in Africa saw the decay of their power Ferdinand VII, and Louis XVIII: and in Spain ; they remembered the glorious it is the brightest jewel their crowns, reign of the Caliphs, and dwelt with enthuthat the Cid, the gallant Cid, who was not a siasm on the power, riches, and voble chasovereign, and who had no ambition for a

racter they possessed. An effort must be sceptre, was their ancestor.

made to retrieve their lost fortunes, and this "With the death of the Cid, once more rose must be a great effort. Accordingly, Mathe power of the Mussulmen. The disputes bonnet el Nazor, the son of Jakoub, went of the various tribes in Africa, gave rise to over to Africa, crected the standard of the the power of the Almoravides, originally Prophet, and proclaimed a crusade. All from Egypt. Joseph, oras he was commonly ranks' and ages flocked to it, preparacalled, Jusef ben Tessefin, of that race, tions were made with vigour and spirit. Alreigned for a wbile in Barbary; he possess. phonso, king of Castile, saw these preparaed himself of Mauritania, and founded the tions with great uneasiness: he intreated empire of Morocco; and, in a moment of assistance from all Europe. Innocent III, tranquillity, like the Caliph Valid, he cast his a pontiff of character, aided him great. eye towards Spain, wbich, at that period, ly. Italy and Gaul sent many partizans to was jointly in the power of Christians and the Christian chief. Every thing was placed Moors; and, in 1097, he crossed the Medi- on the hazard of a die.' Mahoinet bad alterranean, stormed Seville, captured Cor- ready crossed the Straits with sir hundred dova, and threatened the annibilation of thousand soldiers, a number almost incrediChristian power in that country. Religion, ble, but still admitted by the concurrent or holy zeal, that powerful link in the chain testimony of historians. Peter II, king of confederacies, that potent charm, which, of Arragon, and Sancho Vill, king of in that particular age, whetted the sabre, Navarre, joined their forces to those comand aroused the energies of Christendom, manded by Alphonso, kiog of Castile. The

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best troops that Spain and Portugal could hished the regencies and governments of prodnce, joined by sixty thousand French Algiers, Tunis, Fez, and TripoliglA lo sgsia and Italians, were in the field. The Moors The Moois stiil

possessed many rich had the advantage in mumbers, the Chriss and fertile provinces in Spain, and the tians in arms and discipline: They met Christianis gained strength and confidence near the Sierra Morena, at a place called from repeated successes. * At length two Toloza. Arab chief possessed himself, soldiers arose, whose bravery and talents A Spanish guide led the army through rocks were James 1, king of Arragon, and and difficult passages across the mountains, Ferdinand III, king of Castile and Leon when the whole force appeared before the The latter, after a series of victories, obtainastonished Arabs. "A battle was now una ed possession of Majorca', and after a long voidable, and two days were spent by the seige, Cordova, the glory of the Musculmen, allies in prayers and confessions. Ce fell into his hands by capitulation in 1236,

"I have ever considered the battle of To. after being in possession of the Moors 520 loza the greatest that ever was fought in years. The Spaniards had yet to learn, tltat Spain ; and one in which they acquired mercy was a bright plume in the helmet of more glory than in any subsequent cam- valour. They drove the unfortunate Ma paign. Tře Mussulmen, from the heights, hometans from that city, which they lefe saw all the movements. In the display of with streaming eyes and broken hearts their force, they exhibited the same defect they despoiled them of their wealth, razed of judgment, which, even at this day, has their palaces, schools, and gardens, wird not deserted them They had one hundred turned the magnificent mosque of Abdethousand chosen men well armed, and the rame into a' cathedral. The Moors had-one plain was covered with troops ; but no or- consolation left: Valentia was still in their der, no concentration of force, no discipline power---tliey had recaptured that line pro or system. Most of them were thinly clad, vince after the death of the Cid; but this and armed with spears. They were a host consolation was short-lived. James of AN of ill-organized troops, left to fight their ragon, after a long siege, captured the prima way in the Arab fashion, and overcome dis- cipal towns, and thus Andalusia and Valen cipline by numbers. Mahomet occupied a tia, with the exception of Seville, fell into héight, from which he was seen by all his the hands of the Christians. U 1900 18 troops, which was barricadoed by a strong " This was a fatal blow to the power of chain, and surrounded by a body guard. the Mussulmen ; yet they had hope and The Christians descended the valley in ad- courage, which their superstition kept alive, mirable order; they were formed in three and one effort was made, this was, the es divisions; Sancho commanding the right, tablishment of the kingdom, and building Peter the left, and Alphonso

