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erected by public subscription to tbe memory of Benjamin Hall, Esq., M.P. for the county of Glamorgan, who died 1817; it is a fac-simile of the well-known sarcophagus of Hadrian, executed in gray marble.
The celebrated "Peter Bell," now in Exeter Cathedral, once hung in a tower, (now destroyed,) not far from the present Cathedral at Llandaff, and to the S.W. of the churchyard. The bell weighs 12,500 pounds; it was removed to Exeter about the year 1484, and was recast in 1676.
In conclusion, may we be allowed to express a hope, that the zeal evinced by the laity in the restoration of York Minster and the Cathedral of Peterborough, may at no distant period be extended to Llandaff; so that we may no longer exclaim, on viewing the beautiful relics of this temple of God,— "thy servants look upon her stones, and it pitieth them to see her in the dust." Cymro.
It belongs in truth to the church of God to suffer blows, not to strike them. But at the same time let it be remembered, that the church is an anvil which has worn out many a hammer. Beza.
There is no quality of the mind, by which men, even good men, are more apt to be misled than zeal; particularly zeal in religion, "zeal of God," as St. Paul terms it. Where the object is good, the quality is of high value: "it is good to be zealously affected always in a good thing;" and beyond controversy, no object can be better than the promotion of God's glory, and the furtherance of his religion. But it ought not to carry us beyond the bounds of moderation. It ought to be regulated by a correct knowledge of the nature and character of the religion which we profess, and which we are desirous of furthering; and it ought to be brought into subjection to the dictates of that religion: a religion, not furious, fiery, implacable, cruel; but "peaceable, gentle, easy to be entreated, full of mercy and good fruits, without partiality, and without hypocrisy." They who act for the furtherance of that religion, in a manner inconsistent with its dictates, show that however sincere be their " zeal of God," it is " not according to knowledge;" or, "that they know not what manner of spirit they are of.'' Every deviation from the rules of charity and brotherly love, of gentleness and forbearance, of meekness and patience, which our Lord prescribes to his disciples, however it may appear to be founded on an attachment to him and zeal for his service, is in truth a departure from the religion of Him, "the Son of Man," who "came not to destroy men's lives, but to save them."—Bishop Mant.
It is impossible to estimate the amount of evil which mankind would experience in their civil capacity, were the Scriptures no longer considered of divine origin, nor constituted the ultimate standard of all moral and political obligation. All reverence for the laws would cease, for the lawgiver would have only his own authority, or the mere glimmerings of the law of nature, to enforce his commands; while those who had to obey the laws would soon have every just and equitable principle banished from their minds, and every sacred feeling obliterated from their bosoms. The whole fabric of society would soon go to pieces, if men were removed beyond the sphere of the public and private sanctions of scriptural morality. Blakey.
What I have done is worthy of nothing but silence and forgetfulncss; but what God hath done for me is worthy of everlasting and thankful memory.—Bishop Hall.
Better to be despised for too anxious apprehensions, than ruined by too confident a security. Burke.
A WORD OF ADVICE TO THE DISCONTENTED.
There's discontent from sceptre to the swain,
Alex. Niccholes. 1615.
HOSPITAL FOR ANIMALS.
I Visited at Surat, (in the East Indies,) a place called the Pinjra Pol, which is appropriated for the reception of old, worn-out, lame, or disabled animals. At that time, they chiefly consisted of buffaloes and cows; but there were also goats and sheep, and even cocks and hens; some of which latter had lost their feathers, and here, shorn of their plumes, walked about the courts without molestation.
This establishment is supported by the Hindii Banians of Surat; and is situated in that part of the suburbs of the city called Goptpura, between the inner and outer walls. Animals of every description, and from all parts, are admitted to the benefits of this institution; as with their number, the Banians conceive they increase the general happiness, and their own reputation.
The establishment occupies a court about fifty feet square; to which there is a large area attached, to admit of the cattle roving about: it is strewed with grass and straw on all parts, that the aged may want neither food nor bedding. There are cages to protect such birds as have become objects of charity, but most of them were empty: there is, however, a colony of pigeons, which are daily fed.
