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counterfeit with him; and they that can let me | because, of all the accidents of state at this time, from coming near to her, cannot let me from the labour resteth upon that most; and because drawing nearer to him, as I hope I do daily. For the world will make a kind of comparison beyour brother, I hold him an honest gentleman, and wish him all good, much rather for your sake; yourself, I know, hath suffered more for me, and with me, than any friend that I have: but I can but lament freely, as you see I do, and advise you not to do that I do, which is, to despair. You know letters what hurt they have done me, and therefore make sure of this; and yet I could not, as having no other pledge of my love, but communicate openly with you for the ease of my heart and yours.

Your loving friend,


tween those that set it out of frame, and those that shall bring it into frame: which kind of honour giveth the quickest kind of reflection. The transferring this honour upon yourself consisteth in two points: the one, if the principal persons employed come in by you, and depend upon you; the other if your lordship declare yourself to undertake a care of that matter. For the persons, it falleth out well that your lordship hath had no interest in the persons of imputation: For neither Sir William Fitz-Williams, nor Sir John Norris was yours: Sir William Russel was conceived yours, but was curbed: Sir Coniers Clifford, as I conceive it, dependeth upon you, who is said to do well; and if my Lord of Ormond in this interim

SIR FRANCIS BACON TO THE EARL OF SALISBURY, do accommodate well, I take it he hath always



I am not privy to myself of any such ill deserving towards your lordship, as that I should think it an imprudent thing to be a suitor for your favour in a reasonable matter, your lordship being to me as (with your good favour) you cannot cease to be: but rather it were a simple and arrogant part in me to forbear it.



It is thought Mr. Attorney shall be chief justice of the Common-place; in case Mr. Solicitor rise, I would be glad now at last to be solicitor: chiefly because I think it will increase my practice, wherein God blessing me a few years, I may mend my state, and so after fall to my studies and ease; whereof one is requisite for my body, and the other serveth for my mind; wherein if I shall find lordship's favour, I shall be more happy than have been, which may make me also more wise. I have small store of means about the king, and to sue myself is not fit; and therefore I shall leave it to God, his majesty, and your lordship: for I must still be next the door. I thank God, in these transitory things I am well resolved. So, beseeching your lordship not to think this letter the less humble, because it is plain, I rest, etc.


had good understanding with your lordship. So
as all things are not only whole and entire, but of
favourable aspect towards your lordship, if you
now choose well: wherein, in your wisdom, you
will remember there is a great difference in choice
of the persons, as you shall think the affairs to in-
eline to composition, or to war.
For your care-
taking, popular conceit hath been, that Irish
causes have been much neglected, whereby the
very reputation of better care will be a strength:
and I am sure, her majesty and my lords of the
council do not think their care dissolved, when
they have chosen whom to employ; but that they
will proceed in a spirit of state, and not leave the
main point to discretion. Then, if a resolution be
taken; a consultation must proceed; and the
consultation must be governed upon information to
be had from such as know the place, and matters
in fact; and in taking of information I have always
noted there is a skill and a wisdom. For I can-
not tell what account or inquiry hath been taken
of Sir William Russel, of Sir Ralph Bingham, of
the Earl of Thomond, of Mr. Wilbraham: but I
am of opinion, much more would be had of them,
if your lordship shall be pleased severally to con-
fer, not obiter, but expressly, upon some caveat
given them to think of it before, for, "bene docet
qui prudenter interrogat." For the points of op-
posing them, I am too much a stranger to the busi-
ness to deduce them: but in a topic methinks the

SIR FRANCIS BACON TO THE EARL OF ESSEX, pertinent interrogations must be either of the



I do write, because I have not yet had time fully to express my conceit, nor now, to attend you touching Irish matters, considering them as they may concern the state; that it is one of the aptest particulars that hath come, or can come upon the stage, for your lordship to purchase honour upon, I am moved to think for three reasons; because it is ingenerate in your house in respect of my lord your father's noble attempts;

possibility and means of accord, or of the nature of the war, or of the reformation of the particular abuses, or of the joining of practice with force in the disunion of the rebels. If your lordship doubt to put your sickle in other men's harvests, yet consider you have these advantages. First, time being fit to you in Mr. Secretary's absence: next, "vis unita fortior:" thirdly, the business being mixed with matters of war, it is fittest for you: lastly, I know your lordship will carry it with that modesty and respect towards aged dignity, and

that good correspondence towards my dear ally, and your good friend, now abroad, as no inconvenience may grow that way. Thus have I played the ignorant statesman, which I do to nobody but your lordship, except I do it to the queen sometimes, when she trains me on. But your lordship will accept my duty and good meaning, and secure me touching the privateness of that I write.