the centre, the city of Grenada. A Chieftain, nantied headed by the Archbishop of Toledo, with Mahomet Abousaid, from the borders of the the Grand Cross. This admirable prelate Red Sea, endowed with courage and per set an unparalleled example of bravery; he severance, collected all the scattered tribes, dashed into the midst of the Moorish ranks, and established the capital of Grenada. This and led Alphonso to attack the height where city, embellished with the most splendid pa Mahomet was stationed. The battle became laces, and built on a plain, the most fruitful general, and raged with fury; the plain was and rich that imagination can possibly eonsoon cleared of the Moors, and the forces ceive, was a rival of Cordova. This fertile were soon condensed and brought against plain for ages was the seat of war; the soil the height, Sancho broke through the Mus- was covered with bones, and drenched with sulmen's ranks, and tore down the chain by blood; alternate successes, of Christian ana which Mahomet and his troops were sur Moorish arms, rendered it the theatre of rounded. The carnage grew horrible ; and, bloody scenes, sieges, and conquest.ter. at length, the Arabs took to flight in every dinand concluded a treaty with the king direction. The Christians remained perfect Grenada, and marched with his troops to masters of the field of battle, and the Arch- invest Seville, which, after a siege of six bishop of Toledo celebrated the victory by months, and several gallant actions, capitua Te Deum on the plains. The consequences lated in 1243. Nothing could equal tre of this battle were of immense importance splendour of Grenada, in the first centary of to the Spaniards, who represented that the its erection; and the palace of the Albam Mussulmen, in their flight, retired with a bra, which still exists, to indicate its former loss of 200,000 men, whilst the Christians magnificence, has never been equalled for lost only 1500. This was a severe blow to riches of decoration, and beauty of archi the Moors, and they never ceased to de- tecture.

Danube plore the issue of this crusade, Mahomet “From 1248, to 1349 the Mussulmen retired to some small town in Spain, from power in Spain was supported by oecasion which he was soon dislodged-he passed al successes and victories. The reverses over to Africa, and died neglected and which their arms sustained, they repaired with him perished the last of the race of Al- by constant activity and perseverance mohades. The African princes, divided in they were still superior, in talents and potheir interests, at length separated, and estab. Licy, to the Spaniards, and more mili, Cole

