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many cardinal points ; but sufficiently free the British, and that was the battle of Bayfor the Spanish people, and confirming len, called by them the glorious battle of rights heretofore unknown to them. The Baylen, in wbich 60,000 Spaniards, under Cortez held their meetings in one of the the nominal command of" Castanos, but churches in the city, the doors were guard- really headed by Reding, a Swiss officer of ed by Spanish soldiers, in fatigue dress and talents, compelled. Dupont to surrender with pusty muskets. The assemblage was con with 14,000 men. Although merit cannot be fused, and apparently without dignity; accorded to the Spanish army generally, or speakers mounted a species of forum, and to the nobility who had command, and who I perceived at once, that the number of ec- were the least effective, yet great praise is clesiastics scattered on the floor, was of suffi- due to the peasantry for the spirit and pa. cient magnitude to create an undue and dan- triotism which they evinced from the comgerous infuence-an influence which was mencement to the termination of the conexercised to the avowed and manifest injury test; a spirit which neither privation could of that country, and which, if not wholly depress, nor reverse of fortune destroy. destroyed, will continue to keep it poor in They saw their dwellings in flames, their spirit and in resourcesits energy confined, property lost, and their families massacred, and its independence destroyed.
without shaking the firmness of their patri. " There were but few members of the otic efforts, or surrendering their country to Cortez celebrated for talents. The most the control of the invaders. The sieges distinguished for eloquence, were Cangar sustained by the Spaniards, particularly Saand Augustene Arguelles, Quintana, Rosas, ragossa and Gerona, were highly honourand a few deputies from South-America.- able to their energy and perseverance; and The two former were, indeed, the most on the whole, it may be said, that the eloquent men I had ever heard; their flow of guerillas and peasantry, together with a few words was rich and inexhaustible ; still, it partizan officers, such as Ballosteros, Pawas evident, that in the fire of debate, in lafox, &c. were entitled to all the merit ac- ; the bursts of patriotic sentiment, there was quired by the Spanish in that revolution. more enthusiasm than cool wisdom ; more The operations of the French in Spain, were spirit than judgment; more energy, than directed by a weak policy; not because discretion. The language, the finest in the they have failed, but in consequence of world, for parliamentary and forensic elo. falling into a very common, but frequently quence, also added not a little to the a very fatal error, that of under-rating the charms of debate. A singular and marked power, disposition, and resources of the difference appeared in the character and enemy. The French calculated on no ef. feelings of the deputies from South-America. fective resistance in Spain or Portugal : They were of a different order, appeared flushed with victories over more disciplined to think more than their colleagues in Spain; and more enlightened foes, they encountered there was a more perfect reliance on their a dangerous enemy, in arousing the pride, judgment, and they were more familiar and wounding the feelings of the people ; with affairs of government. These depu- and what could have been acquired by ties called themselves Americans, not Spa- mildness and deserenee, force and power niards; they associated familiarly with the could not effect. That the reign of Josepli citizens of the United States, and would Buonaparte would have been of singular begenerally salute us with the term pisano meo, neft to Spain, cannot be denied; he comMy Countrymen.
