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This passion towards each other, when owe the following epigram, which I showed once well fixed, enters into the very consti- my friend Will Honeycomb in French, who tution, and the kindness flows as easily and has translated it as follows, without undersilently as the blood in the veins. When standing the original. I expect it will please this affection is enjoyed in the sublime de- the English better than the Latin reader. gree, unskilful eyes see nothing of it; but
When my bright consort, now nor wife nor maid, when it is subject to be changed, and has Asham'd and wanton, of embrace afraid, an allay in it that may make it end in dis- Fled to the streams, the streams my fair betray'd; taste, it is apt to break into rage, or over
To my fond eyes she all transparent stood;
She blush'd; I smild at the slight covering flood. flow into fondness, before the rest of the
Thus through the glass the lovely lily glows; world.
Thus through the ambient gem shines forth the rose. Uxander and Viramira are amorous and
I saw new charms, and plung’d to seize my store,
Kisses I snatch'd--the waves prevented more.' young, have been married these two years; yet do they so much distinguish each other My friend would not allow that this lusin company, that in your conversation with cious account could be given of a wife, and the dear things, you are still put to a sort therefore used the word consort; which, he of cross-purposes. Whenever you address learnedly said, would serve for a mistress yourself in ordinary discourse to Viramira, as well, and give a more gentlemanly turn she turns her head another way, and the to the epigram. But, under favour of him answer is made to the dear Uxander. If and all other such fine gentlemen, I cannot you tell a merry tale, the application is be persuaded but that the passion a bridestill directed to her dear; and when she groom has for a virtuous young woman will, should commend you, she says to him, as if by little and little, grow into friendship, and he had spoke it, “That is, my dear, so then it has ascended to a higher pleasure pretty.'—This puts me in mind of what I than it was in its first fervour. Without have somewhere read in the admired me- this happens, he is a very unfortunate man moirs of the famous Cervantes; where, who has entered into this state, and left the while honest Sancho Panca is putting some habitudes of life he might have enjoyed necessary humble question concerning Ro- with a faithful friend. But when the wife zinante, his supper, or his lodging, the proves capable of filling serious as well as knight of the sorrowful countenance is ever joyous hours, she brings happiness unknown improving the harmless lowly hints of his to friendship itself. Spenser speaks of each 'squire to the poetical conceit, rapture, and kind of love with great justice, and attriflight, in contemplation of the dear dulcinea butes the highest praise to friendship; and of his affections.
indeed there is no disputing that point, but On the other side, Dictamnus and Moria by making that friendship take its place are ever squabbling; and you may observe between two married persons. them, all the time they are in company, in a
· Hard is the doubt, and difficult to deem, state of impatience. As Uxander and Vi
When all three kinds of love together meet, ramira wish you all gone, that they may And do dispart the heart with power extreme, be at freedom for dalliance; Dictamnus Whether shall weigh the balance down; to wit,
The dear affection unto kindred sweet, and Moria wait your absence, that they
Or raging fire of love to womankind, may speak their harsh interpretations on Or zeal of friends combin'd by virtues meet; each other's words and actions, during the
But, of them all, the band of virtues mind
Methinks the gentle heart should most assured bind. time you were with them. It is certain that the greater part of the
• For natural affection soon doth cease.
And quenched is with Cupid's greater flame: evils, attending this condition of life, arises
But faithful friendship doth them both suppress, from fashion. Prejudice in this case is And them with mastering discipline doth tame, turned the wrong way; and, instead of ex
'Through thoughts aspiring to eternal fame.
For as the soul doth rule the earthly mass, pecting more happiness than we shall meet
And all the service of the body fraine; with in it, we are laughed into a prepos- So love of soul doth love of body pars, session, that we shall be disappointed if we No less than perfect gold surmounts the meanest
brass. hope for lasting satisfactions.
