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and troublesome noises, and, as is said, by pranks yet more offensive and contemptuous. This insolence, having endured it a while, he represented to the governors of the society, among whom perhaps he had no friends; and finding his complaint little regarded, removed himself to Pembroke Hail.
In 1957 he published “The Progress of Poetry” and “The Bard,” two compositions at which the readers of poetry were at first content to gaze in mute arnazement.
Some that tried them confessed their inability to understand them, though Warburton said that they were understood as well as the works of Milton and Shakespear, which it is the fashion to admire. Garrick wrote a few lines in their praise. Some hardy champions undertook to rescue them from neglect, and in a short time many were content to be shewn beauties which they could not see.
Gray's reputation was now so high, that, after the death of Cibber, he had the honour of refusing the laurel, which was then bestowed on Mr. Whitehead.
His curiosity not long after, drew him away from Cambridge to a lodging near the Museum, where he resided near three years, reading and transscribing: and, so far as can be discovered, very little affected by two odes on “ Oblivion” and “ Obscurity,” in which his lyrick performances were ridiculed with much contempt and much ingenuity.
When the Professor of Modern History at Cambridge died, he was, as he says, “cockered and spirited up," till he asked it of lord Bute, who sent him a civil refusal, and the place was given to Mr. Brocket, the tutor of Sir Jaines Lowther.
His constitution was weak, and believing that his health was promoted by exercise and change of place, he undertook (1765) a journey into Scotland, of which bis account, so far as it extends, is very curious and elegant: for, as his comprehension was ample, his curiosity ex:ended to all the works of art, all the appearances of nature, and all the monuments of past events. He naturally contrácted a friendship with Dr. Beattie, whom he found a poet, a philosopher, and a good man. The Mareschal College at Aberdeen offered him the degree of Doctor of Law, which, having omitted to take it at Cambridge, he thought it decent to refuse.
What he had formerly solicited in vain, was at last given him without solicitation. The Professorship of History became again vacant, and he received (1768) an offer of it from the duke of Grafton. He accepted, and retained it to his death ; always designing lectures, but never reading them ; uneasy at his neglect of duty, and appeasing his uneasiness with designs of reformation, and with a resolution which he believed himself to have made, of resigning the office, if he found himself unable to discharge.it.
Ill health made another journey necessary, and he visited (1769) Westmoreland and Cumberland. He that reads his epistolary, narration wishes, that to travel, and to tell his travels, had been more of his employment; but it is by studying at home that we must obtain the ability of travelling with intelligence and improvement,
His travels and his studies were now near their end.The gout, of which he had sustained many weak attacks, fell upon his stomach, and, yielding to no medicines, produced strong convulsions, which iJuly 30, 1771) terminated in death.
His character I am willing to adopt, as Mr. Mason has done, from a Letter written to my friend Mr. Boswell, by the Rev. Mr. Temple, rector of St. Gluvias in Cornwall; and an as willing as his warmest well-wisher to belive it true.
“ Perhaps he was the most learned man in Europe. He was equally ac« quainted with the elegant and profound parts of science, and that not “ superficially but thoroughly. He knew every branch of history, buth “ natural and civil; had read all the original bistorians of England, France, “.and Italy; and was a great antiquarian. Criticism, metaphysics, mo“rals, politics, made a principal part of his study; voyages and travels of " all sorts were his favourite amusements, and he had a fine taste in paint
ing, prints, architecture, and gardening. With such a fund of know“ ledge, his conversation must have been equally instructing and entertain
ing; but he was also a good man, a man of virtue and humanity. There “is no character without some speck, some imperfection; and I think the
greatest desect in his was an affectation in delicacy, or rather effeminacy: “ and a visible fastidiousness, or contempt and disdain of his inferiors in “ science. He also had, in some degree, that weakness which disgusted « Voltaire so much in Mr. Congreve: though he seemed to value others “ chiefly according to the progress they had made in knowledge, yet he u could not bear to be considered himself merely as a man of letters: and “though without birth, or fortune, or station, his desire was to be looked od
upon as a private independent gentleman, who read for his amusement.