Your lordship's to be commanded,



THOSE advertisements which your lordship imparted to me, and the like, I hold to be no more certain to make judgment upon than a patient's water to a physician: therefore for me upon one water to make a judgment, were indeed like a foolish bold mountebank, or Dr. Birket, yet, for willing duty's sake, I will set down to your lordship what opinion sprung in my mind upon that I read. The letter from the council there, leaning to distrust, I do not much rely upon, for three causes. First, because it is always both the grace and the safety from blame of such a council to err in caution: whereunto add, that it may be they, or some of them, are not without envy towards the person who is used in treating the accord. Next, because the time of this treaty hath no show of dissimulation, for that Tyrone is now in no streights, but like a gamester that will give over because he is a winner, not because he hath no more money in his purse.

weaken by division and disunion of the heads;
the other, by recovering and winning the people
by justice, which of all other causes is the best.
Now for the Athenian question, you discourse
well, "Quid igitur agendum est?" I will shoot
my fool's bolt, since you will have it so. The
Earl of Ormond to be encouraged and comforted
above all things, the garrisons to be instantly pro-
vided for; for opportunity makes a thief: and if
he should mean never so well now, yet such an
advantage as the breaking of her majesty's garri-
sons, might tempt a true man. And because he
may as well waver upon his own inconstancy, as
upon occasion, and want of variableness is never
restrained but with fear, I hold it necessary to be
menaced with a strong war; not by words, but by
musters and preparations of forces here, in case
the accord proceed not; but none to be sent over,
lest it disturb the treaty, and make him look to be
overrun as soon as he hath laid down arms. And,
but that your lordship is too easy to pass, in such
cases, from dissimulation to verity, I think, if
your lordship lent your reputation in this case, it
is to pretend, that if not a defensive war, as in
times past, but a full reconquest of those parts of
the country be resolved on, you would accept the
charge, I think it would help to settle him, and
win you a great deal of honour gratis. And that
which most properly concerneth this action, if it
prove a peace, I think her majesty shall do well
to cure the root of the disease, and to profess by a
commission of peaceable men chiefly of respect
and countenance, the reformation of abuses, extor-
tions and injustices there, and to plant a stronger
and surer government than heretofore, for the ease
and protection of the subject; for the removing of
the sword, or government in arms, from the Earl
of Ormond, or the sending of a deputy, which
will eclipse it, if peace follow, I think unseasona-
ble. Lastly, I hold still my opinion, both for
your better information, and your fuller declara-
tion of your care, and evermore meriting service,
that your lordship have a set conference with the
persons I named in my former writing. I rest,
At your lordship's service,


Lastly, I do not see but those articles whereon they ground their suspicion, may as well proceed out of fear as out of falsehood, for the retaining of the dependence of the protracting the admission of a sheriff, the refusing to give his son for hostage, the holding from present repair to Dublin, the refusing to go presently to accord, without including O'Donnell, and others his associates, may very well come of a guilty reservation, in case he should receive hard measure, and not out of treachery; so as if the great person be faithful, and that you have not here some present intelligence of present succours from Spain, for the expectation whereof Tyrone would win time, I see ANOTHER TO THE EARL BEFORE HIS GOING TO no deep cause of distrusting the cause if it be good. And for the question, her majesty seemeth to me a winner three ways: first, her purse shall have rest: next, it will divert the foreign designs unon that place thirdly, though her majesty is like for a time to govern precario in the north, and oe not in true command in better state there than before, yet, besides the two respects of ease of charge, and advantage of opinion abroad, before mentioned, she shali have a time to use her princely policy in two points: in the one, to