By far the most remarkable object in this singular establishment is a house on the left hand on entering, about twenty-five feet long, with a boarded floor, elevated about eight feet: between this and the ground is a depository where the deluded Banians throw in quantities of grain which gives life to and feeds a host of vermin, as dense as the sands on the sea-shore, and consisting of all the various genera, usually found in the abodes of squalid misery.
The entrance to this loft is from the outside, by a stair; which I ascended. There are several holes cut in different parts of the floor, through which the grain is thrown: I examined a handful of it which had lost all the appearance of grain: it was a moving mass, and some of the pampered creatures which fed upon it were crawling about on the floor—a circumstance which hastened my retreat from the house in which this nest of vermin is deposited. The Pinjra Pol is in the very midst of houses, in one of the most populous cities in Asia; and must be a prolific source of nightly comfort to the citizens who reside in the neighbourhood; to say nothing of the strayed few who manage to make their way into the more distant domains of the inhabitants.
It did not appear that there was any regular period for feeding the vermin; many Hindus being in the habit of throwing in - handfuls of grain, at different times, as suits their notions of duty. It is an annual custom in Surat to convey to this place the refuse of all the Banians' granaries in the town; and, at all times throughout the year, to dispose of such grain as may have become unfit for use, in this manner. The house of which I have now been speaking is exceedingly warm; and has a most disagreeable closeness, which I attributed to the quantity of decayed vegetable matter that must have been accumulating for many years, as the people themselves are not aware at what time this establishment was first founded. There are similar institutions to the one I have just described, at almost every large city on the western side of India, and particularly at those places where the Banians or Jains reside. They have their origin, it is well known, m the great desire which possesses the minds of these people to preserve animal life; and though it is comprehensible to a native of Europe why aged cows and horses are preserved, from the circumstance of their having done their owners some service, still there can be no
stronger instance ot human caprice than to nurture a noxious and offensive mass of vermin, which every other race but themselves are anxious to extirpate and destroy. The great body of Hindus do not protect and preserve animal life as the Banians do; but it is a very common practice among them to feed with regularity pigeons, and even the fish in rivers. I have seen too, at Anjdr, in Cutch, an establishment of rats, conjectured to exceed five thousand in number, which were kept in a temple, and daily fed with flour, which was procured by a tax on the inhabitants of the town!!
[From a paper by Lieutenant Burnes, in the journal of the Royal Asiatic Society.]
STRUCTURE AND GROWTH OF
Although vegetable life is considered inferior to animal life, and although the structure of a vegetable is far from being equally complicated, still, it consists of an infinitely greater series of organs, than is in general imagined. A vegetable has not, it is true, the power of moving from place to place, nor that of voluntary action, but every arrangement necessary for its growth and nourishment, and for the perpetuation of its species, is to be found in the most insignificant production of the vegetable world, as perfectly formed, and as beautifully arranged, as in the most elevated being in the scale of nature.
If we make a horizontal section of the trunk of a tree, or shrub, we shall find the parts of which it is composed, arranged in circles round a common centre.
size of the trunk, but it increases gradually until the tree reaches maturity; after that period, it again diminishes in volume, and in extreme old age completely disappears. The structure of this portion of the plant is cellular; the cells in the outer part being circular, and those in the centre of a hexagonal form (sue sided.J The celebrated Linnaeus, endeavoured to discover some analogy between the pith in a tree, and the brain and spinal chord in man, but it has been since proved to be an organ of secondary importance, and not by any means necessary to the life of the plant. Surrounding the pith, we find the heart-wood, this is the portion of the tree that has been formed in previous years, and may be considered as dead wood, the fluids contained in its pores not being in active circulation. A series of circular marks of a lighter colour than other portions of the wood are likewise visible; these have the name of the spurious grain, and their number indicates the age of the tree, one circle being formed every year: other lines are also seen branching out from the centre in all directions; these constitute the silver grain. The next great circle is the alburnum or sap-wood; it is white, and full of moisture, and consists of innumerable tubes of various forms, through which the sap rises and falls, or is conveyed to different parts of the plant. The alburnum in the birch, contains so much sugar and mucilage, that it is sometimes cut into junks, and used as bread by some of the inhabitants of the north of Europe.
