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prittle ; these cakes are kept in well closed bot-
The stern Athenian prince
Id. Knight's Tele.
And tame to plumbs the sourness of the sloes.
Tufts of grass sour land. Mortimer's Husbandry.
He said a sour thing to Laura the other day.
superstition and the sou: ness of enthusiasm : it is not
Sax. sur, surig;
of an uncomfortable melancholy nature.
with our serious frame of mind.
Asses' milk, when it sours in the stomach, aod
pungent with astrin-
whey turned sour,
Arbuthnot on Diet.
Of acid or sour one has a notion from taste, sa-
ness being one of those simple ideas which one cannot
with discontented mien !
Has life no spurness, drawn so near its end
The lord treasurer often looked on me with a set
One passion, with a different turn,
Makes wit infame, or anger burn.
Spanish West-Indies, where it is cultivated for its
Both ways deceitful is the wine of power ;
Sour, in chemistry, &c. See ACID, ACIDITY,
Acids, and CHEMISTRY, Index.
SOURABHAYA, a settlement on the north.
eastern coast of Java, the capital of a Dutch Es
tablishment. The place is situated in lat. To
11' S., on the banks of a river one mile and a half
Bacon. from the sea shore. It is navigable up to the
ing. The environs and banks of the river con-
tain many villages, inhabited by two-thirds
The country around Sourabhaya is very fertile,
and shaded by thickets of bamboos, bananas,
80 light that it can be ploughed with a single
which, though small, are strong and bandsome.
Decay of Piety. The Dutch garrison is quartered in a brick fort,
most of the officers. This place is the depot
the Dutch East Company. Here are several
ten or twelve feet water, which are afterwards
sold to the petty princes on Borneo and Bally,
and for transporting the rice raised in the neigh-
tain a hard stone, in color and veins resembling
box-wood, which is worked with a wheel by the
httle articles, such as combs and brushes of buf- macejating process or operation is consequently faloe's horns. A league and a half distant from more necessary with impure than pure lime; but Sourabhaya, upon a hill that extends along the still it ought on no occasion to be omitted or river Bagieran, is a saltpetre house, the nitre neglected, as there is not the smallest probability being procured from the earth, much intermixed but that some blisters would appear on the surwith the dung of bats, which are very numerous face of plasters made with even the purest lime, in the neighbourhood. Ships from Batavia going when worked up and applied immediately after
to China, or the Philippines, generally touch for being slaked, without undergoing this souring · refreshments at this place, especially during the process in some degree. The practice is also
season of the north westers. The adjacent coun common of souring the lime when it is intended try is remarkably populous, and the natives are for being used in mortar. governed by two Tomogons, one of whom is It is not necessary that plaster should be enallied to the emperor of Java. Within a cir- dowed with stony hardness; so that there is no cumference of twelve miles, the Javanese and loss sustained by allowing a great proportion of Malay villages are so numerous that they seem the lime which is designed for that purpose to a part of the town.
absorb its air before it be used; and the only SOURCE, n. s. French source ; Ital. sorge. circumstance which is necessary to be attended Spring; fountain; head; original ; first cause to in souring the lime is, that it be allowed to or producer.
macerate long enough. It is indeed necessary on This second source of men, while yet but few, some occasions it should lie a very long time beWith some regard to what is just and right fore any certainty can be had that all the partiShall lead their lives. Milton's Paradise Lost. cles are thoroughly slaked, as pieces of limeFamous Greece,
shells have been known to lie vipwards ot six That source of art and cultivated thought,
months exposed to all the changes of the winter Which they to Rome, and Romans hither, brought. weather, and fall after that period. Another ad
vantage of some consequence likewise, it is said, Of himself is none;
attends this practice; as, if by such means a large But that eternal Infinite, and One, Who never did begin, who ne'er can end,
proportion of the lime be allowed to absorb its On him all beings, as their source, depend.
air, and become in the mild or effete state, when Dryden.
it is wrought or beaten up for use, the water can This is the true source and original of this mis. have no sensible effect upon this mild lime. By chief,
South, this means, too, those crystalline exudations, Kings that rule
which are so common on walls newly plastered, Behind the hidden sources of the Nile.
will be the best and most effectually prevented.