menced his administration with mildness; “ At this period, the British, under Lord he would have gradually, with increase of Wellington, commanded the entire Spanish popularity, abrogated those ancient civil and Portuguese forces. In a military point of and ecclesiastical usages, which have crampview, every thing around us was British. ed Spain and robbed her of cbaráeter. He Muskets and uniforms ; guns and gun-car would bave softened the habits, and ameriages; British Commissaries, British gold, liorated the condition of the people, by the and British influence. Notwithsianding the introduction of literature, the establislıment amazing sacrifices made by that govern- of schools, the advancement of the arts, and ment in the Peninsula, notwithstanding the above all, by throwing open the ports to loss of lives and money in that contest, it the enterprising of all nations, by releasing was incredible to view the suspicion, jea- commerce from its shackles, and recalling lousy, if not hostility, of the Spanish to- those people whom the bigotry and ignowards their allies. They never failed to rance of Spain had banished. These would refuse any favour they had the power of have been the results of his reign; a view conferring; they never gave to the Bri- of France, for the last twenty years, justities tislı the merit of gaining a single victory; the opinion. The Spaniards felt no great and when it was known, that in battle they abhorrence to Joseph Buonaparte ; their hahave kept at a respectful distance, and suf- tred was rather directed against Napoleon. fered the British to bear the brunt, yet They called Joseph the intrusive king, or they have never failed to step in,
and claim faníliarly Reu Papy, or King Joe; and apan innerited share of the glory. During the peared, in ridiculing his pretensions, 10 cast whole contest in Spain, one solitary victory no retections on his character or qualifica-, , in the field was achieved without the aid of tions,
The Spaniards are not the only people
“ The establishment of the Arab power who have been duped by words that mean in Asia, and its rapid progress in Europe nothing, and which are pronounced in die teresting epochs in history ; but to view
and Africa, forin decidedly the most inrect opposition to the interests and acts of these people in all their glory and refinea those who use them. Great Britain step- ment, they must be seen in Spain and under ped forth as the ally and champion of Punic war, which drove the Carthagenians
the reign of the Caliphs. After the second Spain, and the inhabitants of that devoted from Spain, the Romans held it peaceably. country never once doubted the sincerity, for six hundred years. Undisturbed by fo.
reign powers, unused to the science of arme, of her professions, nor the disinterested- their helmets laid aside, and their spear's ness of her assistance, though so evidente corroded with rust, they degenerated from ly made and given from selfish views. the valour and worth of their ancestors, The Spaniard, proud and jealous of bis whose hardy enterprize led them through
and fell an easy prey to those barbarians, national character, entered the field un- Europe and Africa. Alaric led the Goths der British generals, and madly fought the provinces of Gaul and Germany, rushed
to Rome, while the Vandals, after scouring against his own best interests.
like a torrent through Spain, and desolated Of all the nations on earth, none would that fine country with fire and sword. more dread, or do more to prevent, the History is somewhat confused, in affordrenovation of Spain than Great Britain. tant cities and provinces in Spain.
ing dates to the destruction of impor
We The most powerful motives exist to ope- find it difficult to de: ile, who destroyed rate upon the minds of the people of the Cartea ; although it is known that Gon.
denic, in the four hundred and twenty-fifth latter, to thwart the real emancipation of year of the Christian æra, destroyed all the the former. Not excepting the United important towns in Andalusia, and put the States, no government in the world, if inhabitants of Seville to the sword.' Gen
seric, who was in Mauritania Tingitan well organized, would be so formidable to passed over to Spain with an army, and Great Britain as that of Spain. A com- landed near where Cartea stood; that is, oni bination of the best results would have the banks of the Guadarante. I saw the followed the quiet accession of Joseph had a battle with the Sueves and overcame
spot from where I was seated; here le Buonaparte to the Spanish throne, and his them; but being compelled to return to continuation at the head of the Spanish Africa, he had no time to improve his
victory. In 438, Richilus, one of the Barnation. All the benefits recounted by barian kings, made a dash at Andalusia, our author would have been enjoyel; beat the Romans completely, laid every and, farther, Spain and her onerous colo- thing waste, and then held the ruined pronies would either have been separated, to throw succours into Spain, and, for a
vince. The Romans, however, found means or, by the adoption of more liberal politi- length of time, that country was the scene cal regulations, the connexion would have of battles and skirmishes beiween them and
the Goths, Vandals, Alans, Sueves, and become useful to both parties.
