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trained servants, born in his own house, Abram of the most high God, possessor of three hundred and eighteen, and pursued thein heaven and earth. unto · Dan.

20 And "blessed be the most high God, which 15 And he divided himself against them, he hath delivered thine enemies into thy hand. and his servants, by night, and a smote them, And he gave him tithes of all. and pursued them unto Hobah, which is on the 21 T And the king of Sodom said unto Abram, left hand of Damascus.

Give me the p persons, and take the goods to 16 And he brought back all the goods, and thyself. also brought again his brother Lot, and his 22 And Abram said to the king of Sodom, I goods, and the women also, and the people. have lift up mine hand unto the LORD, the most

17 And the king of Sodom went out to high God, 'the possessor of heaven and earth, meet him after his return from the slaughter 23 That "I will not take from a thread even of Chedorlaomer, and of the kings that were to a shoelatchet, and that I will not take any with him, at the valley of Shaveh, which is the thing that is thine, lest thou shouldest say, 1 king's dale.

have made Abram rich: 18 And Melchizedek king of Salem brought 24 Save only that which the young men have forth bread and wine: and he was the priest eaten, and the portion of the men · which went of the most high God.

with me, Aner, Eshcol, and Mamre; let them 19 And he blessed him, and said, Blessed be take their portion.

a Or, instrucied.- Ch. 15. 3 & 17. 12, 27. Eccles. 2. 7.- Dent. 31. 1. Judg. 18. 2.- Isai 112,3-eve. 11, 12-Judg. 11. 31. I Sam. 18 6.- Hebr. 7. 1-h2 Sam 13. 18.-i Hebr. 7. 1.-k Ps. 110. Hetx. 5. 6-1 Mic. 66. Acts 16, 17.

Ruth 3. 10. 2 Sam. 2. 5.-m Ver. 22 Matt. 11. 25.-n Ch. 24. 27.- Hebr. 7. 4. p Heb. souls-Exod. 6. 3. Dan. 12. 7. Rev. 10. 5, 6.-r Ver. 19. Ch. 21. 33.- So Esther 9. 15, 16.-t Ver. 13.

Heber, son of Salah, see ch. xi. 15.; but why he should of the true God, and the primitive patriarchal institutions : get a name from Heber, rather than from his own father, by these, the father of every family was both king and or some other of his progenitors, no person has yet been priest ; so Melchizedek, being a worshipper of the true able to discover. We may, therefore, safely conclude, that God, was priest among the people, as well as king over he bears the appellation of Hebrew or Aberite from the them. above circumstance, and not from one of his progenitors, Melchizedek is called here king of Salem, and the most of whom we know nothing but the name, and who pre-judicious interpreters allow that by Salem Jerusalem is ceded Abram not less than six generations; and during meant: that it bore this name anciently is evident from the whole of that time till the time marked here, none of Psal. lxxvi. 1, 2. "In Judah is God known; his name is his descendants were ever called Hebrews: this is a great in Israel. In SALEM also is his tabernacle, and his demonstration that Abram was not called the Ilebrex dwelling-place in Zion." From the use made of this from Heber; see ch. xi. 15–27.

part of the sacred history by David, Psal. cx. 4. and by These were confederate with Abram.] It seems that Saint Paul, Heb. vii. 1–10. we learn that there was some a kind of convention was made between Abram and the thing very mysterious, and at the same time typical, in three brothers, Mamre, Eshcol and Aner, who were the person, name, office, residence, and government of this probably all chieftains in the vicinity of Abram's dwelling; Cannanitish prince. !. In his person he was a represenall petty princes, similar to the nine kings before men tative and type of Christ; see the scriptures above referred tioned.

to. 2. His name, poi 1050 Malchi tsedek, signifies my Verse 14. He armed his trained servants) These righteous king, or king of righteousness: this name he amounted to three hundred and eighteen in number; and probably had from the pure and righteous administration how many were in the divisions of Mamre, Eslicol and of his government; and this is one of the characters of our Aner, we know not; but they and their men certainly blessed Lord, a character which can be applied to him only, accompanied him in this expedition ; see ver. 24. as he alone is essentially righteous, and the only poten

Verse 15. And he divided himself against them] It tate; but a holy man, such as Melchizedek, might bear this required both considerable courage and address in Abram name as his type or representative. 3. Office--He was a to lead him to attack the victorious armies of these four priest of the most high God-the word in kohen, which kings with so small a number of troops ; and on this occa- signifies both prince and priest, because the patriarchs sion both his skill and courage are exercised. His affection sustained this double office, has both its root and proper for Lot appears to have been his chief motive: He cheer- signification in the Arabic: wes kahana, signifies to fully risks his life for that nephew who had lately chosen approach, drau near, hare intimate access to—and from the best part of the land, and left his uncle to live as he hence, to officiate as priest before God, and thus have might, on what he did not think worthy his own accept intimate access to the divine presence: and by means of ance. But it is the property of a great and generous mind the sacrifices which he offered, he received counsel and not only to forgive, but to forget offences; and at all times information relative to what was yet to take place : and to repay evil with good.

hence another acceptation of the word, to foretel, prediet Verse 16. And brought back-the women also] This is future events, unfold hidden things, or mysteries ; 50 brought in by the sacred historian with peculiar interest | ihe lips of the priests preserved knowledge, and they were and tenderness. All who read the account must be in pain often the interpreters of the will of God to the people. for the fate of wives and daughters fallen into the hands Thus we find that Melchizedek, being a priest of the most of a ferocious, licentious, and victorious soldiery. Other high God, represented Christ in his sacerdotal character; spoils the routed confederates might have left behind, and the word priest being understood as before explained, 4. yel, on their swift asses, camels, and dromedaries, have His residence-He was king of Salem: 5w Shalam, carried off the female captives. However, Abram had signifies to make whole, complete, or perfect; and hence it disposed his attack so judiciously, and so promptly exe means peace, which implies the making whole, the breaches cuted his measures, that not only all the baggage, but all made in the political and domestic union of kingdoms, states, the females, also, were recovered.

families, &c. making an end of discord, and establishing Verse 17. The king of Sodom went out to meet him) friendship. Christ is called the Prince of Peace, because This could not have been Bera, mentioned ver. 2. for it by his incarnation, sacrifice, and mediation, he procures seems pretty evident, from ver. 10, that both he and Birsha, and establishes peace between God and man: heals the king of Gomorrah, were slain at the bitumen pits, in the breaches and diggentions between heaven and earth, reconvale of Siddim; but another person, in the mean time, ciling both-and produces glory to God in the highest; might have succeeded to the government.

and on carth peace and good-will among men. His resiVerse 18. And Melchizedek king of Salem) A thou- dence is peace and quietness, and assurance for ever, in sand idle stories have been told about this man: and a every believing upright heart. He governs as the Prince thousand idle conjectures spent on the subject of his short and Priest of the most high God; ruling in righteousness, history given here, and in Heb. vii. At present, it is mighty to save: and he ever lives to make intercession only necessary to state that he appears to have been as for, and save to the atter most, all who come umto the real a personage as Bera, Birsha, or Shinab, though we Father by Him. See on Heb. vii. have no more of his genealogy than we have of theirs. Verse 19. And he blessed him] This was a part of the

Brought forth bread and wine) Certainly to refresh priest's office, to bless in the name of the Lord, for ever ; Abram and his men, exhausted with the late battle and see the form of this blessing, Numb. vi. 23–26. and for fatigues of the journey-not in the way of sacrifice, &c.: the meaning of the word to bless, see Gen. ii. 3. this is an idle conjecture.

Verse 20, And he, Abram, gave him, Melchizedek, He was the priest of the most high God.) He had pre- tithes, a tenth part, of all the

spoils he had taken from the served in his family and among his subjects the worship confederate kings.' These Abram gave as a tribute to the VOL. I.-10

73

CHAPTER XV.

Fear not, Abram, I am thy shield, and thy

exceeding great reward. God appears to Abram in a vision, and gives him great encouragement, 1. Abram's requent and complaint, 2, 3. God promises him a son, ti and an exceedingly 2 And Abram said, Lord God, what wilt thou him for righteousness, C. Schovan proclaims himself, and smells the promise to give me, seeing I go childless, and the steward Canaan to his posterity, 7. Abrain requires a sign of its fulfilnent, 5. Jehovah of my house is this Eliezer of Damascus? directs him to otter a sacrifice of fire dittcrent animals, 9. Which be acconiingly does, 10, 11, God reveals to hin the atflıction of his posterity in Egypt, and the 3 And Abram said, Behold, to me thou hast duration of that affliction, 12, 13. Promises to bring them back to the land of Canaan with great alituence, 14-16. Renews the covenant with Abraha, and given no seed: and lo, 'one born in my house is mentions the possessions which should be given to his posterily, 18-21.

mine heir.

4 | And, behold the word of the LORD came came unto Abram ajn a vision, saying, unto him, saying, This shall not be thine heir ;

c Pre. 3.3. & 5. 12 & 64. 11. & 91. 4. & 119. 114- Ps 16. 5. & 58. II. Prov. 11. 18 a Dan. 10. 1. Acts 10. 10, 11.- Ch. 26. 24. Dan. 10. 12. Luke 1. 13, 30.

e Acts 7. 5. Ch. 14. 14.

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most high God; who, being the possessor of heaven and conscientious—it was to repel aggression, and to rescue carth, dispenses all spiritual and temporal favours; and the innocent from the heaviest of sufferings and the worst demands the gratitude, and submissive, loving obedience of slavery; not for the purpose of plunder, nor the extenof all his subjects. Almost all nations of the earth have sion of his territories: therefore he takes no spoils, and agreed in giving a tenth part of their property to be em returns peaceably to his own possessions. How happy ployed in religious uses. The tithes were afterward would the world be, were every sovereign actuated by the granted to the Levites for the use of their sanctuary, and same spirit! 7. We have already noticed the appearance, the maintenance of themselves and their families, as they person, office, &c. of Melchizedek; and, without indulghad no other inlieritance in Israel.

ing in the wild theories of either ancient or modern Verse 22. I have lift up mine hand] The primitive mode visionaries, have considered him as the Scriptures do, a of appealing to God, and calling him to witness a particular type of Christ; all that has been already spoken on this transaction: this, no doubt, generally obtained among the head may be recapitulated in a few words :-1. The Refaithful, till circumcision, the sign of the covenant, was deemer of the world is the king of righteousness, he established; after this, in swearing, the hand was placed creates it, maintains it, and rules by it. 2. His empire is on the circumcised part; see chap. xxiv. 2. and 9. the empire of peace, this he proclaims to them who are Verse 23. From a thread even to a shoe-latchet) This afar off

, and to them that are nigh; to the Jew and to the was certainly a proverbial mode of expression, the full Gentile. 3. He is Priest of the most high God, and has meaning of which is perhaps not known. Among the laid down his life for the sin of the world; and through rabbinical writers win chut or on chuti, signifies a fillet this sacrifice, the blessing of God is derived on them that worn by young women, to tie up their hair; taken in this believe. Reader, take him for thy king as well as thy sense it will give a good meaning here. As Abram had pricst: he saves those only who submit to his authority, rescued both the men and women

carried off by the con and take his Spirit for the regulator of their heart, and federate kings; and the king of Sodom had offered him all his word for the director of their conduct. How many do the goods, claiming only the persons ; he answers, by we find among those who would be sorry to be rated so protesting against the reception of any of their property: low as to rank only with nominal Christians, talking of "I have vowed unto the Lord, the proprietor of heaven and Christ as their prophet priest, and king; who are not earth, that I will not receive the smallest portion of the taught by his word and Spirit; who apply not for redemp. property either of the women or men, from a girl's fillet tion in his blood ; and who submit not to his authority! to a man's shoe-tie."

Reader learn this deep and important truth, Where I Verse 24. Save only that which the young men have am, there also shall my servant be; and he that serveth eaten] His own servants had partaken of the pictuals me, him shall my Father honour." which the confederate kings had carried away, see ver. 11.

NOTES ON CHAPTER XV. This was unavoidable, and this is all he claims; but as he Verse 1. The word of the Lord came unto Abram] had no right to prescribe the same liberal conduct to his This is the first place where God is represented as revealing assistants, Aner, Eshcol, and Mamre, he left them to claim himself by his word. Some learned men suppose that the the shure that, by right of conquest, belonged to them of y ng Debar Yehovah, translated here word of the Lord, the recaptured booty. Whether they were as generous as means the same with the soges Tou Ougu of St. John, chap. Abram, we are not told.

i. ver. 1. and by the Chaldee paraphrases in the next clause, The great variety of striking incidents in this chapter called 900 memree, my word, and in other places, pid the attentive reader has already carefully noted. To reud, 17 memra dayai, the word of Jehovah, which they and not understand, is the property of the fool and the appear always to consider as a person, and which they disinconsiderate. 1. We have already seen the danger to tinguish from Ndino pilhgama, which signifies merely a which Lot exposed himself in preferring a fertile region, word spoken, or any part of speech. There have been though peopled with the workers of iniquity. His sor various conjectures concerning the manner in which God rows commenced in the captivity of himself and family, revealed his will not only to the patriarchs, but also to the and the loss of all his property; though, by the good phrophets, evangelists, and apostles. It seems to have providence of God, he and they were rescued. 2. Long been done in different ways. 1. By a personal appearance observation has proved, that the company a man keeps, is of Him who was afterward incarnated for the salvation of not an indifferent thing—it will either be the means of his mankind. 2. By an audible voice, sometimes accompanied salvation or destruction. 3. A generous man cannot be with emblematical appearances. 3. By visions, which contented with mere personal safety, while others are in took place either in the night, in ordinary sleep, or when danger; nor with his own prosperity while others are in the persons were cast into a temporary trance, by daylight, distress

. Abram, hearing of the captivity of his nephew, or when about their ordinary business. 4. By the ministry determines to attempt his rescue, puts himself at the head of angels, appearing in human bodies, and performing of his own servants, three hundred and eighteen in number, certain miracles to accredit their mission. 5. By the and the few assistants with which his neighbours, Mamre, powerful agency of the Spirit of God upon the mind, Aner, and Eshcol, could furnish him, trusting in God and giving it a strong conception, and supernatural persuasion the goodness of his cause, he marches off to attack four of the truth of the things perceived by the understanding. confederate kings! 4. Though it is not very likely that we shall see all these exemplified in the course of the the armies of those petty kings could have amounted to work. It was probably in the third sense that the revelamany thousands, yet they were numerous enough to tion in the text was given, for it is said, God appeared to subdue almost the whole land of Canaan, and consequently, Abram in a vision, inn mechazeh, from ain chazah, he humanly speaking, Abram must know that by numbers he saw; or according to others, to fir, fasten, settle; hence could not prevail; and that in this case particularly the chozeh, a seer, the person who sees divine things ; to battle was the Lord's. 5. While depending on the divine whom alone they are revealed, on whose mind they are blessing and succour, he knew he must use the means he fastened, and in whose memory and judgment they are had in his power, he therefore divided his troops skilfully, fixed and settled. Hence the vision, what was mentally that he might attack the enemy at different points at the perceived, and by the evidence to the soul of its divine same time, and he chooses the night season to commence origin, fired and settled in the mind. his attack, that the smallness of his force might not be Fear not] The late Dr. Dodd has a good thought on discovered. God requires a man to use all the faculties this passage : "I would read,” says he, " the second verse he has given him, in every lawful enterprise; and only in in a parenthesis, thus, For Abram had said, Lord God, the conscientious use of them, can he expect the divine whai wilt thou give me, seeing I go childless, &c. Abram blessing: when this is done, the event may be safely had said this in the fear of his heart, upon which the trusted in the hands of God. 6. Here is a war under- Lord vouchsafed to him this prophetical view, and this taken by Abram on motives the most honourable and strong renovation of the covenant. 'In this light all follows

NO.

But he that shall come forth out of thine own s brought thee out of. Ur of the Chaldees, i to bowels shall be thine heir.

give thee this land to inherit it. 5 And he brought him forth abroad, and said, 8 And he said, LORD God, whereby shall I look now toward heaven, and to tell the stars, know that I shall inherit it? if thou be able to number them: and he said unto 9 And he said unto him, 'Take me a heifer of him, à So shall thy seed be.

three years old, and a she-goat of three years 61 And he believed in the LORD; and he old, and a ram of three years old, and a turtlef counted it to him for righteousness.

dove, and a young pigeon. 7 1 And he said unto him, I am the Lord that 10 And he took unto him all these, and * 2 Sam. 7. 12. & 16. 11. 2 Chron. 32. 21.-b Psa. 147. 4. Jer. 33. 22-d Ch. 22. & Ch. 12. 1.-h Ch. 11. 23, 31.-i Pau, 105 42, 14. Rom. 4. 13.-k See Ch. 24. 13, 17. Exd 32 13. Deut. 1. 10 & 10. 22. I Chron. 27. 2. Rom. 4. 18. Hebr. 11. 12. 11. Jujg. 6. 17, 37. 1 San H. 9,10. 2 kings 20. & Luke l. 18-1 Lev. 1. 3, 10, 14. See Ch 13. 18-e Rom. 4. 3,9, 22. Gal. 3. 6. Janca 2. 2.- Psa. 105. 31.

& 12 8. & 14. 22, 30. Luke 11. 21. Ibai. 15. 3 very properly. Abram had said so and so in ver. 2. upon Verse 6. And he believed in the Lord, and he counted which God appears, and says, I am thy shield, and thy it to him for righteousness.] This I conceive to be one of exceeding great reward. The patriarch then, ver. 3. freely the most important passages in the whole Old Testament. It opens the anxious apprehension of his heart : behold, to properly contains and specifies that doctrine of justification me thou hast yet giren no seed, &c. upon which God pro- by faith, which engrosses so considerable a share of the ceeds to assure him of posterity."

epistles of St. Paul, and at the foundation of which is the I am thy shield, &c.] Can it be supposed that Abram atonement made by the Son of God. And he, Abram, understood these words as promising him temporal advan- believed (IDNO he-emin, he put faith) in Jehovah, s navn tages at all corresponding to the magnificence of these vaiyachshebeah 10, and he counted it, the faith' he put in promises? If he did, he was disappointed through the Jehovah, for righteousness, aprs tsedakah, or justification, whole course of his life ; for he never enjoyed such a state though there was no act in the case, but that of the mind of prosperity, as could justify the strong language in the and heart; no work of any kind. Hence the doctrine of text. Shall we lose sight of Abram, and say that his pos- justification by faith, without any merit of works ; for, terity was intended, and Abram understood the promises as in this case, there could be none-no works of Abram relating to them, and not to himself, or immediately to his which could merit the salvation of the whole human race. own family? then the question recurs, Did the Israelites It was the promise of God which he credited, and in the ever enjoy such a state of temporal affluence as seems to the blessedness of which he became a partaker through be intended by the above promise? To this every man

faith. See at the close of the chapter ; see also on acquainted with their history, will, without hesitation, say Rom. iv.

What then is intended ? just what the words staté. Verse 7. Ur of the Chaldees] See on chap. xi. God was Abram's portion, and the portion of every Verse 8. And he said, Lord God) mm N Adonai righteous soul; for to Abram, and the children of his Yehovah, my Lord Jehovah : Adonai is the word which faith, he gives not a portion in this life. Nothing, says the Jews in reading always substitute for Jehovah, as they Father Calmet, proves more invincibly the immortality of count it impious to pronounce this name. Adonai signithe soul, the truth of religion, and the eternity of another fies my director, basis, supporter, prop, or stay; and life, than to see that in this life the righteous seldom receive scarcely a more appropriate name can be given to that God the reward of their virtue, and that in temporal things, who is the framer and director of every righteous word they are often less happy than the workers of iniquity. and action; the basis or foundation on which every

I am, says the Almighty, thy shield, thy constant cover rational hope rests; the supporter of the souls and bodies ing and protector, and thy exceeding great reward, 7937 of men, as well as of the universe in general; the prop TRD 21 Shekar-ca harebbeh meod, that superlatively and slay of the weak and fainting, and the buttress that multiplied reward of thine." It is not the Canaan I pro- shores up the building, which otherwise must necessarily mise, but the saltation that is to come through the promised fall. This word often occurs in the Hebrew Bible, and is Seed. Hence it was that Abram rejoiced to see his day. rendered in our translation Lord; the same term by which And hence the Chaldee Targum translates this place, My the word Jehovah is expressed. But to distinguish beWORD shall be thy strength, &c.

tween the two, and to show the reader when the original Verse 2. And the steward of my house] Abram under is 71 Yehovah, and when i Adonai, the first is always standing the promise as relating to that person who was put in capitals, LORD, the latter in plain Roman charac10 spring from his family, in whom all the nations of the ters, Lord. For the word Jehovah, see on chap. ii. 4. and earth should be blessed, expresses his surprise that there on Exodus xxxiv. 6. should be such a promise, and yet he is about to die child Whereby shall I know) By what sign shall I bo less! How then can the promise be fulfilled, when, far

assured that I shall inherit this land ? For it appear that from a spiritual seed, he has not even a person in his he expected some sign, and that on such occasions, one was family that has a natural right to his property; and that a ordinarily given. stranger is likely to be his heir! This seems to be the Verse 9. Take me a heifer] mbay êgelah, a she-calf : general sense of the passage, but who this steward of his a she-goat ; rp êz, a goat, male or female, but distinguished house, this Eliezer of Damascus is, commentators are not here by the femenine adjective, robup meshullesheth, a agreed. The translation of the Septuagint is at least curious, three-yearling; a ram, 5w ayil; a turtle-dove, an tor, osovios Marix 195 progorous usu,.curos. Axuxoros Enro: from which come turtur, and turtle; young pigeon, Sna The son of Masek my handmaid, this Eliezer of Da- gozal, a word which signifies the young both of pigeons mascus, is my heir; which intimates, that they supposed and eagles. See Deut. xxxii. 11. It is worthy of remark, pod meshek, which we translate steward, to have been the that every animal allowed or commanded to be sacrificed name of a female slave in the family of Abram, of whom under the Mosaic law, is to be found in this list. And is it was born this Eliezer, who, on account either of the coun not a proof that God was now giving to Abram an epitome try of his father' or mother, was called a Damascene, or of that law and its sacrifices, which he intended more one of Damascus. It is extremely probable, that our Lord fully to reveal to Moses; the essence of which consisted has this passage in view in his parable of the rich man and in its sacrifices, which typified the Lamb of God that takes Lazarus, Lake xvi. 19. From the name Eliezer, by leav- away the sin of the world. ing out the first letter, Liazer is formed, which makes On the several animals which God ordered Abram to Lazarus in the New Testament; the person who, from an take, Jarchi remarks: -“The idolatrous nations are comabject and distressed state, was raised to lie in the bosom pared in the Scriptures to bulls, rams, and goats, for it is of Abram in paradise.

written Psal. xxii. 13. Many bulls have compassed me Verse 5. Look nowo toward the heavens) It appears about. Dan. viii. 20. The ram which thou hast seen is that this whole transaction took place in the evening. See the king of Persia. Ver. 21. The rough Goat is the on chap. xiii. 14. and Abram hád either two visions, that king of Greece. But the Israelites are compared to doves, recorded in ver. 1. and that in ver. 12, &c. or what is men- &c. Cant. ii. 14. O my dove, that art in the cleft of the tioned in the beginning of this chapter is a part of the rock. The division of the above carcasses denotes the occurrences which took place after the sacrifice mentioned, division and extermination of the idolatrous nations : but ver. 9, &c. But it is more likely that there was a vision of the birds not being, divided, shows that the Israelites are that kind already described, and afterward a second, in to abide for ever. See Jarchi on the place. which he received the revelation mentioned in ver. 13-16.

Verse io. Divided them in the midst] The ancient After the first vision, he is brought forth abroad, to see method of making covenants, as well as the original if he can number the stars; and as he finds this impossible, word, have been already alluded to, and, in a general way, he is assured that as they are to him innumerable, so shall explained. See chap. vi. 18. The word covenant from his posterity be; and that all should spring from one who con, together, and venio, I come, signifies an agreement, should proceed from his own bowels, one who should be association, or meeting between iwo or more parties ; for bis own legitimate child.

it is impossible that a covenant can be made between an

* divided them in the midst, and laid each piece 15 And & thou shalt go ► to thy fathers in one against another: but the birds divided he not. peace,

i thou shalt be buried in a good old 11 And when the fowls came down upon the age. carcasses, Abram drove them away.

16 But k in the fourth generation they shall 12 | And when the sun was going down, ba come hither again: for the iniquity lof the deep sleep fell upon Abram; and, lo, a horror Amorites" is not yet full. of great darkness fell upon him.

17 And it came to pass, that, when the sun 13 And he said unto Abram, Know of a surety went down, and it was dark, behold a smoking that thy seed shall be a stranger in a land that furnace, and a burning lamp that passed is not theirs, and shall serve them; and d they between those pieces. shall afflict them four hundred years;

18 In the same day the Lord P made a cove14 And also that nation, whom they shall nant with Abram, saying, 9 Unto thy seed have serve, will I judge: and afterward,' shall they I given this land, from the river of Egypt unto come out with great substance.

the great river, the river - Euphrates:

a Jer. 34. 18, 19. Lev. 1. 17.-- Gen. 2. 21. Joh 4. 13.-c Exod. 12. 40. Psa. 105. 23. Acta 7. 6.- Exol. 1. 11. Pea. 105. 25... Exod. 6. 6. Deut. 6. 22.Exod. 12. 36. Psa. 105. 37. --- Job. 5. 26.-- Acts 13.36.--I Ch. 25.8.-k Exod. 12 40.-11 Kings 21.2. ----In Dan. 8. 2. Mate 23 32 1 Thess. 2. 16.

n Heb. a lamp of fire--- Jer. 34. 18, 19.----p Ch. 24. 7.--- Ch. 12. 2 & 13. 15.
26. 4. Exod. 231. Nurnb. 343. Deut. 1. 7. & 11. 24. & 34. 1. Josh. 1. 4. 1 Kings 4.
21. 2 Chron. 9. 26. Neh. 9.8. Psa. 105. 11. Jsi. 27. 12. -- Ch.2 14. 2 Sam. &
3.1 Chron. 5. 9.

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way, that his

individual and himself, whether God or man; this is a shall at this time smite this hog: and smite ihem with a
theologic absurdity into which many have run: there severity, proportioned to the greatness of thy power and
must be at least two parties to contract with each other. might!!!
And often there was a third party, to meditate the agree But the birds divided he not.] According to the law,
ment, and to witness it when made. Rabbi Solomon Lev. i. 17. fowls were not to be divided asunder, but only
Jarchi says,

“That it was a custom with those who cloven, for the purpose of taking out the intestines.
entered into covenant with each other, to take a heifer, Verse 11. And when the fouls] Hiyo hay-âyit, birds of
and cut it in two, and then the contracting parties passed prey, came down upon the carcasses, to devour them;
between the pieces. See this, and the scriptures to Abram, who stood by his sacrifice waiting for the mani-
which it refers, particularly explained, chap. vi. 18. A festation of God, who had ordered him to prepare for the
covenant always supposed one of these four things, 1. ratification of the covenant, drove them away, that they
That the contracting parties had been hitherto unknoton might neither pollute nor derour what had been thus con-
to each other, and were brought by the covenant into a secrated to God.
state of acquaintance. 2. That they had been previously Verse 12. A deep sleep] -pyn tardemah, the same
in a state of hostility or enmity, and were brought by the word which is used to express the sleep into which Adam
covenant into a state of pacification and friendship. 3. was cast, previous to the creation of Eve. Chap. ii. 21.
Or that being known to each other, they now agree to A horror of great darkness] Which God designed to be
unite their counsels, strength, property, &c. for the accom-expressive of the affliction and misery into which his pog-
plishment of a particular purpose, mutually subservient terity should be brought, during the four hundred years
to the interests of both. Or, 4. It implies an agreement of their bondage in Egypt; as the next verse particularly
to succour and defend a third party, in cases of oppression states.
and distress. For whatever purpose a covenant was Verse 13. Four hundred years.] Which began, says
made, it was ever ratified by a sacrifice offered to God; Mr. Ainsworth, when Ishmael son of Hagar mocked and
and the passing between the divided parts of the victim persecuted Isaac, Gen. xxi. 9. Gal. iv. 29. which fell out
appears to have signified, that each agreed, if they broke thirty years after the promise : Gen. xii. 3. which promise
their engagements, to submit to the punishment of being was four hundred and thirty years before the law, Gal.
cut asunder ; which we find from Matt

. xxiv. 51. Luke iii. i7.; and four hundred and thirty years after that xii. 46. was an ancient mode of punishment. This is promise came Israel out of Egypt, Exod. xii. 41. On this further confirmed by Herodotus, who says, that Sabacus, latter passage, see the note. King of Ethiopia, had a vision in which he was ordered, Verse 14." And also that nation, &c.] How remarkably pessous do*Tipev, to cut in tro, all the Egyptian priests, was this promise fulfilled, in the redemption of Israel Lib. ii. We find also from the same author, Lib. vii. that from its bondage, in the plagues and destruction of the Xerxes ordere one of the song of Pythius, usoov &osts pesav, Egyptians, and in the immense wealth which the Israelites to be cut in two, and one half to be placed on each side of brought out of Egypt! Not a more circumstantial, or the

army might pass through between them. literally fulfilled promise, is to be found in the Sacred That this kind of punishment was used among the Per- Writings. sians, we have proof from Dan. ii. 5. iii. 29. Story of Verse 15. Thou shalt go to thy fathers in peace) This Susanna, ver. 55, 59. See further, 2 Sam. xii. 31. and i verse strongly implies the immortality of the soul, and a Chron. xx. 3. These authorities may be sufficient to state of separate existence. He was gathered to his show that the passing between the parts of the divided fathers, introduced into the place where separate spirits are victims, signified the punishment to which those exposed kept, waiting for the general resurrection. Two things themselves who broke their covenant engagements. And seem to be distinctly marked here. 1. The soul of Abram that covenant sacrifices were thus divided, even from the should be introduced among the assembly of the first-born; remotest antiquity, we learn from Homer, II. A. v. 460. Thou shalt go to thy fathers in peace. 2. His body, Μηρους τ’ εξεταμον, κατά τα κνισση εκαλυψαν,

should be buried after a long life, one hundred and Διπτυχα ποιησαντες, επ' αυτων δ' αμοθετησαν.

serenty-five years, chap. xxv. 7. The body was buried"They cut the quarters, and cover them with the fat : tho soul went to the spiritual world, to dwell among the dividing them into two, they place the raw flesh upon fathers, the patriarchs, who had lived and died in the them."