The following figures are supposed to represent the different forms of Fig. 1. Fig. 2.
the tubes or organs of nourishment.
The simple tubes, fig. 1, contain the resinous and oily fluids which are found in various plants; the porous lubes, fig. 2, are filled in the same manner, and are supposed to convey these fluids into the sap, to produce new changes; the trachea and the false trachea;, fig. 3 Fig. 3. Fig. 4.
and 4, are generally filled with thin watery liquids, and probably, carry off the superfluous moisture, and allow the harder parts to become more solid.
The outermost portion of the tree is called the bark, and is itself composed of three parts; the innermost, formed by the cortical layers, is of a fibrous texture, and contains canals or tubes, running in various directions; the cortical layers are surrounded by the parenchyma, which is a soft substance, consisting of cells filled with fluid, and generally of a greenish colour. "The functions of these last two parts are of great importance. The tubes of the fibrous parts appear to be the organs that receive the sap, the cells seem destined for the elaboration of its parts, and for the exposure of them to the action of the atmosphere, and the new matter is annually produced in the spring immediately on the inner surface of the cortical layer of the last year."
The third, or outermost part of the bark, is the epidermis or cuticle, and varies much in different species. In some plants, as for instance, the large forest-trees, it is soft in texture and of but little importance, but reeds, grasses, canes, and most plants ■with hollow stems, are materially strengthened by the cuticle; in these cases it is almost entirely composed of silex, (flint,) which in some kinds of cane is in sufficient quantity to produce sparks when struck by a steel; under the microscope it has the appearance of a net-work of glass.
These being the organs by which nourishment is conveyed to various parts of the plant, we have next to ascertain the sources from which this nourishment is obtained, and the various descriptions of food supplied to different kinds of plants f and if we have been delighted with the mechanical beauty of the construction of the vegetable kingdom, we shall be more surprised even at the little we have discovered of the wonderful chemical operations that are constantly going on in the fluids during their circulation, by which water, perfectly tasteless and colourless when first taken up by the roots, assumes all the forms of acids, alkalies, gums, sugar, starch, and resins in infinite variety; and imparts to the different parts of the vegetable, colours of every hue.
Besides affording to mankind and to the brute creation much wholesome food, the simple growth of a plant assists in preserving the purity of the air. Every animal requires for its support a certain kind of air called oxygen; without its presence, life would cease. Every time the breath is drawn, a certain quantity of the atmospheric air is inhaled, and after it has been exposed to the surface of the lungs, it is returned to the atmosphere in a very altered state; the oxygen it contained is gone, and another kind of air called carbon, is found in its place: this latter air, if breathed, would instantly destroy life, so that if there was no counteracting cause, in process of time, the whole of the oxygen, the life-supporting property of the air, would be consumed, and its place supplied by the destructive air carbon; to remedy this, it has been wisely ordained, that while animals are constantly consuming oxygen and evolving carbon, plants should be performing an operation diametrically opposed to this, that is, consuming carbon and giving out oxygen. A kind of feeling, somewhat resembling instinct, was once attributed to plants, which was said to cause them to direct their roots downwards; but it has been shown that gravity, that is, the attraction of the earth, the power which causes a stone to fall, is the cause of the descent of the root, and that if this power is counteracted in any manner, the root will take a different direction.
The following curious experiment was made to illustrate this matter. A number of scarlet beans were placed on the circumference of a wheel, and well supplied with moisture; the wheel was then
constantly kept in rapid motion, and the result was, that the roots were all directed outwards, and the leaves towards the centre. When the wheel was placed horizontally, and the motion was not sufficiently rapid to overcome entirely the power of gravity, the roots and leaves assumed the position represented in the next engraving.