Silings. In 614 Sigibert attempted to reAll this Great Britain saw, and was in- cover from the Imperialists, all that tract terested to prevent; and she succeeded in of country on the Mediterranean, reaching
from the Fretum Herculanium to Valencia; extinguishing the last hope of Spain, and which he succeeded in obtaining, after a causing that people to commit a moral su- contest of four years. The Romans seicide, in restoring Ferdinand VII, and verely felt the loss of their possessions in the Inquisition. As soon as Spain was left national strength; and they made another
Spain; it was a loss of power, a decay of in a state of exhaustion, deprived of hope effort to turn the tide of affairs in thut froin abroad, and secured under the quarter. On the arrival of the Roman bloody, gloomy, and superstitious despot- Goths, already in the field, with a power
forces, they found Suintila, king of the ism of her misled masters, Great Britain ful and well equipped army, against which covertly favoured, and continues to acce
the Romans did not dare march. Finding lerate, the independence of the Spanish mans surrendered on good conditions, with
the power of the Goths increase, the Ro. colonies in America. For those colonies out hazarding a battle ; and, for the first we have much to hope; but for Spain-re- time, the Goths were entire masters of
Spain. mediless depression, intolerance, and sla
'"* From the contiguity of the two contivery, seems to be her destined lot.
nents, the power of the Goths in Spain, ex.
tended also to Mauritania, over which they dramas, olve their origin to this singular Jong exercised an unlimited jurisdiction, event. This young lady was named Cava, This country was regarded by the Arabs and was maid of lionour to the Queeri Egi. with great interest The Moors who had leno; she was esteemed the most beautiful resided there from the most early periods, had and accomplished woman in Spain, a model let a wandering, but peaceable life; their of virtue, and engaging manners. The spirit was broken by the variety of masters king pursuing his wretched system of vice which the chance of war placed over them. and debauchery, first removed the father, The Greeks, Romans, Carthagenians, and the Conde Julian, by sending him on an emVandals, had each by turns exercised unli- bassy to Moussa, at Tangier, and then offer niited jurisdiction. In the reign of the Ca ed violence to the daughter. Deprived of liph Othman, in 647, the Arabs made a de- lier natural protector, the beautiful and inscent in Africa, and conquered Mauritania. jured Cava retired from court, to meditate The junction formed between the Moors on a revenge suitable to her wrongs. She amd Arabs, their common origin, similarity contrived a variety of modes and allegoriof habits, manners, and religion, tended to cal devices to inform her father of the vioawaken in the minds of the Moors a desire lence offered to her; and among them, she for independence, and of ridding their wrote to him, that there was a fair green country of those barbarous Goths, who apple upon the table, and the king's pois were daily committing the greatest excesses. nard fell upon it and cleaved it in iwo. This disposition produced an activity in These ambiguous givings-out,' added to these allies which led to very important re. other circumstances, created a suspicion in sults; and in 708, Moussa, a celebrated and the mind of the wretched father, who ob. most successful general, arrived from tained his reeall, and returned to Spain. Egypt with 100,000 men, and added to the Acquainted with the extent of his misforArab and Moorish forces already in that tune, he smothered his resentment until country: he passed through Mauritania, better prepared to act, and representing to drove the Goths from Tangier, and found the king, ihat his expensive armaments in himself a conqueror, with immense resour- peace were onerous to the people, he inces at his disposal. Then, for the first tiine, duced him to lay up his galleys and disband was an eye of jealousy and desire cast on his troops. He then obtained permission for the fine and fruitful provinces of Spain. himself and family to visit Taragona, and
The Moors, from their mountains, saw the left Malaga for that purpose. Arrived at Spanish vallies, their numerous cities and Taragona, he collected his friends and rela. rich commerce, and in a moment of enthu- tions, and with many followers sailed for siasm, they formed the vast design of con- Africa. Roderic never suspected the anger quering that country. They carried their or deep resentment which was buried in the design with promptness into effect, and in bosom of Count Julian ; so carefully and three years, all Spain was in their posses- successfully did lie smother his feelings, and sion. Thus commenced the reign of the dissemble his passions.. Julian arrived in Caliphs ; but the causes which led to this Africa, and addressed himself immediately revolution, were equally strange and inter- to the general, Moussa ; he represented esting.