Your note of my silence in your occasions hath made me set down these few wandering lines, as one that would say somewhat, and can say nothing touching your lordship's intended charge for Ireland; which my endeavour I know your lordship will accept graciously and well, whether your lordship take it by the handle of the occasion ministered from yourself, or of the affection from which it proceedeth. Your lordship is designed

to a service of great merit and great peril; and defaults of so many former governors, and the as the greatness of the peril must needs include clearing the glory of so many happy years' reign, no small consequence of peril, if it be not tem- only in this part excepted. Nay, farther, how far perately governed; so all immoderate success forth the peril of that state is interlaced with the extinguisheth merit, and stirreth up distaste and peril of England; and, therefore, how great the envy, the assured forerunner of whole changes of honour is to keep and defend the approaches of peril. But I am at the last point first, some good this kingdom, I hear many discourse; and indeed spirit leading my pen to presage your lordship's there is a great difference, whether the tortoise success; wherein it is true, I am not without my gather herself into her shell hurt or unhurt; and oracle and divinations, none of them superstitious, if any man be of opinion, that the nature of an and yet not all natural: for, first, looking into the enemy doth extenuate the honour of a service, course of God's providence in things now depend- being but a rebel and a savage, I differ from him; ing, and calling into consideration how great for I see the justest triumphs that the Romans in things God hath done by her majesty, and for her their greatest greatness did obtain, and that collect he hath disposed of this great dissection whereof the emperors in their styles took addiin Ireland, whereby to give an urgent occasion to tions and denominations, were of such an enemy; the reduction of that whole kingdom, as upon the that is, people barbarous, and not reduced to rebellion of Desmond there ensued the reduction civility, magnifying a kind of lawless liberty, of that province. Next, your lordship goeth prodigal of life, hardened in body, fortified in against three of the unluckiest vices of all other, woods and bogs, placing both justice and fecility disloyalty, ingratitude, and insolence; which in the sharpness of their swords. Such were the three offences in all examples have seldom their Germans and ancient Britons, and divers others. doom adjourned to the world to come. Lastly, he Upon which kind of people, whether the victory that shall have had the honour to know your lord-be a conquest, or a reconquest upon a rebellion or ship inwardly, as I have had, shall find "bona revolt, it made no difference that ever I could find, exta," whereby he may better ground a divination in honour. And, therefore, it is not the enriching of good, than upon the dissection of a sacrifice. But that part I leave, for it is fit for others to be confident upon you, and you to be confident upon the cause, the goodness and justice whereof is such as can hardly be matched in any example, it being no ambitious war of foreigners, but a recovery of subjects, and that after lenity of conditions often tried; and a recovery of them not only to obedience, but to humanity and policy, from more than Indian barbarism. There is yet another kind of divination familiar in matters of state, being that which Demosthenes so often relieth upon in his time, where he saith, that which for the time past is worst of all, is for the time to come the best, which is, that things go ill not by accident but by error; wherein though your lordship hath been a waking censor, yet, you must look for no other now, but "medice, cura teipsum;" and although your lordship shall not be the blessed physician that cometh to the declination of the disease, yet, you embrace that condition which many noble spirits have accepted for advantage, which is, that you go upon the greater peril of your fortune, and the less of your reputation; and so the honour countervaileth the adventure; of which honour your lordship is in no small possession, when that her majesty, known to be one of the most judicious princes in discerning of spirits that ever governed, hath made choice of you merely out of her royal judgment, (her affection inclining rather to continue your attendance,) into whose hands and trust to put the commandment and conduct of so great forces, the gathering in the fruit of so great charge, the exeention of so many councils, the redeeming of the

the predatory war that hath the pre-eminence in honour; else should it be more honour to bring in a carrack of rich burden, than one of the twelve Spanish apostles. But then this nature of people doth yield a higher point of honour (considering in truth and substance) than any war can yield which should be achieved against a civil enemy, if the end may be "pacique imponere morem," to replant and refound the policy of that nation, to which nothing is wanting but a just and civil government. Which design, as it doth descend to you from your noble father, (who lost his life in that action, though he paid tribute to nature, and not to fortune,) so I hope your lordship shall be as fatal a captain to this war, as Africanus was to the war of Carthage, after that both his uncle and his father had lost their lives in Spain in the same war.