Perhaps it may be said, What signifies so much knowledge, when it pro“ duced so little? Is it worth taking so much pains to leave no memorial “ but a few of his poems ? But let it be considered that Mr. Gray was to “ others at least innocenily employed ; to himself, certainly beneficially, “ His time passed agreeably; he was every day making some new acquisi“ tion in science; his mind was enlarged, his heart softened, his virtue “ strengthened; the world and mankind were shewn to him without a mask; " and he was taught to consider every thing as trifling, and unworthy of " the attention of a wise man, except the pursuit of knowledge and prac“ tice of virtue, in that state wherein God hath placed us."
To this character Mr. Mason has added a more particular account of G'ay's skill in zoology. He has remarked, that Gray's effeminacy was affected most “ before those whom he did not wish to please;" and that he is unjustly charged with making knowledge his sole reason of preference, as he paid his esteem to none whom he did not likewise believe to be good.
What has occurred to me from the slight inspection of his Letters in which my undertaking has engaged me, is, that his mind had a large grasp ; that his curiosity was unlimited, and his judgment cultivated; that he was a man
likely to love much where he loved at all, but that he was fastidious and hard to please. His contempt, however, is often employed, where I hope it will be approved, upon scepticism, and infidelity. His short account of Shaftesbury I will insert.
“ You say you cannot conceive hox lord Shaftesbury came to be a phi“ losopher in vogue; I will tell you: first, he was a lord ; secondly, he
was as vain as any of his readers; thirdly, men are very prone to believe “ what they do not understand; fourthly, they will believe any thing at all “ provided they are under no obligation to believe it ; fifthly, they love to “ take a new road, even when that road leads no where; -sixthly, he was “ reckoned a fine writer, and seems always to mean more than he said. “Would you have any more reasons ? An interval of above forty years has
pretty well destroyed the cham. A dead lord ranks with commoners;
vanity is no longer interested in the matter; for a new road is become an « old one.”
Mr. Mason has added, from his own knowledge, that though Gray was poor, he was not eager of money; and that, out of the little that lie had, he was very willing to help the necessitous.
As a writer he had this peculiarity, that he did not write his pieces first rudely, and then correct them, but laboured every line as it arose in the train of composition; and he had a notion not very peculiar, that he could not write but at certain times, or at happy momenis; a fantastick foppery, 19 which my kindness for a man of learning and of virtue wishes him to have been superior.
GRAY's Poetry is now to be considered ; and I hope not to be looked on as an enemy to his name; if I contess that I contemplate it with less pleasure than his life.
His ode on “Spring,” has something poetical, both in the language and the thought; but the language is too luxuriant, and the thoughts have nothing new. There has of late arise'n a practice of giving to adjectives derived from substantives, the termination of participles; such as the cultured plain, the daisied bank; bu: I was sorry to sce, in the lines of a scholar like Gray, the honied Spring. The morality is natural, but too stale; the conclusion
“On the Cat" was doubtless by its author considered as a trifle, but it is not a happy trifle. In the first stanza “ the azure flowers that blow,” shew resolutely a rhyme is sometimes made when it cannot easily be found. Selima, the Cat, is called a nymph, with some violence both to language and sense; but there is good use made of it when it is done; for of the two lines
GR'A Y. the first relates merely to the nymph, and the second only to the cat. The sixth stanza contains a melancholy truth, that a favourite has a friend;"* but the last ends in a 'pointed sentence of no relation to the purpose ; if what glistered had been gold, the car would not have gone into the water; and, if si, hud, would not less have been drowned.
The « Prospect of Eton College" suggests nothing to Gray, which every beholder does not equally think and feel. His supplication to father Thames, to tell him who drives the hoop or tosses the ball, is useless and puerile. Father Thames has no better means of knowing than himself. His epither « buxom health' is not elegant; he seems not to understand the word. Gray thought his language more poetical as it was more remote from common use"; finding in Dryden “ honey redolent of Spring,” an expression that reaches the utmost limits of our language, Gray drove it a little more beyond common apprehension, by making “ gales” to be “ redolent of joy and youth."