Spain as prepared to throw off the yoke, $Roderic, known as the last king of the and receive the Moors. He stated that his Goths, exctuded from the throne the sons of party was powerful and ready to join him, Witiza, whose claim the people recognised, he heaped every vile epithet on the head of but the nobles opposed. His court was the Roderic, and satisfied Moussa that his wrongs most depraved and sensual of any at that had been deep and powerful, He repre. period in Europe, and every species of cor- sented the riches of Spain in dazzling co. ruption, freud, debauchery, and excess were lours, its fertile provinces, its splendid ciencouraged by him to that degree, that ho. ties, and awakened that spirit of cupidity, nour, worth and social order were unknown; wlich strengthened the ambitious designs of the kingdom was shaken to the centre with the Moors, and preparation was made to commølions, and fast verging to that condi- invade Spain. It was in 713 that Moussa tion as to render it an easy prey to the con- placed twelve thousand Moors nnder the quoring arms of neighbouring powers. command of Tariff, or Taric' Abenzarca, Roderic did not want talents; he was one of the greatest captains of the nge, shrewds penetrating, brave, engaging, ge- who landed and captured Gibraltar, and nerous, and liberal; but these were mere erected the castle, the ruins of which I had tlashes of virtue which his great vices ob- lately visited. After leaving a small garri. scured; and at length, he capped the cli- son, he passed round the Bay, and took max of infamy, by offering violence to the Cartea, and laid the foundation of Algecidaughter of Couni Julian, who was at that ras; as pr ous to that period, no town or period an ambassador in Barbary. llisto- city was erected on the spot where Aigecirns rians differ as to the cause of the Moorish now stands. Roderic, alarmed at this visit invasion; they all unite, however, in attri- from the Moors, and ill prepared to resist buting it ipainly to the conduct of the king, them, still roused himself from his lethargy in relation to the daughter of Count Julian; and gathered the remnant of his forces, and many ingenious fables, and interesting and had several skirmishes with Tarifi; at
length the Moors, fighting desperately against “ Spain still changed her rulers, until the superior numbers, who were awed and dis- year 731, when Abderame, a Moorish chief pirited, drove them to Xerez; and on the of the highest acquirements, ambition, and banks of the Guadalette, the fabled Lethe, bravery, took command in Spain. He form Roderic made a last and desperate stand, ed an alliance with the French Duke of and after sundry battles for near eight days, Aquitaine, who had quarrelled with his sohe was finally conquered. The king, by vereign, Charles Martel, and married his some, was supposed to have fallen in this daughter; marched instantly against Municontest; but it has been satisfactorily shown za, governor of Catalonia, whose forces ho that he escaped to Portugal, where he died destroyed, and whose wife, a lady of exquiin obscurity. Tariff marched with his tri- site beauty, he sent to the Caliph Backman. umphant forces, and possessed himself of Urged by his ambitious views, Abderame Seville, and finally of all Andalusia and was disposed to show how firm his power Estramadura.
was fixed in Spain; le crossed the Pyre-, “ The success which attended this expedi- nees; captured Bourdeaux"; scoured the tion, induced Moussa, a warrior no less dis- French provinces, and eame suddenly in tinguished, to form a junction with Tariff sight of Charles Martel, who, with all the with auxiliary troops ; and these two gene. forces of France and Germany united, had rals, with their army, separated, and shortly pitched his camp at Tours. All Europe was after overrun and captured all Spain. To interested in the result, and the Christian the Christians, the Moors held out the hand forces were to make one great, and probasf fellowship and protection; they guaran. bly last effort, for dominion. The battle ted to them the free observance of their was fought near Tours; 300,000 men were religion, and the possession of their chapels; destroyed, and Abderarne was killed, which my, so mild and beneficial was their rule, secured the victory to the French. This that the queen of Roderic openly espoused was in 733, and the defeat of the Moors the son of Moussa, thus uniting the Christian gave rise to a variety of factions in Spain, and Moslem interest.