In this case, the power that prevented the roots descending, and caused them to take a horizontal position, was what is called the centrifugal force; that is, the tendency which all substances have to fly off from the centre round which they revolve; the same power in fact by which a stone flies with violence from a sling after it has been whirled rapidly round the head of the slinger. So that it is clear that the direction of the root downwards does not arise from any property possessed by the plant itself, but from some entirely distinct directive force, which force is in the case of a plant gravity; and, that if two directive forces are brought into action at the samctime, it follows the direction of the most powerful.
If we observe the outward appearance of a plant, we see that it consists of root, stem, leaves, flowers, and fruit; the roots, as we all know, are directed downwards, and obtain from the earth the nourishment which is required for the growth of the plant; this rises in the vessels by what is called capillary attraction. The property of raising liquids above their natural level is possessed by all extremely small tubes, which are called capillary (hair-like) tubes, the rise of the sap is also assisted by the expansion and contraction of the silver grain, which takes place from the effect of the sun's rays during the day, and the coldness of the air in the night.
That the sap rises in the vessels contained in the alburnum, and after it has circulated through the leaves, and undergone many changes by the action of the atmosphere, descends along the fibrous portion of the bark, is made manifest by removing a small portion of the bark of a tree; when it will be seen, that the sap will flow in much greater quantity from the upper part of the wound, than from the lower.
The vessels which have been discerned in the trunk, and the various parts of which it consisted, are continued, although of course much reduced in size, through every branch and leaf-stalk, and even through the leaf itself, and the greatest portion of these parts can be displayed by careful dissection.
The following engraving is a magnified view of a series of the spiral tubes, the trachea:, continued through the centre of a leaf.
Although the presence of water and air is sufficient
FAMILIAR ILLUSTRATIONS OF EXPERIMENTAL SCIENCE.
No. V. Heat. Radiation. Conduction. The rate at which heat is radiated, is dependent, in a remarkable degree, on the colour, and other conditions of the surfaces of bodies.
If any quantity, say, for instance, a pint of boiling water be poured into a polished metal tea-pot, and an equal quantity of water, at the same temperature, into a rough black earthenware tea-pot, both the vessels standing in the same room, and at no great distance from each other, the water in the earthenware pot will cool down to tho temperature of the surrounding air, in less time than that in the metal pot. For a polished metal pot, if we substitute one whose exterior has become rough and tarnished by neglect or ill usage, the water will be found to cool quicker in that than in the other. In addition to the last-mentioned metal-pot being rough and discoloured, if it be painted black, or some dark colour, the rate of cooling of the contained water will thereby be still further accelerated; but it will be less rapid than in the earthenware-pot.
Hence we may learn, that a metallic tea-pot is the most useful, as respects keeping the tea hot, but, to insure all its advantages, it should be kept clean and well polished. The same will apply to tea-kettles and various other culinary vessels. Those which are kept clean and bright will retain the heat of water, or other liquids; contained in them, much longer than those whose exterior surfaces are rough and discoloured. _.".._
The circumstances that assist in determining the rate at which heat is disengaged from the surfaces of bodies, operate equally favourably upon that which is directed towards those surfaces. Any substance that radiates heat rapidly, will absorb it in the same proportion, provided that, in each case, the conditions are alike favourable. Those substances whose surfaces are smooth and bright, and of a light colour, reflect heat; that is, they turn it aside from its straight course, and thus interrupt its progress. Those substances whose surfaces are rough and darkcoloured, radiate and absorb heat. Hence that substance which reflects heat the most perfectly, is the very worst that can be selected for its radiation or absorption. Water, or any other liquid, may be made to boil in less time, all other circumstances being the same, in a rough and discoloured metallic vessel, than in one whose outside is perfectly clean and bright. If the metallic and earthenware teapots already mentioned, be both filled with cold water, say at the temperature of 45°, and placed in a room whose temperature is 70°, the water in the earthenware pot will acquire the temperature of the air in the room in less time than that in the polished metal pot; proving that the same conditions influence the absorption of heat that, in the first cited experiments, would be seen to determine its radiation.