Of the “Ode on Adversity,” the hint was at first taken from “ Dira, "? gratum quæ regis Antium ; but Gray has excelled his original by the variety of his sentiments, and by their moral application. Of this piece, at once poetic and rational, I will not by slight objections violate the dignity.
My process has now brought me to the wonderfuls. Wonder of Wonders," the ewo Sister Odes; by which, though either vulgar ignorance or common sense at first universally rejected them, many have been since persuaded to think ihemselves delighted. I am one of those that are willing to be pleased, and therefore would gladly find the meaning of the first stanza of the “ Progress of Poetry.”
Gray seems in his rapture to confound the images of " spreading sound “and running water.” A“stream of “music," may be allowed; but where does “music," however“smooth and strong," after having visited the “ver"dant vales, rowl down the steep amain," so as that “rocks and nodding "groves rebellow to che roar.” If this be said of Music, it is nonsense if it be said of Water, it is nothing to the purpose.
The second stanza, exhibiting Mars's car and Jove's eagle, is unworthy of further notice. Criticism disdains to chace a school boy to his common places.
To the third it may likewise be objected, that it is drawn from Mythology, though such as may be more easily assimilated to real life. Idalia's “velvetgreen" has something of cant. An epichet or metaphor drawn from Nature ennobles Art; an epithet or metaphor drawn from Art degrades Nature. Gray is too fond of words arbitrarily empounded. Many-twinkling" was formerly censured as not analogical; we may say “many-spotted," but scarcely “many-spotting." This stanza, however, has something pleasing.
Of the second ternary of stanzas, the first endeavours to tell something, and would have ridit, bad it not been crossed by Hyperion: the second describes weii enough the universal prevalence of Poetry; but I am afraid that the conclusion will not rise from the premises. The caverns of the
North and the plains of Chili are not the residences of “Glory and generous “ Shame.” But that Poetry and Virtue go always together is an opinion so pleasing, that I can forgive him who resolves to think it true.
The third stanza sounds big with “ Delphi,” and “ Egean,” and “ Ilissus,", and “ Meander," and " hallowed.fountain," and “solemn sound; but in all Gray's odes there is a kind of cumbrous splendour which we wish away. His position is at last false : in the time of Dante and Petrarch, from whom he derives our first school of Poetry, Italy was over-run by “ tyrant power" and “ coward vice;” nor was our state much better when we first borrowed the Italian arts.
Of the third ternary, the first gives a mythological birth of Shakspeares What is said of that mighty genius is true; but it is not said happily: the real effects of this poetical power are put out of sight by the pomp of machinery. Where truth is sufficient to fill the mind, fiction is worse than useless; the counterfeit de bases the genuine.
His account of Milton's blindness, if we suppose it caused by study in the formation of his poem, a supposition surely allowable, is poetically true, and happily imagined. But the car of Dryden, with his two cour sers, has nothing in it peculiar: it is a car in which any other rider may be placed.
“ The Bard” appearss at the first view, to be, as Algarotti and others have remarked, an imitation of the prophecy of Nereus: Algarotti thinks it superior to its original, and, if preference depends only on the imagery and animation of the two poems, his judgment is right. There is in “The “ Bard” more force, more thought, and more variery. But to copy is less than to invent, and the copy has been unhappily produced at a wrong time. . The fiction ot Horace was to the Romans credible; but its revival disgusts us with apparent and unconquerabie falsehood. Incredulis odi.
To select a singular event, and swell it to a giant's bulk by fabulous appendages of spectres and predictions, has little dificulty; for he that forsakes the probable may always find the marvellous. And it has little use; we are affected only as we believe; we are improved only as we find something to be imitated or declined. I do not see that “ The Bard” promotes any truth, moral or political.
His stanzas are too long, especially, his epodes; the ode is finished before the ear has learned its measures, and consequently before it can receive pleasure from their consonance and recurrence.
Of the first stanza the abrupt beginning has been celebrated; but technical beauties can give praise only to the inventor. It is in the power of any man to rush abruptly upon his subject, that has read the ballad of Johnny Armstrong,
Is there ever a man in all Scotland