which, for many years, rendered their powa “ Spain, divided in command between er uncertain and precarious. In Asia, the Moussa and Tariff, begat a strong jealousy utmost confusion existed between the rivali on the part of the former, as he had ever tribes of the Omiades, the Abbassides, and viewed Tariff in the light of a subordinate the Barmacedes; which gave rise to innuofficer. The Caliph Valid, fearing the ef- merable revolutions, which even Haroun hct of this jealousy, recalled them both to al Rachid could not sabdue, and which, Africa, where they died neglected. eventually, destroyed all belonging to the
“ The son of Moussa, who had espoused tribe of the Omiades, except one, called AbEgilona, the wife of king Roderic, and derame. This adventurer, possessing tawho was left in command of Spain, dying lents of the highest order, concealed himself shortly after, Alabor, a warlike chies, suc- in the deserts of Arabia, and finally found ceeded lim, who scoured the country, means to get to Africa. The Moors in Spain, and even crossed the Pyrenees into France. although governed by a chief favourable to
" A rebellion broke out in the north, which the tribe of the Abbassides, were still atwas leaded by Pelagus, a descendant of tached to the Omiades; and, on hearing of the Gothic princes, and who was so suc- the arrival of Abderame in Africa, they in cessful in his predatory warfare, as to in- vited him to accept the crown. One strong duce tre Caliph Omar II. to send Elzemagh, link has consolidated the chain of Mahometan a very distinguished officer, to take command power, and given so much strength and viin Spain. The Caliph, with a discernment gour to their operations, that is, thic eligibility worthy an enlightened prince, soon discover- of any Mussulman to the crown. The suc ed, that Spain would never be tranquil, with. cessful chief wielded the sceptre, and this put efforts were made to soften the habits, stimulated every adventurer to deeds of leand ameliorate the condition of the people; roism. Abderame accepted the invitation; and this he determined to effect by the intro- and, in 753, he landed in Spain, on the duction of arts and sciences, and which banks of the Guadalette, where he assemlaid the foundation of that glory which was bled an army. For four years, thre Abbasso conspicuons during the government of the sides, under the command of Yusef, dist Moors in Spain. Cordova was erected into puted the possession of Spain ; at length, a capital, and embellished with splendid the arms of Abderame were crowned with palaces. Men of talents were invited to success. He conquered Cordova, and evecourt, and Elzemagh himself, setting the ry important city; tranquilized the commoexample, wrote a topographical history of tions between the tribes; was crowned Spain, with a detailed account of its re- king of Spain, and the first Caliph of the sources, mines, minerals, forests, and rivers, Moors; thus cutting asunder the ligament The brave Pelagus, and his partizan fol. which bound the Arabs of Asia, and the lowers, still held the Asturias, and could Moors of Spain, not be dislodged ; in fact, the Moors, dis- " That fine country, for the first time, had regarding his rebellion, seemed desirous of a monarch worthy of reigning; he was the conquering Gaul, and Elzemagh was killed most brave and accomplished man of his in one of the battles near Narbonne, age; be patronized the fine arts; establish
ed, at Cordova, schools for the study of As- still continued to confederate against the tronomy, Mathematics, Medicine, Poetry, Moors : but Abderame was always fortuLanguages, Music, and Painting. He erect nate; he was a' prince yet greater thar
. Hvis ed the superb Mosque, now used as a Cagrandfather; and in his time, aits and scithedral, and a number of noble palaces and ences flourished triumphantly! Mousali
, the gardens; 'he encouraged marriages between great Moorish musician; lived during his the Moors and Spaniards, and tolerated all reign 3 his execution on the lute' has never religions. The Jews, in his time, erected an been surpassed. Abderame died after a extensive university at Cordova, and pos- reign of thirty years, and left his crown to sessed an equality of rights. That city was the eldest of his forty-five sons, Mahomet; the seat of science, and the abode of distin- and for the space of sixty years, Spain yvas guished men; happiness and content were a scene of troubles, of war and conquests, seen in every face. The riches of Abderame have never been equalled. He governed verging to a close, when Abderame IT,