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rant, and humane. At length the famous 1492, the Moors governed Grenada, under
siege of Algeciras took place, in 1343. The Mahomet VI. Jusef II. Mahomet IX. Joseph
Moors had defended the place, which was III. and Ismael II. At length the kingdom
open to the sea, and they received succours became convulsed by internal discord, aris-
from Africa. As far as my eye could reach, ing from the clashing jurisdictions of Molec,
from the summit of an eminence where I Hassan, Bobadel, and Zagay, when Ferdi,
was seated, the soldiers of Alphonso the nand and Isabella laid siege to Grenada,
eleventh, king of Castile, were placed. His This city had been fortified with the utmost
camp was pitched on the surrounding hills, care; it was walled and strongly flanked by
and his cordon of troops was strong and ef- a thousand towers, and contained two hun-
fective, It was in the numerous sallies made dred thousand men. The Spaniards were
by Moors and Christians, that thousands commanded by the most gallant officers
were killed on both sides, whose bones were that ever Spain produced, particularly by
now bleaching in my sight. The Moors the renowned Gonsalvo of Cordova. Isa
within the walls, ever active and enterpris. bella encouraged the troops by her presence,
ing, invented and used cannon, which, for and partook of all the fatigues of a camp. At
the first time, as conceded by several his- length Grenada capitulated, and on the 2d
torians, were used at this siege. Notwith of January, 1492, Ferdinand and Isabella
standing the advantages resulting from these made their triumphal entry into Grenada,
wonderful engines, Algeciras was taken in and terminated the Moorish power in Spain,
1344; and Joseph, king of Grenada, was which had existed 782 years. The unfortu-
murdered by his own subjects, Mahomet nate Mussulmen, oppressed by the Spaniards,
VI. an old warrior, succeeded Joseph; and separated; some went to Africa, others to
the Moorish crown was, for a length of time, Asia; but all regretting, with bitter reflect.
disputed between him and the Farydan, un- ions, the fine country they had lost, the liap-
til the latter, desirous of ending this civil py hours they had spent.
strife, voluntarily entered the camp of Peter, “ The causes of the decline and fall of the
king of Castile, justly surnamed the Cruel, Moorish power in Spain, are easily account-
and submitted his rights to arbitration. Peter ed for; always active and unseitled, they
received him with honours, feasted him at covered, in their character, the germs of se-
his table, and afterwards conducted him to dition and rebellion; and the facility with
an open plain, where his followers were which any adventurer could obtain the
put to the sword, and Peter himself struck crown, gave an impulse to this unstable cha-
thie old Moorish king to the ground with a racter, and rendered them ever ready for
lanee, who only said, in tones bitter and novelty and change. Without laws, except
piercing, Oh! Peter!! Peter!!! what an transitory forms of custom; extravagant
exploit for a soldier!!!

in their expenditures ; fond of gayety and It was the crimes, the unheard of cruel- pleasure, they weakened their power by ties, which stained the conduct of the yielding to its blandishments. Their armies Spanish kings in Spain, that kept alive the were numerous and brave, but less discipower of the Mussulmen. They were inca- plined than the Christians; and their relipable of enjoying temperately the fruits of gious zeal gave a ferocious character to their victory; they had no mercy for a fallen foe, warlike operations. They had, however, no policy towards a gallant and unfortunaté virtues of the bighest order; no nation on people. In addition to Peter of Castile, the earth, even unto this day, took such delight Nero of the age, others equally ferocious in the exercise of charity, as the Moors. arose--Peter IV. of Arragon, Peter I. of They distributed to the poor, bread, money, Portugal, and Charles, the Wicked, of Na. and part of their agricultural and commercial

It was the oppressive sway of these products; built hospitals for the sick, and sovereigns that kept the Moors together in carefully protected and nourished the stranharmony and concert. Grenada continued ger. to be the garden of Spain; arts and science “ Had the Mussulmen in Spain establishwere still encouraged; belles lettres and ed a government of laws, divested them history flourished. That delicate and ro- selves of a portion of their religious zeal, mantic gallantry, which has rendered the disciplined their troops, and economised history of the Moors so deeply interesting their expenditures, the Mahomedan religion, to the world, still existed in all its vigour; at this day, would have spread itself over all the Alhambra, and the splendid gardens of Europe, as it now does over Asia. Whatthe Generalif, were the abode of the learned ever benefits other parts of Europe have and the brave, the gay and the accomplish- experienced from inild and beneficial goed. The ferocity of the Moors yielded to a vernments, it is certain that the reign of the suavity of disposition, and softness of charac- Moors in Spain was more glorious, prošs ter, which education tempered, and science perous, and enlightened, than the present fixed. Their women were beautiful, modest, dynasty that now wields the sceptre, and engaging. Their principal charms, “ I arose from my seat, and slowly resaid a Moorish Historian, arose from their traced my steps towards Algeciras, pondergraceful and genteel deportment; their con- ing on the mulations of life, and that variety versation was lively and keen; their genius and change that flesh is heir to. The sun refined and penetrating. Froin 1362, until was gradually sinking behind the Mons Aby

VOL IV.No. v.