Now, although it be true, that these things which I have writ (being but representations unto your lordship of the honour and appearance of success and enterprise) be not much to the purpose of my direction, yet, it is that which is best to me, being no man of war, and ignorant in the particulars of state: for a man may by the eye set up the white right in the midst of the butt, though he be no archer. Therefore I will only add this wish, according to the English phrase, which termeth a well-wishing advice a wish, that your lordship in this whole action, looking forward, set down this position; that merit is worthier than fame; and looking back hither, would remember this text, that "obedience is better than sacrifice." For designing to fame and glory may make your lordship, in the adven



ture of your person, to be valiant as a private SIR FRANCIS BACON IN RECOMMENDATION OF soldier, rather than as a general; it may make you in your commandments rather to be gracious than disciplinary; it may make you press action, in the respect of the great expectation conceived, rather hastily than seasonably and safely; it may make you seek rather to achieve the war by force, than by mixture of practice; it may make you (if God shall send you prosperous beginnings) rather seek the fruition of the honour, than the perfection of the work in hand. And for your proceeding like a good Protestant, (upon warrant, and not upon good intention,) your lordship knoweth, in your wisdom, that as it is most fit for you to desire convenient liberty of instruction, so it is no less fit for you to observe the due limits of them, remembering that the exceeding of them may not only procure (in case of adverse accident) a dangerous disavow, but also (in case of prosperous success) be subject to interpretation, as if all was not referred to the right end. Thus I have presumed to write these few lines to your lordship, "in methodo ignorantiæ," which is, when a man speaketh of any subject not according to the parts of the matter, but according to the model of his own knowledge and most humbly desire your lordship, that the weak-your own: and herewithal, not to do so much disness thereof may be supplied in your lordship, by a benign acceptation, as it is in me by my best wishing.




As the time of sowing of seed is known, but the time of coming up and disclosing is casual, or according to the season; so I am a witness to myself, that there hath been covered in my mind a long time a seed of affection and zeal towards your lordship, sown by the estimation of your virtues, and your particular honours and favours, to my brother deceased, and to myself; which seed still springing, now bursteth forth into this profession. And, to be plain with your lordship, it is very true, and no winds or noises of civil matters can blow this out of my head or heart, that your great capacity and love towards studies and contemplations, of a higher and worthier nature than popular, a nature rare in the world, and in a person of your lordship's quality almost singular, is to me a great and chief motive to draw my affection and admiration towards you: and, therefore, good my lord, if I may be of any use to your lordship by my head, tongue, pen, means, or friends, I humbly pray you to hold me

advantage to my good mind, nor partly, to your own worth, as to conceive, that this commendation of my humble service produceth out of any straits of my occasions, but merely out of an election, and indeed, the fulness of my heart. And so, wishing your lordship all prosperity, I


SIR FRANCIS BACON TO MR. ROBERT KEMPE, UPON THE DEATH OF QUEEN ELIZABETH. No man can expound my doings better than MR. KEMPE, this alteration is so great, as you your lordship, which makes me need to say the less; only I humbly pray you to believe that I might justly conceive some coldness of my affecaspire to the conscience and commendation of tion towards you, if you should hear nothing from "bonus civis" and "bonus vir;" and that though me, I living in this place. It is in vain to tell I love some things better, I confess, that I love your you, with what a wonderful still and calm this lordship; yet, I love few persons better, both for wheel is turned round, which, whether it be a gratitude's sake, and for virtues, which cannot remnant of her felicity that is gone, or a fruit of hurt, but by accident. Of which my good affec- his reputation that is coming, I will not detertion it may please your lordship to assure your-mine; for, I cannot but divide myself, between Yet, we account it self, of all the true effects and offices that I can her memory and his name.


yield for as I was ever sorry your lordship but as a fair morn before sunrising, before his should fly with waxen wings, doubting Icarus's fortune; so, for the growing up of your own feathers, be they ostriches or other kind, no man shall be more glad; and this is the axle-tree, whereupon I have turned, and shall turn. Which having already signified unto you by some near means, having so fit a messenger for mine own letter, I thought good to redouble also by writing. And so I commend you to God's protection. From Gray's Inn, etc.