T. With all persons who have made good sense the rule of action, marriage is dehuman felicity. Tully has epistles full of No. 491.] Tuesday, September 23, 1712. affectionate pleasure, when he writes to his -Digna satis fortuna revisit. wife, or speaks of his children. But, above
Virg. Æn. iii. 318. all the hints of this kind I have met with
A just reverse of fortune on him waits. in writers of ancient date, I am pleased It is common with me to run from book with an epigram of Martial, in honour of to book to exercise my mind with many the beauty of his wife Cleopatra. Com-objects, and qualify myself for my daily lamentators say it was written the day after bours. After an hour spent in this loitering his wedding-night. When his spouse was way of reading, something will remain to retired to the bathing-room in the heat of be food to the imagination. The writings the day, he, it seems, came in upon her when that please me most on such occasions are she was just going into the water. To her stories, for the truth of which there is good beauty and carriage on this occasion we authority. The mind of man is naturally a lover of justice. And when we read a story sion. This design had its desired effect; wherein a criminal is overtaken, in whom and the wife of the unfortunate Danvelt, the there is no quality which is the object of day before that which was appointed for pity, the soul enjoys a certain revenge for his execution, presented herself in the hall The offence done to its nature, in the wicked of the governor's house; and, as he passed actions committed in the preceding part of through the apartment, threw herself at the history. This will be better under his feet, and, holding his knees, beseeched stood by the reader from the following nar- his mercy. Rhynsault beheld her with a ration itself, than from any thing which I dissembled satisfaction; and, assuming an can say to introduce it,
air of thought and authority, he bid her When Charles duke of Burgundy, sur- arise, and told her she must follow him to named The Bold, reigned over spacious his closet; and, asking her whether she dominions now swallowed up by the power knew the hand of the letter he pulled out of France, he heaped many favours and of his pocket, went from her, leaving this honours upon Claudius Rhynsault, a Ger- admonition aloud: If you will save your man, who had served him in his wars against husband, you must give me an account of the insults of his neighbours. A great part all you know without prevarication: for of Zealand was at that time in subjection every body is satisfied he was too fond of to that dukedom. The prince himself was you to be able to hide from you the names a person of singular humanity and justice. of the rest of the conspirators, or any other Rhynsault, with no other real quality than particulars whatsoever.' He went to his courage, had dissimulation enough to pass closet, and soon after the lady was sent for upon his generous and unsuspicious master to an audience. The servant knew his disfor a person of blunt honesty and fidelity, tance when matters of state were to be without any vice that could bias him from debated; and the governor, laying aside the the execution of justice. His highness, pre- air with which he had appeared in public, possessed to his advantage, upon the de- began to be the supplicant, to rally an afcease of the governor of his chief town of Aliction, which it was in her power easily to Zealand, gave Rhynsault that command. remove, and relieve an innocent man from He was not long seated in that government his imprisonment. She easily perceived before he cast his eyes upon Sapphira, a his intention; and bathed in tears, began to woman of exquisite beauty, the wife of deprecate so wicked a design. Lust, like Paul Danvelt, a wealthy merchant of the ambition, takes all the faculties the mind city under his protection and government and body into its service and subjection. Rhynsault was a man of a warm constitu- Her becoming tears, her honest anguish, tion, and violent inclination to women, and the wringing of her hands, and the many not unskilled in the soft arts which win changes of her posture and figure in the their favour. He knew what it was to enjoy vehemence of speaking, were but so many the satisfactions which are reaped from the attitudes in which he beheld her beauty, possession of beauty, but was an utter and farther incentives of his desires. All stranger to the decencies, honours, and de- humanity was lost in that one appetite, and licacies, that attend the passion towards he signified to her in so many plain terms, them in elegant minds. However, he had that he was unhappy till he had possessed so much of the world, that he had a great her, and nothing less should be the price share of the language which usually pre- of her husband's life, and she must, before vails upon the weaker part of that sex; and the following noon, pronounce the death, he could with his tongue utter a passion or enlargement, of Danvelt. After this nowith which his heart was wholly untouched. tification, when he saw Sapphira enough He was one of those brutal minds which again distracted, to make the subject of can be gratified with the violation of inno- their discourse to common eyes appear difcence and beauty, without the least pity, ferent from what it was, he called servants passion, or love, to that with which they to conduct her to the gate. Loaded with are so much delighted. Ingratitude is a insupportable affliction, she immediately vice inseparable to a lustful man; and the repairs to her husband; and, having signified possession of a woman by him, who has no to his gaolers that she had a proposal to thought but allaying a passion painful to make to her husband from the governor, himself, is necessarily followed by distaste she was left alone with him, revealed to and aversion. Rhynsault, being resolved to him all that had passed, and represented accomplish his will on the wife of Danvelt, the endless conflict she was in between love left no arts untried to get into a familiarity to his person, and fidelity to his bed. It is at her house; but she knew his character easy to imagine the sharp affliction this and disposition too well, not to shun all honest pair was in upon such an incident, occasions that might ensnare her into his in lives not used to any but ordinary occurconversation. The governor, despairing of rences. The man was bridled by shame success by ordinary means, apprehended from speaking what his fear prompted, and imprisoned her husband, under pre- upon so near an approach of death; but let tence of an information, that he was guilty fall words that signified to her, he should of a correspondence with the enemies of the not think her polluted, though she had not duke to betray the town into their posses-1 yet confessed to him that the governor had violated her person, since he knew hersion of what your husband has so bounti. will had no part in the action. She parted fully bestowed on you;' and ordered the from him with this oblique permission to immediate execution of Rhynsault. T save a life he had not resolution enough to resign for the safety of his honour.
