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HIS SERVICE TO THE EARL OF NORTHUMBER-
MAY IT PLEASE YOUR GOOD Lordship.
ture of your person, to be valiant as a private | SIR FRANCIS BACON IN RECOMMENDATION OF soldier, rather than as a general; it may make you in your commandments rather to be gracious than disciplinary; it may make you press action, in the respect of the great expectation conceived, rather hastily than seasonably and safely; it may As the time of sowing of seed is known, but make you seek rather to achieve the war by force, the time of coming up and disclosing is casual, than by mixture of practice; it or according to the season; so I am a witness to make may (if God shall send you prosperous beginnings) myself, that there hath been covered in my mind rather seek the fruition of the honour, than the a long time a seed of affection and zeal towards perfection of the work in hand. And for your your lordship, sown by the estimation of your proceeding like a good Protestant, (upon warrant, virtues, and your particular honours and favours, and not upon good intention,) your lordship to my brother deceased, and to myself; which knoweth, in your wisdom, that as it is most fit seed still springing, now bursteth forth into this for you to desire convenient liberty of instruction, profession. And, to be plain with your lordship, so it is no less fit for you to observe the due it is very true, and no winds or noises of civil limits of them, remembering that the exceeding matters can blow this out of my head or heart, of them may not only procure (in case of adverse that your great capacity and love towards studies accident) a dangerous disavow, but also (in case and contemplations, of a higher and worthier ‹ of prosperous success) be subject to interpreta- nature than popular, a nature rare in the world, tion, as if all was not referred to the right end. and in a person of your lordship's quality almost Thus I have presumed to write these few lines singular, is to me a great and chief motive to to your lordship," in methodo ignorantiæ," which draw my affection and admiration towards you: is, when a man speaketh of any subject not and, therefore, good my lord, if I may be of any according to the parts of the matter, but accord-use to your lordship by my head, tongue, pen, ing to the model of his own knowledge: and means, or friends, I humbly pray you to hold me most humbly desire your lordship, that the weak-your own: and herewithal, not to do so much dis-. ness thereof may be supplied in your lordship, by a benign acceptation, as it is in me by my best wishing.
SIR FRANCIS BACON, TO THE EARL OF ESSEX
advantage to my good mind, nor partly, to your own worth, as to conceive, that this commendation of my humble service produceth out of any straits of my occasions, but merely out of an election, and indeed, the fulness of my heart. And so, wishing your lordship all prosperity, I continue.
SIR FRANCIS BACON TO MR. ROBERT KEMPE,
No man can expound my doings better than your lordship, which makes me need to say the MR. KEMPE, this alteration is so great, as you less; only I humbly pray you to believe that I might justly conceive some coldness of my affecaspire to the conscience and commendation of tion towards you, if you should hear nothing from "bonus civis" and "bonus vir;" and that though me, I living in this place. It is in vain to tell I love some things better, I confess, that I love your you, with what a wonderful still and calm this lordship; yet, I love few persons better, both for wheel is turned round, which, whether it be a gratitude's sake, and for virtues, which cannot remnant of her felicity that is gone, or a fruit of hurt, but by accident. Of which my good affec- his reputation that is coming, I will not detertion it may please your lordship to assure your-mine; for, I cannot but divide myself, between self, of all the true effects and offices that I can her memory and his name. Yet, we account it yield for as I was ever sorry your lordship but as a fair morn before sunrising, before hus should fly with waxen wings, doubting Icarus's majesty's presence; though, for my part, I see fortune; so, for the growing up of your own not whence any weather should arise. The feathers, be they ostriches or other kind, no man Papists are contained with fear enough, and hope shall be more glad; and this is the axle-tree, too much. whereupon I have turned, and shall turn. Which having already signified unto you by some near means, having so fit a messenger for mine own letter, I thought good to redouble also by writing. And so I commend you to God's protection. From Gray's Inn, etc.
Julv 19. 600.
The French is thought to turn his practice upon procuring some disturbance in Scotland, where crowns may do wonders. But this day is so welcome to the nation, and the time so short, as I do not fear the effect. My Lord of Southampton expecteth release by the next despatch, and is already much visited, and much well wished. There is continual posting, by I men of good quality towards the king, the rather,
I think, because this springtime it is but a kind of sport. It is hoped, that as the state here hath performed the part of good attorneys, to deliver the king quiet possession of his kingdom; so the king will redeliver them quiet possession of their places, rather filling places void, than removing men placed.