Addison's Cato. As lime, from the moment of its being fully The heads and sources of rivers flow upon a de- slaked, begins to absorb air, and continues to scent, or an inclining plane, without which they take up more and more every minute from that could not how at all. Woodward's Natural History.
time until it becomes perfectly mild or effete, so Souring Lime, in rural economy. It is stated as to be rendered gradually less and less proper by the writer of an Essay on Quicklime as a Ce- for forming mortar of any kind, it necessarily ment, that, when lime is to be employed for follows that, where lime designed for this purmaking plaster, it is of great importance that pose is permitted to lie long in the sour, a great every particle of the limestone be slaked before part of it will be converted into chalky matter, it is worked up; for, as the smoothness of the or uncrystallised mild or effete lime, in which surface is the cirumstance most wished for in state it will not be capable of having so much plaster, if any particles of lime should be beaten sand added to it, or of forming so good a mortar up in it, and employed in work, before they have as would have been the case if a larger proporJiad sufficient time to fall, the water, still con- tion of the sandy material had been made use of tinuing to act upon them after the materials have in the first place, and been wrought up as been worked up, will infallibly slake such par- speedily as possible, without so much souring, ticles, which will then expand themselves in a into mortar, and immediately made use of. The forcible manner, and be productive of those ex- evil will also be increased' where the lime has crescences upon the surface of the plaster which been but slightly burnt. are commonly known by the name of blisters. The doctrine of the nature and utility of this Consequently, if it be intended to have a perfect process receives additional proof and support kind of piaster, which is capable of remaining from the practice which was followed by the smooth on the surface and free from blisters, ancients, who, according to Vitruvius and Pliny, there is an absolute necessity for allowing the recommend that the lime should be macerated Time of which it is composed to lie for a con or soured in water, for exactly the same reasons siderable length of time in maceration with water that we have given, as it is only by that means, before it is wrought up into plaster, which is a he asserts, that the plaster can be prevented from process or operation that is here termed souring. blistering. •Tunc de albariis operibus est expliWhere the limestone is of a pure quality, and candum. Id autem erit recte, si glebæ calcis, has been very perfectly calcined or burnt, there optime, ante multo tempore quam opus fuerit, will seldom be any danger of the whole of the macerabuntur. Numque cum non penitus macelime falling at first; but, where it has been less rata, sed recens sumitur -habens latentes cruperfectly burnt, there will be many particles, dos cuculos, pustulas omittit.Qui calculi which will require to lie a long time before they dissolvunt et dissipant tectorii politiones.'-Viwill be completely reduced into powder. This truvius, lib. vii. c. 2.
* Ruinarum urbis,' says Pliny, "ea maxime verses to congratulate Cromwell upon the peace causa, quod furto, calcis sine ferrumine suo cæ concluded with the Dutch; and in 1655 a Latin menta componuntur. Intrita quoque quo vetu- poem entitled Musica Incantans. In 1660 te sitor, eo melior. In antiquarum (antiquis) was elected public orato of the university; and ædumligibus invenitur, ne recentiore trima ute- in 1661 became domestic chaplain to Edward retur redemptor; idio nulla (nullæ) tectoria earl of Clarendon, lord high chancellor of Eng eorum rimæ fædavere.'--Hist. lib. xxxvi. c. 23. land. In 1663 he was installed prebendary of
SOUSE, n. s. & v.a. Belg. soute, salt; or rather Westminster, admitted D. D., and had a sinecure Fr. suuce ; Ital. salsa. Pickle of salt; any thing bestowed on him in Wales by the earl of Clarenkept parboiled in salt pickle: and, in a ludi- don; after whose retirement into France in 1067 crous sense, to plunge head over ears' into he became chaplain to the duke of York. In water.