so that the dominion of the Caliphs was Portugal and all the fine provinces of Spain; in-912, mounted the throne. He was a warand historianis assure us, that 12,000 villages rior and a politician; and, in a short time, were built on the borders of the Guadalqui- every thing flourished. He subdued his ene ver. He owned eighty important cities, and mies; restored peace to Spain, lavished three hundred large towns. Cordova con- gifts, with profusion, on the seminaries of tained 200,000 houses, and 900 public baths. learning; was the richest sovereign The'reventue was calculated at the immense rope ; and, after a reign of fifty years, he'
h En.' suin of twelve millions, forty-five thousand died, leaving a written papier, in which he dinars of gold, rear five hundred millions of stated, that with all his wealth, conquests, dollars. Conmerce, at that period, poured glory, and honour," he had enjoyed but its riches in the lap of Spain. Oil, silk, su- fourteen liappy duys!' The successor of A3: gar, cochineal, iron, wool, amber, amber- derame III, was his eldest son, Hacken. gris, loadstone, antimony, sulphur, ginger, Without possessing the splendid talents of spices, coral, pearls, and the produce of the his father, he was a wise and politic prince ; mines, found their way to Asia and Africa. liberal; just; and humane. Be established Cordova was the focus of arts and sciences; a code of laws, and continued to patronize ehemistry and astronomy were at theiracme; the arts; but it was not Hackem that reigneverything denoted splendour, peace, ed; he was in infancy when he ascended! talents, and happiness. Spain, Spain! if the throne ; ; it was his prime minister, the misfortunes, brought on by ignorance and justly celebrated and illustrious Almanzo; fanaticism, by indolence and tyranny, have the pride and glory of the Moslem race, not deadened your sensibilities; <if damned and who, for twenty-six years, reigned, und custom has not brazed it so, that it be proof der the nominal sway of Hackem. Never and bulwark against sense, the recollection had the Christian powers in Spain an ere of what you were a thousand years ago, in my to contend with so fierce and inflexible, barbarous ages, must drive you mad! the so commanding and successful, as Almancomparison must be agony! Arouse your zor. He fought fifty-two battles in Casiile, sell, shake off your indolence! and give the Asturias, and Leon; and razed to the your prejudices to the winds! Raze your in- earth the famous chapel of St. James, of quisitions to the ground; turn your monas- Compastella, a splendid monument of weak teries into seminaries of learning; place , ness; but this fierce zeal against the Cbrisyour priests within the handles of a plough ; tians, this impolitic war against faith; laid tolerate all religions; call back the Moors the foundation of his ruin. The Spaniards and the Jews, who gave you character and were driven to desperation; they assembled wealth ; declare your provinces in South all their forces; and, at Medina Ooli, in America sovereign and independent; and 998, they totally overcame the Moors, in a establish a profitable commerce with them, desperate battle; and the hitherto vittorious founded on equal and exact justice; invite Almanzor not being able to sustain the shock, to your court the learned of every clime; died with grief at the reverse of forfune, and let industry, science, and the arts be en- with him perished the glory of the Caliphs. couraged, let honour and good faith pre- Hackem, in the midst of civil dissentions, vail; and you may yet obtain a distinguishış was taken prisoner by a relative of the Ca. ed rank among the governments of the liphs, but was rescued by forces from Afitearth.
ca, and reinstated on the throne. The im6. Abderame died in 788, after a reign of portant victory, achieved by the Spaniards thirty years, full of glory; and the crown at Medina Cæli, gave them new energies. devolved on his third son, Hackem. Fami. Spain was distracted with commotions; the ly disputes, and contested claims among nu- Moors were divided into small parties, merous children, arising from the Moslem headed by several pretenders to the crown, eustom of polygamy, kept Spain in eternal and were cut up in detail. Hackem abdi dissentions, and Hackem died, full of trou-, cated; and, in 1027, terminated the reign of ble, in the year 822, and was succeeded by the Omiades in Spain, after possessing that his Abderame II. The Normans country, with glory, for three hundred ycars. invaded Spain. Arragon and Navarre he. Then arose a long list of usurpers; who, for came separate kingdoms; the Christians two centuries, held. that country in confu: