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splendid foliage of the Anacardium caracoli, a tree of abounding in Balm of Tolu trees, Gustaviæ, the a colossal size, to which the natives attribute the Aowers of the Nympheæ, and in Cavanillesia mocundo, property of attracting, from a distance, the vapours whose membranous and transparent fruit resembled which are distributed through the air.
lanterns suspended at the ends of the branches. The country about Turbaco being clevated nearly The ground gradually rose to the height of 140 or a thousand feet above the level of the sea, the inha- 160 feet above the level of the village of Turbaco, bitants enjoy a most delightful freshness in the air, but the soil being every where covered with vegetaespecially during the night. We had rested in this tion, we could not ascertain the nature of the rocks beautiful spot, when, after a wearisome journey from that were placed above the shell-bearing limestone. the Island of Cuba to Carthagena, we were preparing The Engraving represents the most southern part of ourselves for a long voyage to Santa-Fé de Bogotá, the plain, where these volcanitos are found. and to the plain of Quito.
In the centre of a vast plain, fringed with Bromelia The Indians of Turbaco, who accompanied us karatas, eighteen or twenty little cones are raised, of in our botanizing excursions, spoke of a marshy the height of not more than thirty-five feet. These country, situated in the midst of a forest of palm- cones are formed of a darkish-gray clay, and on their trees, and called by the Creoles the Little Volcanoes, summit is found an opening filled with water. In los Volcanitos. They related that, according to a approaching these little craters, a dull but tolerably tradition preserved among them, this spot had for- loud sound is heard, which precedes, by about fifteen merly been on fire, but that a religious man, the or eighteen seconds, the expulsion of a great quancurate of the village, and famed for his great piety, tity of air. The force with which this air is propelled succeeded, by frequent sprinklings of holy water, in above the surface of the water, makes it probable extinguishing this subterranean flame. They added, that it undergoes a heavy pressure in the bowels of that since that time this fire-volcano had become a the earth ; I counted generally five explosions in two water-volcano, Volcan de agua.
minutes. This phenomenon is frequently accomHaving dwelt for a long time in Spanish colonies, panied with a shower of mud. The Indians assure we were sufficiently aware of the ridiculous and us that these cones have not sensibly changed their astonishing tales, by means of which the natives forms for a long course of years; but the force with were fond of fixing the attention of travellers on which the gas ascends, and the frequency of the exnatural phenomena. We had learnt that these tales plosions, appear to vary according to the seasons. I were generally to be attributed less to the supersti- have found, by an analysis made by means of nitrous tions of the Indians than to that of the whites, the gas and phosphorus, that the disengaged air does not Creoles, and the African slaves; and that the reve- contain a two hundredth part of oxygen. It is, in ries of some individuals, when reasoning on the pro- fact, Azote, more pure than we generally prepare it gressive changes on the surface of the globe, assumed, in our laboratories. in process of time, the character of historical traditions. Without believing in the existence of land Affliction teacheth a wicked person some time to pray; that had been formerly on fire, we were conducted
prosperity never.-BEN JONSON. by the Indians to the Volcanitos de Turbaco, and the excursion disclosed to us phenomena much more im
LONDON portant than those we were in expectation of.
JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND. The volcanitos are situated nearly four miles to the PUBLISHED IN WEEKLY NUMBERS, PRICE ONE PENNY, AND IN MONTHLY Panza east of the village of Turbaco, in a thick forest
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of his wickedness, by the repeated prodigies which The Cathedral Church of St. ETHELBERT, at Here were said to have occurred at the grave, he repented ford, is peculiarly interesting, both on account of its of his crime, and ordered Brithfridus, a Mercian antiquity, and of the numerous architectural beauties nobleman, to remove the body to the monastery at which it displays ;-not, perhaps, to the cursory Hereford, which, with the aid of Egmundus, was inspector: for its general features, though venerable, accordingly done. Here, say the legends of the day, are rather of a sombre and gloomy character, but it the miracles were multipliedt, and Milfrid, the Viceroy contains curious specimens of almost every style of of Mercia, hearing of their fame, sent thither large ecclesiastical architecture, and many valuable and sums of money, and caused to be built, some say by rare appendages.