In the houses of the wealthy, stoves are sometimes employed which are made of polished metal. This is the most injudicious arrangement that could possibly be devised for heating the apartments in which such stoves are fixed. On the same principle, it is improper to surround a fire-place with porcelain tiles, or, if we wish our feet to receive any benefit from a fire, to place in front of it a polished fender. Rough, and dark-coloured surfaces, are best adapted for domestic stoves. Such stoves are not only the most useful, but the most economical, since in diffusing heat into the apartment by radiation, the benefits of the ignited fuel in the grate are materially
increased. Black-lead, with which stoves are usually polished, could be very well dispensed with, were it not, that in this instance, as in many others, we cheerfully surrender a little scientific propriety, rather than part with our early associations and habits of cleanliness.
Nothing is more difficult than to form an accurate estimate of the temperature of different substances, by means of our ordinary perceptions. If we would avoid frequent mistakes on this subject, we must constantly submit our sensations to the correction of our judgment.
Heat and cold, as ordinarily experienced by us, depend on the previous temperature of the particular parts of the body, in which these sensations may be induced; and the temperature, and rate of conduction possessed by the substance with which such parts may be in contact.
On a cold day in winter, if we descend into an under-ground cellar, or arched vault, the included air will communicate a sensation of warmth. On a warm day in summer, air at the same temperature, in the same cellar or vault, will produce the opposite sensation of cold. In winter, the external air being at a lower temperature than that in the vault, we pass from a cold to a warm medium. In summer, the air in the vault will be at a lower temperature than the external air, and we consequently pass from a warm to a cold medium. Notwithstanding the apparent contradictions in our sensations, it rarely happens, that the temperature of the air in a cellar or vault, is so high in winter as it is in summer. If we were to judge only by its effects on our body, we should pronounce a different decision.
On examining dissimilar substances in, the same room, with a view to ascertain their temperatures, if we have no better guide than our sensations, we shall arrive at very incorrect conclusions. Placing the hand successively in contact with a carpet, a table, a marble slab, and a polished brass or iron fender, we shall, in the absence of any other information, than that derived from our feelings, pronounce the table to be colder than the carpet, the marble slab to be colder than the table, and the fender to be colder than the marble. A thermometer will inform us, that the several articles we have enumerated are all at an equal temperature. The different sensations produced by them, are, therefore, entirely due to the difference in their rates of conducting heat.
Wool is denominated a bad conductor. The heat in the hand placed in contact with a carpet, will pass through, or among the fibres of the wool, but very slowly. Wood is a bad conductor, but it conducts more rapidly than wool. Compared with the carpet, the table will feel cold, because in a given time, a greater quantity of heat will pass from the hand to the table, than from the hand to the carpet. Marble is classed among bad, or imperfect conductors of heat, but it possesses this property in a more eminent degree than either of the before-mentioned substances. Metals are good conductors. The fender, therefore, will feel colder than the other articles, because, in a given time, it will abstract, or carry away from the hand, a greater quantity of heat than either the carpet, the table, or the marble slab.
A substance whose surface is smooth or polished, will excite the sensation of cold in a more intense degree than another substance, or a different part of the same substance, at the same temperature, whose surface is rough and irregular. This effect is chiefly mechanical, and it is occasioned by the more perfect contact that takes place between the hand and a smooth surface, than one which is rough and irregular.