The next morning the unhappy Sapphira No. 492. ] Wednesday, September 24, 1712. attended the governor, and being led into a remote apartment, submitted to his desires. Quicquid est boni moris levitate extinguitur. Scrua. Rhynsault commended her charms, claimed Levity of behaviour is the bane of all that is good a familiarity after what had passed between and virtuous. them, and with an air of gayety, in the lan
“Tunbridge, Sept. 18. guage of a gallant, bid her return, and take *DEAR MR. SpecTATOR, -I am a young her husband out of prison: "but,' continued woman of eighteen years of age, and I do he, ‘my fair one must not be offended that assure you a maid of unspotted reputation, I have taken care he should not be an inter- founded upon a very careful carriage in all ruption to our future assignations. These my looks, words, and actions. At the same last words foreboded what she found when time I must own to you, that it is with much she came to the gaol-her husband exe- constraint to flesh and blood that my becuted by the order of Rhynsault!
haviour is so strictly irreproachable; for I It was remarkable that the woman, who am naturally addicted to mirth, to gayety, was full of tears and lamentations during to a free air, to motion, and gadding. Now, the whole course of her afflictions, uttered what gives me a great deal of anxiety, and neither sigh nor complaint, but stood fixed is some discouragement in the pursuit of with grief at this consummation of her mis- virtue, is, that the young women who run fortunes. She betook herself to her abode; into greater freedoms with the men are and, after having in solitude paid her de- more taken notice of than I am. The men votions to him who is the avenger of inno- are such unthinking sots, that they do not cence, she repaired privately to court. Her prefer her who restrains all her passions person, and a certain grandeur of sorrow, and affections, and keeps much within the negligent of forms, gained her passage into bounds of what is lawful, to her who goes to the presence of the duke her sovereign. the utmost verge of innocence and parleys As soon as she came into the presence, she at the very brink of vice, whether she shall broke forth into the following words: “Be- be a wife or a mistress. But I must appeal hold, O mighty. Charles, a wretch weary to your spectatorial wisdom, who, I find, of life, though it has always been spent have passed very much of your time in the with innocence and virtue. It is not in your study of woman, whether this is not a most power to redress my injuries, but it is to unreasonable proceeding. I have read someavenge them. And if the protection of the where that Hobbes of Malmesbury asserts distressed, and the punishment of oppres- that continent persons have more of what sors, is a task worthy of a prince, I bring they contain than those who give a loose to the duke of Burgundy ample matter for their desires. According to this rule, let doing honour to his own great name, and there be equal age, equal wit, and equal wiping infamy off from mine.'
good-humour, in the woman of prudence, When she had spoke this, she delivered and her of liberty; what stores has he to the duke a paper reciting her story. He expect who takes the former? What refuse read it with all the emotions that indigna- must he be contented with who chooses the tion and pity could raise in a prince jealous latter? Well, but I sat down to write to you of his honour in the behaviour of his officers, to vent my indignation against several pert and prosperity of his subjects.