the desire of Offa, in expiation of his crime, and in The See of Hereford is mentioned as Suffragan to memory of the murdered prince, over his body, a the Archbishopric of Caerleon, as early as 544 ; stately and elegant church, appointed it the bishop's and in 601, the Bishop of Hereford was one of the See, endowed it with great revenues, and decorated seven Saxon prelates who attended the synod con- it with splendid ornaments. vened by Augustine at Canterbury: from which time Amongst the curiosities shown at the present day, we trace the regular descent of bishops, in succession, is a fractured, but tolerably well-preserved effigy of down to the present day. But the See of Hereford Ethelbert, which once stood on a pedestal yet becomes more conspicuous in our ecclesiastical history, remaining, over against the high altar, and which is from a circumstance which is curiously alluded to in said to be the original image of the canonized and a design which forms the embellishments of a patron saint. remarkably interesting shrine, preserved in the library This Cathedral of Offa, or Milfrid, was rebuilt or of the Cathedral*. The circumstance alluded to, is enlarged by Athelstan, about the year 1012, and this. Ethelbert, son of Ethelred and Leofrun his continued in safety only till the year 1055, when wife, succeeded his father in the kingdom of the Algar, son of Earl Leofrick, Earl of Chester, for East Angles, and was a prince of great promise. It some misdemeanour, being banished, retired to seems, that his great popularity amongst his subjects, Ireland, and there procuring eighteen ships, and induced them to desire that he should perpetuate being joined by Griffin, Prince of Wales, invaded the blessings of his rule, by giving them an heir to Herefordshire, and having routed Ralph, Earl of his throne: and, accordingly, Althrhida, daughter of Hereford, King Edward's sister's son, within two Offa, King of the Mercians, and of Quenreda his miles of Hereford, with the loss of five hundred men Queen, was proposed as a princess worthy of sharing and many wounded, entered the city, marched to the in his throne. To gain her hand, he proceeded with Cathedral, and there slew seven canons, who defended a gallant retinue to the Mercian court, at South the great doors of it. They then plundered the Town, (now called Sutton Walls, about four miles church, and set fire to it and to the city. Tradition North of Hereford,) where he was entertained at asserts, that the beautifully carved work about the first with great respect. But Quenreda, either envy- Gothic stalls, now extant, was made of the old oak ing his equipage and pomp, or disliking the proposed of that fabric, and accounts for the appearance of alliance for her daughter, persuaded her husband, human teeth, in the wood, by affirming that they are that Ethelbert's views were rather to seduce the those of the seven noble, but ill-fated canons, who affections of his people, than to woo his daughter, fell a sacrifice to the ruthless invaders. and she succeeded, by her base intrigues, in effecting The rebuilding of the church was commenced in the murder of the Prince. The assassin Guymbert, the year 1075, by the pious Robert Lozing, Bishop a domestic of Ethelbert's father, induced to per- of Hereford, was carried on by his successor Rey-. petrate this foul deed, by promise of a large reward, nelm, and finished by their successors: whether the conveyed the head of his murdered lord to Offa, and, south transept, as is by some maintained, retains Judas-like, received the promised price of his villany, portions of the early church, it may be difficult to upon which Offa directed the remains to be interred, say; but the greater part is composed of the fabric which was done in the neighbouring church at of Athelstan, Lozing, and Reynelm. The numerous Marden. Being subsequently roused to a sense monuments of the earlier bishops are extremely
* This piece of antiquity is formed of oak, so entirely covered remarkable, and illustrate in an interesting manner with plates of copper, that the wood is no where visible, except at the progressive alterations in the ornaments of the the bottom: it is 84 inches high, 7 long, 3) broad, and much orna- different styles of architecture, whilst the chapels, mented with enamel and gilding. The colours of the enamel consist of three shades of blue, a green, yellow, white and red. On and especially “ The Lady CHAPEL,” exhibit beauthe front there are two compartments, separated and surrounded by tiful specimens, the latter in particular, of the end of bier with a corpse upon it, their heads only are in relief. The two the twelfth century, being one of the most remarkoutermost are in long robes, with bare feet, each holding a censer in able of the early English style in the kingdom. his hand, the two next are in the act of raising the bier, behind