1670 he was installed canon of Christ Church, And he that can rear up a pig in his house,
in Oxford ; and in 1676 attended as chaplain to Hath cheaper his bacon, and sweeter his souse.
Laurence Hyde, esq., ambassador extraordinary
Tusser. to the king of Poland. In 1678 he was presented They soused me into the Thames with as little re. to the rectory of Islip in Oxfordshire; and in morse as they drown blind puppies. Shakspeare. 1680 rebuilt the chancel of that church, as be Who those were that run away,
afterwards did the rectory house belonging to it. And yet gave out th' had won the day ;
After the revolution he took the oath of allegiance Although the rabble soused them for't
to Williain and Mary. He died in 1716, and O'er head and ears in mud and dirt. Butler. They smused me over head and ears in water when monument. He published, 1. Animadversions
was interred at Westminster Abbey, where is his a boy, so that I am now one of the most case-hard
on Dr. Sherlock's Vindication of the Holy and ened of the Ironsides.
Addison's Guardian. Oil, though it stink, they drop by drop impart;
Ever Blessed Trinity. 2. A Defence of his AniBut snuse the cabbage with a bounteous heart.
madversions. 3. Sermons, 8 vols. Bro. Add Pope.
after his decease were published his Opera PostSouse, v. n. & adv. Of this word I know huma Latina, and his posthumous English
works. Dr. South was remarkable for his wit, not the original: it must come from Fr. sous, or dessous, down.—Johnson. But see Suss, which which abounds in all his writings, and even in his seems synonymous. To fall as a bird on its sermons; but they equally abound in ill-humor
, prey: with sudden violence.
spleen, and satire. He was a remarkable time
server. During the life of Cromwell be was a The gallant monarch is in arms ; And like an eagle o'er his airy tow'rs,
staunch Presbyterian, and then railed against the To souse annoyance that comes near his nest.
Independents; at the restoration he exerted his Shakspeare.
pulpit eloquence against the Presbyterians : and Thus, on some silver swan, or timorous hare, in the reign of queen Anne was a warm advocate Jove's bird comes sousing down from upper air ;
for Sacheveral. Her crooked talons truss the fearful prey,
South, n. s., udj., & adv. Sax. suð; Fr. Then out of sight she soars. Dryden's Æneid.
SOUTHEAST', n. . & adj. Swed. and Goth. Jove's biru will souse upon the tim'rous hare, SOUTH'ERLY, adv.
sud. And tender kids with his sharp talons tear. Dryden. SOUTH'ERN, adj.
where the sun is Such make a private study of the street,
SOUTH'ING, adj. & n. s. to us at noon: And, looking full at every man they meet,
opposed to north; Run souse against his chaps, who stands amazed,
SOUTH'WARD, adv. & n. s. the southern re To find they did not see, but only gazed. Young.
SOUTHWEST', n. s.
gions; south SOU-TCHEOU, a city of China, of the first wind : as an adjective, southern; meridional : rank, in Kiang-nan, on a river that falls into the
as an adverb, toward the south : southeast is a lake Tai. It is one of the most beautiful cities point between the south and east: southerly and in the whole empire. . From the delightfulness southern, belonging to or lying toward the of its situation, mildness of the air, temperature south : southing, going toward the south ; tegof the climate, fertility of the soil, plenty and dency to the south : southmost, farthest to the cheapness of provisions, and the gentle manners south: southward is, toward the south; the of the people, it is styled the paradise of China. southern regions : southwest, the point between It has a great trade, particularly in embroideries the south and west. and brocades, which are in demand through the The queen of the south.
Binde. whole empire; and it is much frequented by How thy garments are warm, when he quieteti strangers. Its jurisdiction comprehends one the earth by the south wind. Job xxxvii. 17. town of the second class, and seven of the third. Phenice is an haven of Crete, and lieth towards It is 562 miles S. S. E. of Peking.