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la, in Africa, and its last rays shedia melan- them, none can be either happy, powercholy gloom on the surrounding objects. ful or respected. isoismas Opposite the bay, rising in majestic height, and frowning with age, stood the Calpe of 2.1

To account for the present state of "antiquity. No blooming orange groves, or Spain and Turkey, there is but little need fruitful gardens, embellished the Rock of of calling in religion exclusively in either Gibraltar, as in the reign of the Caliph Valid. The ruins of Cartea lay at the bottom of the case; as, ample causes, common to the beach ; Algeciras, now one fourth the size progress and decline of all nations, are and splendour of former times, was on the

numerous and

ad apparent, and can be easiright; the Convent bell was chiming the Oriciones ; and the lazy, peasant, following ly adduced to determine why two nahis mule, laden with charcoal and brush- tions, with so many advantages, have bewood, was retiring to his home, after a day come feeble and contemptible. of unprofitable listlessness. Every thing around me gave tokens of decaying power;

We have often expressed our regret that of a retrogade of national strength, and na- history is so little studied in the United tional character ; the fields looked green; States, and that even those who do make nature had remained true to her general that part of literature their study, are too course-man only had changed.''

exclusive in their choice of subjects. The This is the most interesting part of the history of Greece and Rome, and that of volume before us. It relates to an import- Great Britain, form the far greater part ant, but to most of our readers, a né- of the historical knowledge of even those glected part of history. We have given who are generally best read. The histhe subject entire, as it would have been tory of France, Spain, Germany, Italy, difficult to preserve the author's informa- Russia, and Turkey, is almost unknown. tion by an abridgment.

We, therefore, regard with a partial eye Comparing the religion, with the peo- all works calculated to give to the mind ple who profess its doctrines, and adduc- of our citizens a wider, and, of

course, a ing the Mahometan nations, as they now more fruitful range of

inquiry than has exist, as examples, we might safely pro- hitherto been laid open to their view. nounce thé Moslem faith to be not only Men are far too apt to consider their inimical to, but incompatible with, any prosperity and security permanent; and great improvement of the mind or the are unwilling to concede, even in imagiphysical state of man. But an impartial nation, that causes which have ruined review of history will correct this error, others, can so severely affect themselves. and

Pexpose to our observation polished, The study of history, by keeping the expowerful, and enlightened Mahometan amples before the mental eye, tends i nations.

imperceptibly to inspire caution, and to 7. The Turks have been to the Mahome- create distrust in any permanency of þutan, what the barbarians in the north of man happiness, except from a perpetuity Europe and Asia were to the Christian of the same causes that first produced world. The latter bas recovered in some that happiness.

63 venne iod! 2nij measure from the shock; the former still

The notices of the relations at the Uni remains in a state similar to that in which, ted - States with the Barbarys powers,

centuries past, stood France, Germa- which are scattered over the volume beny, and indeed, except Italy, the whole fore us, deserve the most serious attention of Christendom. In each case similar of our government and citizens. Barbacauses produced similar effects. With rians and 'savages

s can be 6 only managed prudence and tolerance ; good laws well by the Ratio Ultima Regum, and are established and administered; armies well always civil when overawed by superior organized and officered; finances drawn power. This secret seems to have been from the superabundance of commerce, first disclosed on this barbaric coast, by not wrung from the last fruits of industry, the thunder of American cannon ; though and judiciously applied; with these requi- its principles have since been acted upon sites any nation will prosper-without by other nations, That the civilized