The tower belongs to the thirteenth century, and which are two others; one with a pastoral staff seems to direct the way, the other holds a tablet, with the inscription that appears in was erected about the time of the rebuilding of the the plate, representing the shrine, which is certainly older than the north transept, a very beautiful and striking feature time of Henry the Second, and which has been submitted to many in the Cathedral, and rendered more interesting from learned antiquaries for elucidation, but without success. The other compartment contains four figures, three of them in armour, two the elaborately-carved shrine of St. Cantelupe, a with swords, and one with a battle-axe; the fourth represents a per- canonized bishop of this see. In honour of this son in his robes, with a crown in his hand, paying his devotions before an altar, on which stands a chalice covered with a patine, prelate, the arms of the see were changed from those and a cross on a pedestal... The figure nearest to this personage is of the kings of the East Angles, which had been springing up to meet a hand extended from a cloud, to receive him. borne before, to those of this bishop; and this very At one end, in a Gothic niche, is a figure in long robes, holding a circumstance marks the great antiquity of the silver book, and at the other, another glorified person in the act of ascend- mace which is carried before the dean and canons, ing from the earth. The back of the shrine is covered witi a pattern of mosaic work in small squares, containing four leaves of flowers.
on which are embossed the ancient arms of the On the ridge of the shrine rises a narrow plate with holes, adorned bishopric with those of the deanery, which also has with three enamelled studs, and on it are three fractured places, from whence some ornaments have been broken off. A red cross,
an extensive peculiar, combining archidiaconal and the usual token of a relic, is painted on the inside, on a part of episcopal jurisdiction, except, of course, as to the the wood stained with a dark liquid, which was probably considered as the blood of the martyr, and part of the floor on which that blood + The water of St. Ethelbert's well, not far from the Cathedrai, was shed.
is even now said to work cures of several maladies.
especial functions of a bishop, ordination, and con- whole of the upper part of the nave. This part was firmation, over thirty-two parishes in and imme- subsequently rebuilt at a great expense, but unhappily, diately about the city of Hereford.
though under the superintendence of Mr. Wyatt, it On the entrance to the Cathedral, its beautiful north was not restored in the original style of the building, porch will attract the attention of the visiter, and in and the plain pointed arches above the venerable traversing the venerable pile he will be struck with semicircular ones, based on the noble piers which the mutilated appearance of many of the ancient suppori them, have not a consistent effect, and are monuments, and by traces of elaborate brasses on very inferior when compared with what the wave the floors. But he
feel a shudder creeping over once exhibited, and which still retains its ancient him, when reminded that these venerable effigies, character. which were consecrated by the hands of affection It remains only in this cursory notice of our and piety, have become the monuments of a blind venerable fabric to observe, that adjoining the Catheand misguided zeal, of a sour and uncharitable dral is the College of Vicars Choral, who form the fanaticism, which not only vented its fury on the entire choral force of this Cathedral, being twelve in images of saints and prelates, but constrains us number, where, excepting the ten choristers and four to mourn the ruin of the once-elegant chapter-house, sub-vicars choral, there are no lay singers. This of part of the cloisters, and many an elaborate and constitution, though peculiar, has this advantage, beautiful edifice belonging to this church; not to that the service of the church is performed by its mention the destruction of two, if not three, of the members in holy orders, and they are well qualified parish-churches of the city.