July 19, 1600.


majesty's presence; though, for my part, I see
not whence any weather should arise.
Papists are contained with fear enough, and hope
The French is thought to turn his
too much.
practice upon procuring some disturbance in
Scotland, where crowns may do wonders. But
this day is so welcome to the nation, and the time
so short, as I do not fear the effect. My Lord of
Southampton expecteth release by the next de-
spatch, and is already much visited, and much
well wished. There is continual posting, by
men of good quality towards the king, the rather,

I think, because this springtime it is but a kind | portunity can possibly minister or offer. And of sport. It is hoped, that as the state here hath that is, the causes of Ireland, if they be taken by performed the part of good attorneys, to deliver the king quiet possession of his kingdom; so the king will redeliver them quiet possession of their places, rather filling places void, than removing men placed.

So, etc.

the right handle: for if the wound be not ripped up again, and come to a festered sense, by new foreign succours, I think that no physician will go on much with letting blood in declinatione morbi," but will intend to purge and corroborate. To which purpose I send you mine opinion, without labour of words in the enclosed, and sure I that if you shall enter into the matter accord


SIR FRANCIS BACON TO MR. DAVID FOULES IN ing to the vivacity of your own spirit, nothing

can make unto you a more gainful return; for you shall make the queen's felicity complete, which now (as it is) is incomparable; and for SIR, the occasion awaketh in me the remembrance of the constant and mutual good offices yourself, you shall make yourself as good a pawhich passed between my good brother and triot as you are thought a politic, and to have no less generous ends than dexterous delivery of yourself; whereunto, as you know, I was not altogether a stranger, though the time and design yourself towards your ends; and as well to have (as between brethren) made me more reserved. true arts and grounds of government, as the faBut well do I bear in mind the great opinion cility and felicity of practice and negotiation; which my brother (whose judgment I much and to be as well seen in the periods and tides of reverence) would often express to me of the extra-estates, as in your own circle and way; than the ordinary sufficiency, dexterity, and temper, which which I suppose nothing can be a better addition he had found in you, in the business and service and accumulation of honour unto you. of the king our sovereign lord. This latter bred in me an election, as the former gave an inducement, for me to address myself to you, and to make this signification of my desire, towards a mutual entertainment of good affection and correspondence between us, hoping that some good effect may result of it, towards the king's service, and that for our particulars, though occasion give you the precedence, of furthering my being known by good note unto the king; so, no long time will intercede, before I, on my part, shall have some means given to requite your favours, and verify your commendation. And so, with my loving commendations, (good Mr. Foules,) I leave you SIR FRANCIS BACON TO THE LORD TREASURER,

to God's goodness.

From Gray's Inn, this 25th of March.





As one that wisheth you all increase of honour, and as one that cannot leave to love the state, what interest soever I have, or may come to have in it, and as one that now this dead vacation time have some leisure "ad aliud agendum," I will presume to propound unto you that which, though you cannot but see, yet I know not whether you apprehend and esteem it in so high a degree that is, for the best action of importation to yourself, of sound honour and merit to her majesty, and this crown, without ventosity or popularity, that the riches of any occasion, or the tide of any opVOL. III.-2

This, I hope, I may in privateness write, either as a kinsman, that may be bold, or as a scholar, that hath liberty of discourse, without committing of any absurdity. If not, I pray your honour to believe, I ever loved her majesty and the state, and now love yourself; and there is never any vehement love without some absurdity, as the Spaniard well saith, "desuario con la calentura." So, desiring your honour's pardon, I ever con

tinue, etc.




I was sorry to find by your lordship's speech yesterday, that my last speech in Parliament. delivered in discharge of my conscience, my duty to God, her majesty, and my country, was offensive: if it were misreported, I would be glad to attend your lordship, to disavow any thing I said not; if it were misconstrued, I would be glad to expound my words, to exclude any sense I meant not; if my heart be misjudged by imputation of popularity, or opposition, I have great wrong, and the greater, because the manner of my speech did most evidently show that I spake most simply, and only to satisfy my conscience, and not with any advantage or policy to sway the case, and my terms carried all signification of duty and zeal towards her majesty and her service. It is very true, that from the beginning, whatsoever was a double subsidy I did wish might for precedent's sake appear to be extraordinary, and for discontent's sake might not have been levied upon the poorer

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