Acts xxvii. 12. SOUTERRAIN', n. s. Fr. souterrain. A
All the contagion of the south light on you, grotto or cavern in the ground.
You shames of Rome you! Shakspeare. Coriolani. Defences against extremities of heat, as shade,
His regiment lies half a mile grottos, or souterrains, are necessary preservatives of South from the mighty power of the king. health. Arbuthnot.
Id. Richard III.
I am but mad north, northwest ; when the wind · SOUTH (Dr. Robert), an eminent divine, the is southerly, I know a hawk from a handsaw. son of Mr. William South, merchant of London,
Id. Hamlet born at Hackney in 1633. He studied at West
Why mourn I not for thee, minster school, and afterwards in Christ Church And with the southern clouds contend in tears? College, Oxford. In 1654 he wrote a copy of Latin
Id. Henry F.
Countries are more fruitful to the southward than of the Hindoo, either as to his civil condition or in the northern parts.
religion. His diet is frugal and simple; his hut Raleigh's History of the World. formed of mud, the leaves of the cocoa-nut tree, East and west have no certain points of heaven, and a few bamboos ; and a small strip of cloth is but north and south are fixed; and seldom the far his garment. The country is subdivided chiefly southern people have invaded the northern, but contrariwise.
into villages, comprehending some thousand The planting of trees warm upon a wall, against acres of arable and waste land, the boundaries of the south or southeast sun, doth hasten their ripening.
which have scarcely ever been altered. The Id.
constitution of these villages resembles a permaMen's bodies are heavier when southern windsnent republic, or corporation, having its herediblow than when northern. Id. Natural History. tary municipal officers, and some artizans. From the north to call
Hyder was tne only Indian sovereign who Decrepid winter, from the south to bring
ever subdued his petty feudatories, and really Solstitial summer's heat.
was, according to our ideas, master of his counMean while the south wind rose, and, with black try. Since the intrusion of the Mahometans the wings
South of India has much deteriorated, and its Wide hovering, all the clouds together drove. Id. decline was accelerated at the commencement of
Next Chemos, the obscene dread of Moab's sons, the British influence, while the revenue was From Aroar to Nebo, and the wild
gathered by its feudatory chiefs. The open vioOf southmost Abarim.
Id. Two other country bills give us a view of the most than the fines, fees, exactions, and contributions,
lence of armies has probably done less injury easterly, westerly, and southerly parts of England.
which have been imposed by the tyranny, or
Graunt. Unto such as live under the pole that is only permitted by the weakness, of these governRorth which is above them, that is only southerly
ments. The buildings, tanks, channels, and which is below them.
Browne. even ridges, that separated former fields; the Frowning Auster seeks the southern sphere, ruined villages, general tradition, books, acAnd rots with endless rain the unwholesome year. counts, sunnuds, and inscriptions, all combine
Dryden. to give a high idea of much greater former cultiI will conduct thee on thy way,
vation and opuience. Except Madras there are When next the southing sun inflames the day. ld.
not now any great cities in this division of HinNot far from hence, if I observed aright
dostan. The earliest Mahometan army that The southing of the stars and polar light,
crossed the Krishna was led in 1310 by Kafoor Sicilia lies.
against Dhoor Summooder, the capital city of A prisoner in a room twenty foot square is at
Belal Deo, the sovereign of Karnata. Other sysliberty to walk twenty foot southward, but not north
tems of religion, beside that of Brahma, had at ward.
Locke. The three seas of Italy, the Inferiour towards the certain periods an extensive sway here. 1. The southeast, the Ionian towards the south, and the Jains, who reject the authority of the Vedas and Adriatick on the northeast side, were commanded by Karnata appear to have been until the twelfth
Purans, of which profession the sovereigns of three different nations. Every life from the dreary months
century of the Christian era. 2. The Bhauddha, Flies conscious southward. Thomson's Winter. who had temples.