creatures who are addressed to and courted Upon an appointed day, Rhynsault was in this place, while poor I, and two or three sent for to court, and, in the presence of a like me, are wholly unregarded. few of the council, confronted by Sapphira. Every one of these affect gaining the The prince asking, “Do you know that hearts of your sex. This is generally atlady? Rhynsault, as soon as he could re-tempted by a particular manner of cartycover his surprise, told the duke he would ing themselves with familiarity. Glycera marry her, if his highness would please to has a dancing walk, and keeps time in her think that a reparation. The duke seemed ordinary gait. Chloe, her sister, who is uncontented with this answer, and stood by willing to interrupt her conquests, comes during the immediate solemnization of the into the room before her with a familiar run. ceremony. At the conclusion of it he told Dulcissa takes advantage of the approach Rhynsault, Thus far you have done as of the winter, and has introduced a very constrained by my authority: I shall not be pretty shiver; closing up her shoulders, satisfied of your kind usage to her, without and shrinking as she moves. All that are you sign a gift of your whole estate to her in this mode carry their fans between both after your decease.' To the performance hands before then. Dulcissa herself, who of this also the duke was a witness. When is author of this air, adds the pretty run to these two acts were executed, the duke it: and has also, when she is in very good turned to the lady, and told her, 'It now humour, a taking familiarity in throwing remains for me to put you in quiet posses-herself into the lowest seat in the room, and
letting her hooped petticoats fall with a and bring us sober girls into observation, lucky decency about her. I know she prac- there is no help for it; we must swim with tises this way of sitting down in her cham- the tide; the coquettes are too powerful a ber; and indeed she does it as well as you party for us. To look into the merit of a may have seen an actress fall down dead in regular and well behaved woman is a slow a tragedy. Not the least indecency in her thing. A loose trivial song gains the affecposture. If you have observed what pretty tions, when a wise homily is not attended carcasses are carried off at the end of a verse to. There is no other way but to make war at the theatre, it will give you a notion how upon them, or we must go over to them. Dulcissa plumps into a chair. Here is a As for my part, I will show all the world it little country girl that is very cunning, that is not for want of charms that I stand so makes her use of being young and unbred, long unasked; and if you do not take meaand outdoes the ensnarers, who are almost sures for the immediate redress of us rigids, twice her age. The air that she takes is to as the fellows call us, I can move with a come into company after a walk, and is speaking mien, can look significantly, can very successfully out of breath upon occa- lisp, can trip, can loll, can start, can blush, sion. Her mother is in the secret, and calls can rage, can weep, if I must do it, and can her romp, and then looks round to see what be frighted as agreeably as any she in Engyoung men stare at her.
land. All which is humbly submitted to • It would take up more than can come your spectatorial consideration, with all into one of your papers, to enumerate all humility, by your most humble servant, the particular airs of the younger company
• MATILDA MOHAIR.' in this place. But I cannot omit Dulceorella, whose manner is the most indolent imaginable, but still as watchful of conquest as the busiest virgin among us. She has a peculiar
No, 493.] Thursday, September 25, 1712. art of staring at a young fellow, till she sees
Qualem commendes etiam atque etiam adspice, ne mox she has got him, and inflamed him by so Incutiant aliena tibi peccata pudorem. much observation. When she sees she has
Hor. Lib. 1. Ep. xviii. 76. him, and he begins to toss his head upon it, Commend not, till a man is thoroughly known: she is immediately short-sighted, and la- A rascal prais'd, you make his faults your own. bours to observe what he is at a distance, with her eyes half shut. Thus the captive It is no unpleasant matter of speculation thai thought her first struck, is to make to consider the recommendatory epistles very near approaches, or be wholly disre- that pass round this town from hand to garded. This artifice has done more execu- hand, and the abuse people put upon one tion than all the ogling of the rest of the another in that kind. It is indeed come to women here, with the utmost variety of that pass, that, instead of being the testihalf glances, attentive heedlessnesses, child-mony of merit in the person recommended, ish inadvertencies, haughty contempts, or the true reading of a letter of this sort is, artificial oversights. After I have said thus · The bearer hereof is so uneasy to me, that much of ladies among us who fight thus it will be an act of charity in you to take regularly, I am to complain to you of a set him off my hands; whether you prefer him of familiar romps, who have broken through or not, it is all one; for I have no manner of all common rules, and have thought of a kindness for him, or obligation to him or very effectual way of showing more charms his; and do what you please as to that.' As than all of us. These, Mr. Spectator, are negligent as men are in this respect, a point the swingers. You are to know these care- of honour is concerned in it; and there is less pretty creatures are very innocents nothing a man should be more ashamed of, again; and it is to be no matter what they than passing a worthless creature into the do for it is all harmless freedom. They get service or interests of a man who has never on ropes, as you must have seen the chil- injured you. The women indeed are a little dren, and are swung by their men visitants. too keen in their resentments to trespass The jest is, that Mr. Such-a-one can name often this way: but you shall sometimes the colour of Mrs. Such-a-one's stockings; know, that the mistress and the majd shall and she tells him he is a lying thief, so he quarrel, and give each other very free lanis, and full of roguery; and she will lay a guage, and at last the lady shall be pacified wager, and her sister shall tell the truth if to turn her out of doors, and give her a very he says right, and he cannot tell what colour good word to any body else. Hence it is her garters are of. In this diversion there that you see, in a year and a half's time, are very many pretty shrieks, not so much the same face a domestic in all parts of the for fear of falling, as that their petticoats town. Good-breeding and good-nature lead should untie; for there is a great care had people in a great measure to this injustice: to avoid improprieties; and the lover who when suitors of no consideration will have swings the lady is to tie her clothes very confidence enough to press upon their suclose together with his hatband, before she periors those in power are tender of speakadmits him to throw up her heels.