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Horld, so long able to chastise and re slaves, they are marched before the Bey, strain these piratical vagabonds, should and each person is examined, touching their have patiently borne 'their depredations number, to ascertain whether they have

country; sometimes the Consuls examine a and insults, is one of those problems in national claims for their protection. Half "human conduct that can only receive a naked, for they are stripped of valuable satisfactorý solution, by a disclosure of robe or thrown to them. Here

clothing

Tand, they have a coarse the worst passions of the human heart. stands an aged man, with silvery locks, We sincerely hope an eternal period is tears coursing down his furrowed cheeks,

who, in his little pleasure vessel, was sailing now put to the slavery of the most inno- from Genoa to Nice; thus snatched from cent and polished of our species. 'And children, home and country, bare headed we also hope that this infamous and de- and with bare feet, is waiting to hear his

fate ; he is ordered to work in the Dey's grading system, which reached the vitals garden. There, in rags, but with a counteof civilized Europe, will not be connived dance beaming with intelligence, and shaded Pat by governments who have so clamor- with a manty frown of indignation, stands a

Count of the holy Roman Empire, once ously demanded the abolition of the slave secretary to the Consistory, and the intimate trade. We hope that if Africa is protect friend of the sovereign Pontiff. Where is ed against the avidity of Europe, and of that power which once made monarchs

tremble? Where are those Bulls which, like mations descended from that quarter of the law of the Medes and Persians, were all the globe, that those nations may be also controlling and effective? Gorie-not even protected from the ferocious avarice and possessing sufficient influence to break the

chains of a captive nobleman. He is orcruelty of Africans.

dered to work on the fortifications, being We would recommend a perusal of the hale and strong, and the whip of his taskfollowing extract from Mr. Noah's Tra- master soon awakens him from his painful vels, to those of our readers whose sym- hands in agony, in tattered garments, is the

reverie. That female, who is wringing her pathies' for injured Africans have been wife of a rich merchant in Naples, and her strongly excited and loudly proclaimed. two beautiful daughters, in tears and in desWe detest the name of slavery and op- ter comfort, have just left their seminaries of

pair, near her, vainly attempting to adminispression; we abhor the oppressor, and learning in France; accomplished and enpity the oppressed; but we also contemn gaging, they were about to return to their

native city, of which they contemplated that mistaken humanity, which lavishes being the pride and ornament. The mother its feelings upon one class of objects, and is ordered to the harem, to be employed in leaves others, equal or more deserving, to

the lowest drudgery for its licentious te.

nants; the daughters are separated, sent to suffer and weep unregarded.

the houses of favourite ministers, to be daily 72

tortured with impure solicitations, probably * Lan imagine nothing more terrific to the assaulted with violence, and ever solicited - peaceful mariner, or to the enterprising mer- to abandon their faith. The seamen are chant, than when an Algerine rover

bears chained, fed on black bread, and compelled down upon their unarmed vessels, boards, to work bare headed in the scorching sun, b with sword in hand and shrieking impreca- on roads, houses, or ramparts. Ye monarchs

tions, their sunburnt and black complexions, of Europe, who on beds of down and in rendered savage by their eyes of fire, and robes

of velvet, fare sumptuously-- who can Quiveringlip of indignation, seizing on the ti- order your armies to take the field and fight mid crew, dragging from their retreat the against your neighbours, for something, or trembling and distracted females, tearing for nothing'—how could you be insensible to

their jewels and ornaments from them, and the groans of your subjects? You should throwing them all, neck and heels, like dogs have pawned the jewels in your crowns to -ch their boat, to be transported to their cor- release your suffering people, if your power | sair, where, half starved, spit upon, and in- could not break their chains

. Here would sülled, they are confined until they arrive' have been a contest which would have im

under the frowning battlements of that city-' mortalized your efforts-for this alone could z intended for the grave of their liberty.

ahy alliance be termed holy." 4 When a vessel arrives at Algiers with

g's (To be continued.) ad jebe Di bados 120

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