So this place has been understood ; but query? Lord. "See the note on chap. xxv. 8. St. Cyril, in his work against Julian, shows, that Verse 16. In the fourth generation] In former times, passing between the divided parts of a victim was used most ancient people counted by generations, to each of also among the Chaldeans and other people. As the which was assigned a term of years sometimes amounting sacrifice was required to make an atonement to God, so to 20, 25, 30, 33, 100, 108, and 110; for the generation the death of the animal was necessary to signify to the was of various lengths among various people, at different contracting parties the punishment to which they exposed times. It is probable that the fourth generation here, themselves, should they prove unfaithful.

means the same as the four hundred years in the precedLivy preserves the form of the imprecation used on ing verse. Some think it refers to the time when Éliezar such occasions, in the account he gives of the league made the son of Aaron, the son of Amran, the son of Kohath, between the Romans and Albans. When the Romans came out of Egypt, and divided the land of Canaan to were about to enter into some solemn league or covenant, Israel, Josh. xiv. 1. others think the fourth generation of they sacrificed a hog, and, on the above occasion, the the Amorites is intended : because it is immediately added, priest, or pater patratus, before he slew the animal, stood, the iniquity of the Amorites is not yet full ; but in the and thus invoked Jupiter-Audi, Jupiter-Si prior fourth generation they should be expelled, and the descenddefecerit publico consilio dolo malo, tum illo dák, Diespi- ants of Abram established in their place. From these ter, populum Romanum sic ferito, ut ego hunc porcum words we learn, that there is a certain pitch of iniquity to hic hodie feriam: tantoque majus ferito quanto majus which nations may arrive before they are destroyed; and potes pollesde! Livii Hist. Lib. i. Decad. 1. chap. 24. beyond which divine justice does not permit them to pass. Hear, 0 Jupiter-should the Romans in public counsel, Verse 17. Smoking furnace, and burning, lamp] through any evil device, first transgress these laws, in that Probably the smoking furnace might be designed as an game day, 0 Jupiter, thou smite the Roman people, as i emblem of the sore affictions of the Israelites in Egypt;

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19 The Kenites, and the Kenizzites, and maid; it may be that I may obtain children by the Kadmonites,

her. And Abram 'hearkened to the voice of 20 And the Hittites, and the Perizzites, and Sarai. the Rephaims,

3 And Sarai, Abram's wife, took Hagar her 21 And the 'Amorites, and the Canaanites, maid, the Egyptian, after Abram m had dwelt and Girgashites, and the Jebusites.

ten years in the land of Canaan, and gave her CHAPTER XVI.

to her husband Abram, to be his wife.

4 | And he went in unto Hagar, and she Sarai having no chikl, gives Hagar, her mail, to Abram for wisc, 1–3 She con conceived: and when she saw that she had

Abaran veulicsex nimel, apillagar being harully used by the mistres, runs away; conceived, her mistress was " despised in her promises greatly to multiply her seed, 10. Gives the name of Ishmael to the child eyes. that she be born of her, il. Shows his disposition and character, 12 Hagar

5 And Sarai said unto Abram, My wrong be calls the name of the Looni who spake to her, Thou God weest me, 13. She calls the name of the well at which the angel met her, Beer-latni-toi, id." Ishmael is upon thee: I have given my maid into thy born in the Sith year of Abram's age, 15, 16,

bosom; and when she saw that she had conW Sarai, Abram's wife, d bare ceived, I was despised in her eyes: the LORD B. C. 1912 handmaid, an Egyptian, whose name was 6 p But Abram said unto Sarai, 9 Be- A M. 2093 " Hagar.

hold, thy maid is in thy hand; do to her 2 & And Sarai said unto Abram, be- as it pleaseth thee. And when Sarai dealt B. C 1911

hold now, the Lord bhath restrained me hardly with her, she fled from her face. from bearing; I pray thee, go in unto my 7 | And the angel of the LORD found her by

A M. 2092

AM 2

a Nom 21. 91, 22-5 Ch. 14. 5 lei17. 5.-c Ch. 10. 15-19. Exod. 23. 23-2 & 33 2 & 34. II.' Deal 7.1 Ch. 15. 28-e Ch 21.9.- Gal. 4. 21.-& Ch. 30. 3.- Ch.2. 18. & 30.2 1 San I. 5, 6.-1 So Ch. 30. 3, 9.--k Heb. be builded by

her --- Ch. 3. 17.---m Ch. 12. 5.-n 2 Sam. 6. 16. Proy. 30. 21, 3.-o Ch. 31. 53. 1 Sam 24. 12.-p Prov. 15. 1. 1 Pet. 3. 7.-9 Job 2 6. Px106. 41, 12 Jer. 38. 5. r Heb. that which is good in thine eyes.-s Heb. afflicted her.- Exod. 2 15.

covenant.

but the burning lamp was certainly the symbol of the lions of men built on this foundation, has sufficiently dipine presence, which, passing between the pieces, attested the truth and solidity of the ground on which it ralified the covenant with Abram, as the following verse was builded. immediately states.