ing the exceptions they have against them, • Now, Mr. Spectator, except you can and are mortgaged into promises out of note these wantonnesses in their beginnings, their impatience of importunity. In this Vol. II.
latter case, it would be a very useful in- | We were coming down Essex-street one quiry to know the history of recommenda- night a little flustered, and I was giving tions. There are, you must know, certain him the word to alarm the watch; he had abettors of this way of torment, who make the impudence to tell me it was against the it a profession to manage the affairs of can- law. You that are married, and live one didates. These gentlemen let out their im- day after another the same way, and so on pudence to their clients, and supply any the whole week, I dare say will like him, defective recommendation, by informing and he will be glad to have his meat in due how such and such a man is to be attacked. season. The fellow is certainly very honest. They will tell you, get the least scrap from My service to your lady. Yours, J. T.' Mr. Such-a-one, and leave the rest to them.
Now this was very fair dealing. Jack When one of these undertakers has your knew very well, that though the love of business in hand, you may be sick, absent order made a man very awkward in his in town or country, and the patron shall be equipage, it was a valuable quality among worried, or you prevail. I remember to the queer people who live by rule; and had have been shown a gentleman some years too much good-sense and good-nature to let ago, who punished a whole people for their the fellow starve, because he was not fit to facility in giving their credentials. This attend his vivacities. person had belonged to a regiment which
I shall end this discourse with a letter of did duty in the West Indies, and, by the recommendation from Horace to Claudius mortality of the place, happened to be Nero. You will see in that letter a slowcommanding officer in the colony. He op- ness to ask a favour, a strong reason for pressed his subjects with great frankness, being unable to deny his good word any till he became sensible that he was heartily longer, and that it is a service to the person hated by every man under his command. to whom he recommends, to comply with When he had carried his point to be thus what is asked: all which are necessary cirdetestable, in a pretended fit of dishumour, cumstances, both in justice and good-breedand feigned uneasiness of living where he ing, if a man would ask so as to have reason found he was so universally unacceptable, to complain of a denial; and indeed a man he communicated to the chief inhabitants a should not in strictness ask otherwise. In design he had to return for England, pro- hopes the authority of Horace, who pervided they would give him ample testi- fectly understood how to live with great monials of their approbation. The planters men, may have a good effect towards came into it to a man, and in proportion to amending this facility in people of condihis deserving the quite contrary, the words tion, and the confidence of those who apply justice, generosity, and courage, were into them without merit, I have translated serted in his commission, not omitting the the epistle. general good liking of people of all condi
• To Claudius Nero. tions in the colony. The gentleman returns for England, and within a few months after
SIR,-Septimus, who waits upon you came back to them their governor, on the with this, is very well acquainted with the strength of their own testimonials.
place you are pleased to allow me in your Such a rebuke as this cannot indeed hap- friendship. For when he beseeches me to pen to easy recommenders, in the ordinary recommend him to your notice in such a course of things from one hand to another; manner as to be received by you, who are but how would a man bear to have it said delicate in the choice of your friends and to him, “The person I took into confidence domestics, he knows our intimacy, and unon the credit you gave him, has proved derstands my ability to serve him better false, unjust, and has not answered any way than I do myself. I have defended myself the character you gave me of him?' against his ambition to be yours, as long as
I cannot but conceive very good hopes of I possibly could; but fearing the imputation that rake Jack Toper of the Temple, for of hiding my power in you out of mean and an honest scrupulousness in this point. A selfish considerations, I am at last prevailed friend of his meeting with a servant that upon to give you this trouble. Thus, to had formerly lived with Jack, and having avoid the appearance of a greater fault, I a mind to take him, sent to him to know have put on this confidence. If you can what faults the fellow had, since he could forgive this transgression of modesty in benot please such a careless fellow as he was.
half of a friend, receive this gentleman into His answer was as follows:
your interests and friendship, and take it
from me that he is an honest and a brave “SIR,—Thomas, that lived with me, was
T. turned away because he was too good for me. You know I live in taverns: he is an No. 494.] Friday, September 26, 1712. orderly sober rascal, and thinks much to
Ægritudinem laudare, unan rem marime detestabi. sleep in an entry until two in the morning. lem, quorum est tandem philosophorum ? Cicers He told me one day, when he was dressing What kind of philosophy is it to extol melancholy, me, that he wondered I was not dead before the most detestable thing in nature ? now, since I went to dinner in the evening, About an age ago it was the fashion in and went to supper at two in the morning. England for every one that would be