for their interesting duties. But to withdraw the mind from these painful How delightful to hope that those who serve the reflections, though not without the hope that the Lord in this branch of the “ beauty of holiness," allusion to them will operate as a salutary caution to should, by their sacred calling and their ordination posterity, let us point out the interesting collection vows, feel not only the responsibility which attaches of illuminated manuscripts which the Cathedral to them, as the ordained servants of the Lord of life, ibrary contains. Among them is a copy of Wicliff's but, that from this very circumstance, their minds Bible; and the valuable and very ancient grants and are led to appreciate that far-increased responsibility charters to this church preserved in the Dean's at the present day, to execute those duties which, Archive-room. There are also two other curiosities when carelessly and coldly performed, justly induce worthy of attention; the one, a very ancient map of disgust; but when solemnly and feelingly, raise the world, drawn with a pen upon vellum stretched on indeed the soul to converse with heaven, attune it to boards; it is five feet four inches wide, by six feet four the choirs of saints and angels, enforce the devotion inches high, and professes to be a copy of the map of all who witness it, that " so falling down, they of Nicodorus, Theodotus, and Polyeletus, or Zeno- will worship God and confess that God is in us of a doxus, and to have been drawn by them, as early as truth.” the consulate of Julius Cæsar; the triple-mitred prince, Oh let it not be forgotten, that within these venethe introduction of York Cathedral, and the Norman rable walls, for ages, have the hymns which Miriam French, and other such matters, prove it, however, sang, and David tuned, the respondent chant and to have been of later date than the Conquest, though service, and the inspired anthem, floated up to heaven it might have been done from the Roman map upon the pealing organ's accompaniment, in adoration above alluded to. It was copied a few years ago by to Him, to whom for centuries they have been dedithe Geographical Society of London, and may, cated, and who has deigned to set his name therein. probably, ere long, be given to the public in prints Let it not be forgotten that in such places as this on a reduced scale. It is certainly the greatest has the daily service been continued, the morning curiosity in the kingdom.
and the evening incense of our church been offered The other curious relic was discovered in digging up; let it not be forgotten that when Jehovah ceased a grave in the Presbyterium of the Choir, in the to protect his once favoured people, when the portentous year 1813, two feet two inches below the marble voice was heard in the temple of Jerusalem, “let us floor, in a coffin of rude unnailed boards, deposited go hence,” their daily service had ceased, that this was in the vault with the remains of a corpse, mouldered the prelude to their nation's woes. to dust, except the back part of the skull, on the left side of which was some red hair quite perfect, and a little curled. On the place of the SUNDAY is not a day to feast our bodies, but to feed our right breast lay the head of the crozier, the staff souls. crossing the body to the left foot. To the crozier was attached, by a skein of silk in a perfect state, the There is something remarkable in the composition of the bulla of Pope Clement the Sixth, as the inscription Jewish and Christian Scriptures, that, although in every shows: to this, although no traces of it remained, language they are the easiest book to a learner, they are was probably annexed the instrument which had | Psalms, and Gospels, unite, in a singular degree, simplicity
yet dignified, interesting, and impressive. The Pentate:ch, appointed the deceased to the see of Hereford. Aand perspicuity, with force, energy, and pathos. I cannot hand's breadth below the top of the crozier lay a satisfy myself what the literary peculiarities, the felicities gold ring, and near it a stone of the amethyst kind, of language are, which make them so universally comprewhich, on being replaced in the ring, was found to l hensible, and yet avoid insipidity, feebleness, and tedium fit exactly. Some pieces of silken texture were
which display so often such genuine eloquence and majesty
and yet are neither affected nor elaborate, nor, ir: general spread on the dust, but too much decayed to be above the understanding of the common reader:removed. It is evident from Leland and other Turner's History of England, writers, that these relics belonged to John Tullich, forty-eighth bishop of Hereford, who sat there six- In the time of Henry the Eighth, to be in possession of teen years, and died about Christmas 1352.
Tindal's Bible, constituted heresy:-Life of Henry VIII In the year 1786, the massive Norman tower, There is many a wounded heart without a contrite spirit. which stood at the west end of the nave, fell with a
The ice may be broken into a thousand pieces, it is ice tremendous crash, a short time after the congregatior still. But expose it to the beams of the Sun of Rightehad left the Cathedral, and crushed, in its fall, the ! ousness, and then it will melt.—MIDDLETON.
THE FIRST SHATT.
THE MINES OF GREAT BRITAIN. seventy to eighty degrees with the horizon. The
distance to which they extend downwards is unknown, for although at a certain depth veins generally become unproductive of the metallic ores, and are, therefore, no longer followed by the miner, they have never been known actually to terminate in this direction.