3. The Mahometau reHe spurned the wretch that slighted or withstood ligion, which was introduced through the medium The tender argument of kindred blood,
of the commercial intercourse between Arabia Nor would endure that any should control
and Malabar. 4. A numerous colony of Jews, His freeborn brethren of the southern pole. Cowper.
settled at Cochin and in other parts of Malabar. South of India. This has sometimes been 5. A knowledge of the true religion had made treated as a distinct geographical division of some progress at an early period, but the NesHindostan, having the figure of a triangle, of torian doctrines were those professed. which the course of the river Krishna forms the The territories comprehended in this division, base, and the coasts of Malabar and Coromandel according to Mr. Hamilton, are a small portion the sides. Its extent from the Krishna to Cape of the Bejapoor province; the Balaghaut ceded Comorin, which forms the apex of the triangle, districts; the Carnatic, northern, central, and is about 600 British miles, and its breadth in the southern; Mysore, Canara, Malabar, Barramahal, widest part is about 550, whence it tapers to a Coimbetoor, Dindigul, Salem and Kistnagherry, point at Cape Comorin. The great feature of Cochin and Travancor; under which heads rethis region is a central table land, elevated from spectively further topographical details will be 3000 to 5000 feet above the level of the sea, se found. parated by wild, abrupt, declivities from the low South Sea, or Pacific Ocean, are both names flat countries to the east and west, which form a of that vast body of water interposed between belt of small but unequal breadth between the Asia and America. It does not however, strictly hills and sea.
The central range is usually speaking, reach quite to the continent of Asia, termed Balagnaut (above the ghauts), and the excepting to the northward of the peninsula of lower belt the Payeenghaut (below the ghauts). Malacca : for the sea interposed between the The mass of the population consists of Hindoos; eastern coast of Africa and the peninsula just and the primitive Hindoo manners and customs mentioned has the name of the Indian Ocean. are preserved in a state of great purity, particu- The South Sea then is bounded on one side by larly in Tinnevelly and the adjacent districts. the western coast of America, through its whole The lapse of twenty centuries has here apparently extent, from the unknown regions in the north made no change in the habits and peculiarities to the Straits of Magellan and Terra del Fuego,
where it communicates with the southern part of one mile and a quarter, but the whole present the Atlantic. On the other side it is bounded town cannot be less than three miles round. The by the coast of Asia, from the northern promon- castle stands near the middle of the south part. tory of Tschuskotskoi Noss, to the peninsula of The keep stood on a high artificial mount, and Malacca already mentioned. Thence it is bounded from its ruins a small round tower has been conto the southward by the coasts of Borneo, Celebes, structed, whence there is a delightfil prospect. Macassar, New Guinea, New Holland, and the It is supposed to have been of Saxon origin. other islands in that quarter, which divide it The six parishes (exclusive of Stoneham) have from the Indian Ocean. Then, washing the east but five parish churches; viz. Holy-Rood, St. coast of the great island of New Holland, it com- Michael's, All-Saints, St. Mary's, and the united municates with that vast body of water encom- parish church of St. Lawrence and St. John. passing the whole southern part of the globe, and That of Holy-Rood is remarkable for its organ which has the general name of the Southern and monuments. It is a vicarage, in the patronage Ocean. Thus does this vast ocean occupy al- of Queen's College, Oxford. St. Michael's has most the semi-circumference of the globe, ex a high slender octagonal tower, which serves as tending almost from one pole to the other, and a mark for vessels entering the harbour. Allabout the equatorial parts extending almost 180° Saints' is an elegant modern structure, fronting in long., or 12,500 English miles. The northern the High Street. The whole length is ninetyparts of the Pacific are almost destitute of land, five feet, breadth sixty-one, and height, to the from lat. 40° N. and upwards, excepting such ceiling, forty-seven. St. Lawrence's is a small islands as are near the coast either of Asia or church, situate in the High Street. St. Mary's is America: in the southern part there are a great a rectory, in the gift of the bishop of Winchester, number. Till very lately the South Sea was in a worth at least £1400 per annum: The various great measure unknown. From the great extent classes of dissenters have six meeting-houses in of ice which covers the southern part of the this town. Near the town is an asylum for globe, it was imagined that much more land soldiers' orphans, on the plan of the asylum at existed there than in the northern regions. But Chelsea. A grammar-school, founded here in the the supposed southern continent, or Terra Aus- reign of Edward VI., is in high repute. Among tralis, has hitherto eluded the search of the most the principal charities are Thorner's alms-houses, expert navigators. See Cook, Pacific, and for the relief of poor widows; and a charityPOLYNESIA.