portunity can possibly minister or offer. And that is, the causes of Ireland, if they be taken by the right handle: for if the wound be not ripped up again, and come to a festered sense, by new foreign succours, I think that no physician will go on much with letting blood in declinatione morbi," but will intend to purge and corroborate. To which purpose I send you mine opinion, without labour of words in the enclosed, and sure I am, that if you shall enter into the matter accord
SIR FRANCIS BACON TO MR. DAVID FOULES IN ing to the vivacity of your own spirit, nothing
SCOTLAND, UPON THE ENTRANCE OF HIS MA-
can make unto you a more gainful return; for you shall make the queen's felicity complete, SIR, the occasion awaketh in me the remem- which now (as it is) is incomparable; and for brance of the constant and mutual good offices yourself, you shall make yourself as good a pawhich passed between my good brother and triot as you are thought a politic, and to have no yourself; whereunto, as you know, I was not less generous ends than dexterous delivery of altogether a stranger, though the time and design yourself towards your ends; and as well to have (as between brethren) made me more reserved. true arts and grounds of government, as the faBut well do I bear in mind the great opinion cility and felicity of practice and negotiation; which my brother (whose judgment I much and to be as well seen in the periods and tides of reverence) would often express to me of the extra-estates, as in your own circle and way; than the ordinary sufficiency, dexterity, and temper, which which I suppose nothing can be a better addition he had found in you, in the business and service and accumulation of honour unto you. of the king our sovereign lord. This latter bred in me an election, as the former gave an inducement, for me to address myself to you, and to make this signification of my desire, towards a mutual entertainment of good affection and correspondence between us, hoping that some good effect may result of it, towards the king's service, and that for our particulars, though occasion give you the precedence, of furthering my being known by good note unto the king; so, no long time will intercede, before I, on my part, shall have some means given to requite your favours, and verify vour commendation. And so, with my loving commendations, (good Mr. Foules,) I leave you SIR FRANCIS BACON TO THE LORD TREASURER,
to God's goodness.
From Gray's Inn, this 25th of March.
This, I hope, I may in privateness write, either as a kinsman, that may be bold, or as a scholar, that hath liberty of discourse, without committing of any absurdity. If not, I pray your honour to believe, I ever loved her majesty and the state, and now love yourself; and there is never any vehement love without some absurdity, as the Spaniard well saith, "desuario con la calentura." So, desiring your honour's pardon, I ever con
TOUCHING HIS SPEECH IN PARLIAMENT.
IT MAY PLEASE YOUR GOOD LORDSHIP,
I was sorry to find by your lordship's speech yesterday, that my last speech in Parliament, delivered in discharge of my conscience, my duty ter defeat of THE SPANIARDS IN IRELAND, sive: if it were misreported, I would be glad to to God, her majesty, and my country, was offen
SIR FRANCIS BACON TO SIR ROBERT CECIL, AF
FOR REDUCING THAT KINGDOM TO CIVILITY,
IT MAY PLEASE YOUR HONOur,
As one that wisheth you all increase of honour, and as one that cannot leave to love the state, what interest soever I have, or may come to have in it, and as one that now this dead vacation time have some leisure "ad aliud agendum," I will presume to propound unto you that which, though you cannot but see, yet I know not whether you apprehend and esteem it in so high a degree that is, for the best action of importation to yourself, of sound honour and merit to her majesty, and this crown, without ventosity or popularity, that the riches of any occasion, or the tide of any opVOL. III.-2
attend your lordship, to disavow any thing I said not; if it were misconstrued, I would be glad to expound my words, to exclude any sense I meant not; if my heart be misjudged by imputation of popularity, or opposition, I have great wrong, and the greater, because the manner of my speech did most evidently show that I spake most simply, and only to satisfy my conscience, and not with any advantage or policy to sway the case, and my terms carried all signification of duty and zeal towards her majesty and he service. It is very true, that from the beginning, whatsoever was a double subsidy I did wish might for precedent's sake appear to be extraordinary, and for discontent's sake might not have been levied upon the poorer
sort, though otherwise I wished it as rising as I
Your lordship's most humble in all duty.
enclosed, because I greatly desire so far forth to preserve my credit with you, as thus: that whereas lately (perhaps out of too much desire, which induceth too much belief) I was bold to say, that I thought it as easy for your majesty to come out of want, as to go forth of your gallery, your majesty would not take me for a dreamer, or a projector. I send your majesty therefore some grounds of my hopes. And for that paper which I have gathered of increasements "sperate:" I beseech you to give me leave to think, that if any of the particulars do fail, it will be rather for want of workmanship in those that shall deal in them, than want of materials in the things themselves. The other paper hath many discarding cards; and
A LETTER TO MR. MATTHEW, UPON SENDING HIS I send it chiefly, that your majesty may be the
BOOK DE SAPIENTIA VETERUM.