3. The foundation of the doctrine itself is laid in the Verse 18. The Lord made a covenant] nad mo karath covenant made between God and Abram, in behalf of all berith, signifies to cut a covenant, or rather the covenant the families of the earth; and this covenant is ratified by sacrifice, for as no covenant was made without one, and a sacrifice. By this covenant, man is bound to God; and the creature was cut in two that the contracting parties God graciously binds himself to man. As this covenant might pass between the pieces, hence cutting the covenant referred to the incarnation of Christ, and Abram, both as eignified, making the covenant. The same form of speech to himself and posterity, were to partake of the benefits of obtained among the Romans; and because, in making it by faith ; hence faith, not works, is the only condition their covenants, they always slew an animal, either by on which God, through Christ, forgives sins, and brings cutting its throat or knocking it down with a stone or to the promised spiritual inheritance. This covenant still axe, after which they dirided the parts as we have already stands open; all the successive generations of men are seen, hence among them percutere fædus, to smite á parties on the one side, and Jesus is at once the sacrifice covenant; and scindere fædus to cleave a covenant, were and mediator of it. As therefore the covenant still stands terms, which signified simply to make or enter into a open, and Jesus is still the Lamb slain before the throne,

every human soul must ratify the covenant for himsell; From the river of Egypt] Not the Nile, but the river and no man does so, but he who, conscious of his guilt, called Sichor, which was before, or on the border, of accepts the sacrifice which God has provided for him. Egypt, near to the isthmus of Suez, see Josh. xiii. 3. Reader, hast thou done so ? And, with a heart unto rightthough some think that, by this, a branch of the Nile is cousness, dost thou continue to believe on the Son of God? meant. This promise was fully accomplished in the days How merciful is God, who has found out such a way of of David and Solomon ; see 2 Sam. vii. 3, &c. 2 Chron. salvation, by providing a Saviour every way suitable to ix. 26.

serable, fallen, sinful man! One who is holy, harmless, Verse 19. The Kenites, &c.] Here are ten nations undefiled, and separate from sinners; and who, being mentioned, though afterward reckoned but seven ; see higher than the heavens, raises up his faithful followers to Deut. vii. I. Acts. xiii. 19. Propably some of them which the throne of his own eternal glory! Reader, give God existed in Abram's time, had been blended with others the praise, and avail thyself of the sin-offering which before the time of Moses, so that seven only out of the ten lieth at the door. then remained ; see part of these noticed, Gen. x.

NOTES ON CHAPTER XVI.

Verse 1. She had an handmaid, an Egyptian] As In this chapter there are three subjects which must be Hagar was an Egyptian, St. Chrysostom's conjecture is particularly interesting to the pious reader. 1. The con- very probable, that she was one of those female slaves descension of God in revealing himself to mankind in a whích Pharaoh gave to Abram when he sojourned in variety of ways, so as to render it absolutely evident that Egypt; see chap. xii. 16. Her name, wo hagar, signifies he had spoken, that he loved mankind, and that he had a stranger or sojourner; and it is likely she got this made every provision for their eternal welfare. So une name in the family of Abram; as the word is pure Hequivocal were the discoveries which God made of himself, brew. that on the minds of those to whom they were made, not Verse 2. Go in unto my maid] It must not be forgotten, one doubt was left, relative either to the truth of the sub- that female slaves constituted a part of the private patriject, or that it was God himself who made the discovery. mony or possessions of a wife; and that she had a right, The subject of the discovery also was such as sufficiently according to the usages of those times, to dispose of them attested its truth to all future generations, for it concerned as she pleased, the husband having no authority in the matters yet in futurity, so distinctly marked, so positively case. promised, and so highly interesting, as to make them ob I may obtain children by her] The slave, being the jects of attention, memory, and desire, till they did come; absolute property of the mistress, not only her person, but and of gralitude, because of the permanent blessedness the fruits of her labour, with all her children, were her they communicated, through all generations, after the owner's property also. The children, therefore, which facts had taken place.

were born of the slave, were considered as the children of 2. The way of salvation by faith in the promised the mistress. It was on this ground that Sarai gave her Saviour, which now began to be explicitly declared. God slave to Abram; and we find, what must necessarily be gives the promise of salvation, and by means in which it the consequence in all cases of polygamy, that strifes and was impossible, humanly speaking, the it should take contentions took place. place. Teaching us, 1. That the whole work was spirit Verse 5. My wrong be upon thee) This appears to be ual, supernatural and divine; and, 2. That no human intended as a reproof to Abram, containing an insinuation, power could suffice to produce it. This Abram believed that it was his fault that she herself had not been a mother; while he was yet uncircumcised, and this faith was ac- and that now he carried himself more affectionately tocounted to him for righteousness, or justification, Godward Hagar than he did to her, in consequence of which thereby teaching, that he would pardon, accept, and re- conduct the slave became petulant. To remove all susceive into favour all who should believe on the Lord Jesus picion of this kind, Abram delivers up Hagar into her Christ. And this very case has ever since been the stand-hand, who was certainly under his protection, while his ard of justification by faith ; and the experience of mil. I concubine or secondary wife; but this right given to him

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