school, founded by Alderman Taunton, for eduSOUTHAM, a market town and parish of cating and apprenticing poor boys, besides several Warwickshire, thirteen miles north-west from of less consequence. At the bottom of Orchard Banbury, and eighty-two north from London, is Street, without the Bar-gate, is a spring of the indifferently built. But the church is handsome, nature of Tunbridge-Wells, used with effect for and has a spire. Market on Monday, for cattle. the
same complaints. Fairs, first Monday in Lent, Easter-Monday, The public rooms near the baths command a Monday before Whitsuntide, and July 10th. delightful prospect; the ball-room is spacious
SOUTHAMPTON is a borough-town and and handsomely decorated; the theatre capacounty of itself, consisting of seven parishes, in- cious and commodious, and besides these, cluding Stoneham, situate at the junction of the there are horse-races and other entertainments. Test and Itching, which forms the Southampton The town has several well-furnished libraries, Water, twenty-two miles W.N.W. from Ports- and three respectable banks. About half a mouth, and seventy-seven W.N. W. from London. mile from the Bar-gate stands the barrack, eitIt contains
handsome streets; and its ancient closing an area of two acres. On an eminence, timber buildings are daily giving place to modern at a small distance, is the polygon, an elegant erections. The High Street, terminating at the pile of buildings, commanding extensive sea and quay, has a beautiful view both of the Waterland views. The inhabitants carry on a consiand the New Forest. The town is well paved, derable trade with the northern parts of Europe, lighted, and watched ; and the streets are always for timber, hemp, tallow, &c.; with Portugal clean and dry. Conduits are disposed at proper for wine and fruit; and with Wales and Newdistances, and supply the town with excellent castle for iron, coals, lead, and glass. South
The new and superior buildings are ampton has likewise a good trade with Jersey chiefly occupied as lodging-houses for the nu- and Guernsey, to which they send large quantimerous summer visitors, for the purpose of sea- ties of wool, principally returned in knit hose. bathing; for whose accommodation here, and in Ship building is carried on at the docks near the vicinity, are a vast number of warm and cold the town. baths, fitted up with suitable conveniences. The According to its last charter of incorporation, approach to the town from the London road is granted by Charles I., Southampton is governed exceedingly striking; and, on entering the town by a mayor, a recorder, nine justices, a sheriff, jy one of its more fashionable streets, the view is two bailiffs, twenty-four common councilmen, farther heightened by that venerable relic of an- and as many burgesses. All who have passed the tiquity the Bar-gate; the greater part of which is chair are aldermen. The town which was made a supposed to have been erected in the reign of borough by Henry II., is as such independent Edward III. Over the arches of the foot and of the lord lieutenant and sheriff of Hampshire. carriage-ways is a town-hall, fifty-two feet by The mayor is admiral of the liberties from Southtwenty-one, with wliich a room for the grand sea castle to Hurst castle, and halfsea over from jury communicates.
Calshot to the Isle of Wight. Southampton The old walls present, in some places, a vene- sends two members to parliament. The first ralle appearance. Their circuit is computed at return was made in the 23d of Edward I. The