I do very heartily thank you for your letter of the 21th of August, from Salamanca; and in recompense thereof, I send you a little work of mine, that hath begun to pass the world. They tell me my Latin is turned into silver, and become current. Had you been here you had been my inquisitor, before it came forth. But I think the greatest inquisitor in Spain will allow it. But one thing you must pardon me, if I make no haste to believe, that the world should be grown to such an ecstasy, as to reject truth in philosophy, because the author dissenteth in religion; no more than they do by Aristotle, or Averrois. My great work goeth forward, and after my manner, I alter even when I add so that nothing is finished till all be finished. This I have written in the midst of a term and parliament, thinking no time so precious, but that I should talk of these matters with so good and dear a friend. And so, with my wonted wishes, I leave you to God's goodness.
From Gray's Inn, Febr. 17, 1610.
A LETTER TO THE KING, TOUCHING MATTER OF
IT MAY PLEASE YOUR MAJESTY,
I may remember what Tacitus saith, by occasion that Tiberius was often and long absent from Rome, "in Urbe, et parva et magna negotia imperatorem simul premunt." But saith he, "in Recessu, dimissis rebus minoris momenti, suminæ rerum magnarum magis agitantur." This naketh me think, it shall be no incivility to trouble your majesty with business, during your abode from London, knowing your majesty's meditations are the principal wheel of your estate, and being warranted by a former commandment, which I received from you.
A LETTER TO THE KING, TOUCHING THE LORD
IT MAY PLEASE YOUR MOST EXCELLENT MAJESTY.
Your worthy chancellor, I fear, goeth his last day. God hath hitherto used to weed out such servants as grew not fit for your majesty, but now he hath gathered to himself a true sage or salvia out of your garden; but your majesty's service must not be mortal.
Upon this heavy accident, I pray your majesty, in all humbleness and sincerity, to give me leave to use a few words. I must never forget, when I moved your majesty for the attorney's place, it was your own sole act; more than that, Somerset, when he knew your majesty had resolved it, thrust himself into the business for a fee. And therefore I have no reason to pray to saints.
I shall now again make obligation to your majesty, first, of my heart, then, of my service, thirdly, of my place of attorney, which I think is honestly worth £6000 per annum, and, fourthly, of my place of the Star Chamber, which is worth £1600 per annum ; and with the favour and countenance of a chancellor, much more.
I hope I may be acquitted of presumption, if I think of it, both because my father had the place, which is some civil inducements to my desire; and I pray God your majesty may have twenty no worse years in your greatness, than Queen Elizabeth had in her model, (after my father's placing,) and chiefly, because, if the chancellor's place went to the law, it was ever conferred upon some of the learned counsel, and never upon a judge.
I do now only send your majesty these papers For Audley was raised from king's sergeant, my
father from attorney of the wars, Bromley from | hearts by advancing. For I see your people can solicitor, Puckering from sergeant, Egerton from better skill of "concretum" than "abstractum,' master of the rolls, having newly left the attor-and that the waves of their affections flow rather ney's place. Now I beseech your majesty, let after persons than things. So that acts of this me put you the present case truly. If you take nature (if this were one) do more good than my Lord Coke, this will follow: first, your ma- twenty bills of grace. jesty shall put an overruling nature into an overruling place, which may breed an extreme; next, you shall blunt his industries in matter of finances, which seemeth to aim at another place. And, lastly, popular men are no sure mounters for your majesty's saddle. If you take my Lord Hubbard, you shall have a judge at the upper end of your council-board, and another at the lower end; whereby your majesty will find your prerogative pent. For, though there should be emulation between them, yet as legists they will agree, in nagnifying that wherein they are best, he is no statesman, but an economist, wholly for himself. So as your majesty (more than an outward form) will find little help in him, for the business. you take my Lord of Canterbury, I will say no more, but the chancellor's place requires a whole A LETTER TO THE KING, OF MY LORD CHANCEL
And to have both jurisdictions, spiritual and temporal, in that height, is fit but for a king.
For myself, I can only present your majesty with "gloria in obsequio;" yet I dare promise, that if I sit in that place, your business shall not make such short terms upon you, as it doth; but when a direction is once given, it shall be pursued and performed; and your majesty shall only be troubled with the true care of a king, which is to think what you would have done in chief, and not how, for the passages.
I do presume, also, in respect of my father's memory, and that I have been always gracious in the Lower House, I have interest in the gentlemen of England, and shall be able to do some good effect, in rectifying that body of Parliament For, let me tell men, which is "cardo rerum." your majesty, that that part of the chancellor's place, which is to judge in equity, between party and party, that same "regnum judiciale," (which, since my father's time, is but too much enlarged,) concerneth your majesty least, more than the acquitting your conscience for justice. But it is the other parts of a moderator, amongst your council, of an overseers over your judges, of a planter of it justices, and governors in the country, that importeth your affairs in these times most.