The width of veins is extremely variable, some being but a few inches wide, while others are many feet; indeed, the same vein is subject to considerable variations in this respect. Generally speaking, however, mineral veins do not in this country exceed three or four feet in width, although, in some few cases, they have been known to be as much as from twenty to thirty. When this occurs, it is commonly owing merely to a swelling or expansion of the vein, and does not continue for any very great distance in a horizontal direction. Mineral veins are also subject to many irregularities from the crossing, separation, and junction, of other veins, but which need not here be further noticed.
The most important circumstance, however, relative to mineral veins, is the nature of their contents, or the substances of which they are composed, and of which one or more of the metallic ores, usually forms a considerable proportion. The most abundant substance, however, which is found in mineral veins, is commonly a compact earthy substance, or spar, which is either crystallized, or what is termed by the
mineralogist, massive, or without any definite form. No. III. ON THE DISCOVERY OF MINERAL VEINS, This substance is generally termed the “ veinstone,” AND THE MODE OF FIRST OPENING A MINE. or in the north of England, the “rider” of the vein.
The most common veinstones are quartz, fluor spar, In preceding numbers of the Saturday Magazine *, a
calcareous spar, &c., and the ores are often, more or short and general outline has been given of the less, intermixed with the veinstone. mode in which the mineral productions of Cornwall
Now if we suppose a vein or fissure to be composed are obtained from the bowels of the earth, of the in great measure of either of these substances, the processes they undergo on the 'mine, and also a slight ore® (which alone forms the object of the miner's sketch of the progress of mining from remote ages. research,) may be said generally to occur here and Resuming the subject at a somewhat greater length, there in masses, of every possible variety of form we shall now proceed to describe the manner in and extent, with unproductive portions of veinstone which mineral veins are originally discovered, and to interposed between them, the form and extent of trace more fully the nature of the operations by which are, of course, equally irregular. It is from which the miner is enabled to extract their metallic this circumstance, or the very irregular manner in produce.
which the masses of ore occur in veins, that most of Familiar as every person must be with the varied the difficulties and uncertainty of mining arise, for uses and infinite importance of the metals in all the although some general laws respecting their position arts of life, information like the present can hardly may be recognised, they do not hold good in all fail to be interesting; and we may further remark, cases, and the miner is therefore continually obliged that there is no country in the world, of the same
to have recourse to actual trials. extent, which is known to possess the same degree of It seldom happens that mineral veins are visible mineral wealth as our own. Indeed, if we except at the surface, as they are generally hidden by the quicksilver and the precious metals, Great Britain vegetable mould and loose broken stone, which, in may be said to contain, and generally, in considerable most cases, form a superficial covering to the solid abundance, nearly all the mineral and metallic sub- rock wherein they are situated. Where, however, stances with which we are acquainted. It is to this this covering has been swept away, as in the beds of liberal provision of nature that we may, without rivers and torrents, or where the rock is laid open to difficulty, trace much of that superior national imview, as in precipices and cliffs on the sea-shore, they portance, which so strikingly contrasts with the small
may occasionally be seen. territorial extent of the British empire.
In this case, the first operation of the miner is to In order to render the subject more intelligible, drive a horizontal passage, termed an “adit," upon we must remind the reader that veins are tabular the vein, following all its windings and irregularities. masses of mineral substance, which are frequently This passage, of course, he commences from the face found occupying what were once doubtless vast of the rock, and at the greatest depth that may be rents, or chasms, in the rocky masses constituting convenient. In this manner the vein is laid open, the crust, or exterior, of the globe. These veins and its contents exposed to view, and by excaor fissures run for a very considerable extent in a vating both above and below, the ore can readily horizontal direction, in which line they may some
be obtained, wherever it is sufficiently abundant. times be traced for several miles, and have, indeed, Should want of air or other circumstances render in no instance been followed to an actual ter- it desirable, a second outlet to the surface may be mination. Their direction below the surface is obtained by sinking a pit, or shaft, so as to comgenerally more or less inclined from the perpen-municate with the adit. In cases of this kind, the dicular, and very commonly forms an angle of from workings of the mine may proceed indefinitely, by
* See Vol. III., p. 178, and Vol. IV. p. 43. continuing the adit upon the vein, and sinking shafts