From what has been stated in a former paper, our readers will have no difficulty in understanding, that these observations are as applicable to our sensations of heat, as they are to those of cold. We may place the hand in contact with a bad conductor of heat without experiencing pain, whilst similar contact with a good conductor, at. the same temperature, will Inflict a severe wound. In the first instance, the tieat, moving slowly towards the hand, it is easily dissipated; in the second, its motion being rapid, it accumulates, and destroys the parts in its immediate vicinity. For these reasons, we perceive the propriety of adapting handles of wood to tea and coffee-pots, box-irons, and many other utensils that are employed at a high temperature. So, also, folds of woollen cloth, or of leather, are interposed between the hand and a heated metallic body, for the purpose of intercepting the heat. By constant exposure to the effects of a high temperature, the skin on the inside of the hands will become so thick and insensible, as to resist a degree of heat that would scorch to the bone an unpractised hand. Instances are recorded, of workmen employed in the smelting of 1 2
Let there be four vessels, arranged in the order denoted above j in 1, place a certain quantity of water, as cold as it can be obtained; in 2 and 3, each an equal quantity of water, moderately warm, or as nearly as possible, the temperature of the human body; in 4, also, an equal quantity of water, but as hot as the hand will conveniently bear: if we place both hands in the vessels 2 and 3 for a few minutes, they will be of an equal temperature; removing the right hand to 4 and the left hand to I, we shall experience in the former the sensation of heat, in the latter that of cold. Now, if we suddenly remove the right hand from 4 to 3, and the left from 1 to 2, our sensations will be reversed; the right hand feeling cold, the left hand warm, although the temperature of the water
copper, who could dip their hands into the liquid metal without experiencing pain. We knew a female servant, who was in the habit of taking vegetables and other articles of food from a saucepan or pot of boiling water, with her hands, instead of using a fork or a ladle.
Those persons who are exposed to a high temperature in their ordinary avocations, generally take the precaution to wear woollen clothing. Others, who voluntarily expose themselves to extraordinary degrees of heat, for the purpose of exciting wonder, or gaining a subsistence, are not endowed with any peculiar properties by which they resist its effects. Their secret consists in availing themselves of bad conducting substances, covering their bodies with woollen garments, shielding their feet by wooden clogs, and carefully avoiding contact with metals, or other conductors of heat. It is possible to remain a short time in a room, constructed for the purpose, whose temperature is sufficiently high to broil a steak. This has been done, without any great inconvenience, by men whose testimony may be implicitly relied on.
The following experiment will serve as a further illustration of our liability to be deceived, were we to trust to our sensations, in estimating the temperature of different substances :—'
in both vessels is alike. This apparently contradictory phenomenon may be easily explained. In the first instance, the hands arc at a uniform temperature; but by placing the left hand in vessel 1, it will feel cold, because, the water being at a lower temperature than the hand, heat will pass from the hand to the water. The right hand, in 4, will feel warm, because the water being at a higher temperature than the hand, heat will pass from the water to the hand. Removing the right hand from 4 to 3, and the left from 1 to 2, the same sensations will be experienced, but at opposite sides of the body, the right hand now feeling cold, the left hand warm, whilst both are immersed in water of the same temperature.
A Swiss wedding-party arrived at Art, a village at the southern extremity of the lake of Zug, in Switzerland, for the purpose of spending their holiday in ascending a mountain called the Righi. The party divided as they went towards the village of Goldau, those in front being about two hundred paces in advance when they entered the village. The attention of their friends who were behind them was suddenly arrested by an extraordinary appearance, which they stopped to view through their telescopes. All at once, the whole mountain (the Rotzberg, or Ruffiberg, which was on the left of the village, and the summit, distant from it several leagues,) appeared to move; soon a shower of stones passed through the air over their heads with the rapidity of lightning, and they effected their safety only by a speedy flight. All their friends disappeared in an instant, and were buried under the ruins of Goldau, which is now covered by a hill of rocky fragments, an hundred feet high. Notwith
standing all the search made on that fatal spot, no vestiges of the unfortunate people could be found.
There are sufficient proofs that this was not the first slide of the mountains of that neighbourhood, though it was the most terrible of all these catastrophes. An enormous quantity of snow had fallen during the preceding winter, and the months of July and August had been extraordinarily rainy; the fall took place on the 2nd of September. During the 1st and 2nd, it had rained in torrents without ceasing,- in the morning of the 2nd, the people in the neighbourhood, heard a noise and rumbling in the mountain; and other phenomena had been observed in different parts. At five o'clock in the afternoon, masses of rock were detached from the mountain, and precipitated with the crash of thunder into the valleys, where their ruins extended the whole length of the base of the Righi, to the breadth of 1000 feet; their height was 100 feet, and