I will add also, that I hope, by my care, the inventive part of your council will be strengthened, who now, commonly, do exercise rather their judgments than their inventions: and the inventive part cometh from projectors, and private men, which cannot be so well; in which kind my Lord of Salisbury had a good method, if his ends had been upright.
To conclude, if I were the man I would be, I should hope, that as your majesty hath of late won hearts by depressing, you should in this leese no
If God call my lord, the warrants and commis-
Your majesty's most humble subject,
Feb. 12, 1615.
LOR'S AMENDMENT, AND THE DIFFERENCE
IT MAY PLEASE YOUR MOST excellent Majesty,
And, as I am glad to advertise your majesty of the amendment of your chancellor's person, so I am sorry to accompany it with an advertisement of the sickness of your Chancery Court; though, by the grace of God, that cure will be much easier than the other. It is true, I did lately write to your majesty, that for the matter of "habeas corpora," (which was the third matter in law you had given me in charge,) I did think the communion of service between my lord chancellor, and my lord chief justice, in the great business of examination, would so join them, as they would not square at this time. But pardon me. I humbly pray your majesty, if I have too rea
sonable thoughts. And yet that which happened you, and long and happily may you serve his the last day of the term concerning certain indict- majesty. ments, in the nature of præmunire, preferred into
Your true and affectionate servant.
Sir, I humbly thank you for your inward letter: I have burned it as you commanded, but the flame it hath kindled in me will never be extinguished.
THE PRÆMUNIRE IN THE KING'S BENCH
the King's Bench, but not found, is not so much Feb. 10, 1615. as is noised abroad, though, I must say, it was " omni tempere nimium, et hoc tempore alienum." And, therefore, I beseech your majesty not to give any believing ear to reports, but to receive the truth from me that am your attorney-general, and ought to stand indifferent for jurisdictions of all courts; which, I account, I cannot give your majesty now, because I was then absent, and some SIR FRANCIS BACON TO THE KING, CONCERNING are now absent, which are properly and authentically to inform me, touching that which passed. Neither let this any way disjoint your other business; for there is a time for all things, and this very accident may be turned to good; not that I am of opinion that the same cunning maxim of "separa et impera," which sometimes holdeth in persons, can well take place in jurisdiction; but because some good occasion by this excess may be taken, to settle that which would have been more dangerous, if it had gone on, by little and little. God preserve your majesty. Your majesty's most humble subject, and most bounden servant.
Feb. 15th, 1615.
A LETTER TO SIR GEORGE VILLIERS, TOUCHING
CHANCERY AND KING'S BENCH.
I received this morning from you two letters by the same bearer, the one written before the other, both after his majesty had received my last. In this difference between the two courts of Chancery and King's Bench, (for so I had rather take it at this time, than between the persons of my lord chancellor, and my lord chief justice,) I marvel not, if rumour get way of true relation; for I know fame hath swift wings, especially that which hath black feathers; but within these two days (for sooner I cannot be ready) I will write to his majesty both the narrative truly, and my opinion sincerely, taking much comfort, that I serve such a king, as hath God's property, in discerning truly of men's hearts. I purpose to speak with my lord chancellor this day, and so to exhibit that cordial of his majesty's grace, as I hope this other accident will rather rouse and raise his spirits, than deject him, or incline him to a relapse; mean while, I commend the wit of a mean man, that said this other day, well, (saith he,) next term you shall have an old man come with a besom of wormwood in his hand, that will sweep away all this. For it is my lord chancellor's fashion, especially towards the summer, to carry a posy of wormwood. I write this letter in haste, to return the messenger with it. God keep
IT MAY PLEASE YOUR MOST excellent MAJESTY,
I will now (as your majesty requireth) give you a true relation of that which passed; neither will I decline your royal commandment, for delivering my opinion also; though it be a tender subject to write on. But I, that account my being but an accident to my service, will neglect no duty upon self-safety. First, it is necessary I let your majesty know the ground of the difference between the two courts, that your majesty may the better understand the narrative.
27 E. 3.
There was a statute made 27 Ed. 3, Cap. 1, which (no doubt) in the prinCap. 1. cipal intention thereof, was ordained against those that sued to Rome, wherein there are words somewhat general, against any that questioneth or impeacheth any judgment given in the king's courts, in any other courts. Upon these doubtful words (other courts) the controversy groweth; for the sounder interpretation taketh them to be meant of those courts which, though locally they were not held at Rome, or where the pope's chair was, but here within the realm, yet in their jurisdiction had their dependency upon the court of Rome; as were the court of the legate here, and the courts of the archbishops and bishops, which were then but subordinate judgment seats, to that high tribunal of Rome.
And, for this construction, the opposition of the words, (if they be well observed) between the king's courts and other courts, maketh very much; for it importeth as if those other courts were not