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open stood,


Inhabitant of heaven and heavenly-born,
Here, in perpetual agony and pain,
With terrours and with clamours compass'd round
Of mine own brood, that on my bowels feed ?
Thou art my father, thou my authour, thou
My being gavest me; whom should I obey

But thee? whom follow? thou wilt bring me soon
To that new world of light and bliss, among
The gods who live at ease; where I shall reign
At thy right hand voluptuous, as beseems
Thy daughter and thy darling, without end.

Thus saying, from her side the fatal key,
Sad instrument of all our woe, she took;
And, towards the gate rolling her bestial train,
Forthwith the huge portcullis high up drew,
Which but herself not all the Stygian powers

Could once have moved; then in the keyhole turns
The intricate wards, and every bolt and bar
Of massy iron or solid rock with ease
Unfastens: on a sudden open fly
With impetuous recoil and jarring sound
The infernal doors, and on their hinges grate
Harsh thunder, that the lowest bottom shook
Of Erebus. She open’d, but to shut
Excell'd her power; the gates wide
That with extended wings a banner'd host,
Under spread ensigns marching, might pass througb
With horse and chariots rank'd in loose array;
So wide they stood, and like a furnace mouth
Cast forth redounding smoke and ruddy flame.
Before their eyes in sudden view appear
The secrets of the hoary deep; a dark
Illimitable ocean, without bound,
Without dimension, where length, breadth, and highth,
And time, and place, are lost; where eldest Night
And Chaos, ancestors of Nature, hold
Eternal anarchy, amidst the noise
Of endless wars, and by confusion stand:
For hot, cold, moist, and dry, four champions fierce,
Strive here for mastery, and to battel bring
Their embryon atoms; they around the flag
Of each his faction, in their several clans,
Light-arm’d or heavy, sharp, smooth, swift, or slow,
Swarm populous, unnumber'd as the sands
Of Barca or Cyrene's torrid soil,
Levied to side with warring winds, and poise
Their lighter wings. To whom these most adhere,

She open'd, but to shut with Oval's, and he will easily see how the Excell'd her power. “The grandeur Roman poet has lessened the grandeur bere, both of the thought and the picture, of his, by puerile conceits and quaint is incomparable.”—BRYDGES.

antitheses. Every thing in Milton is 898. Por hot, &c. “The reader may great and masterly."-NEWTON. pompare this whole description of Chaos 906. To whom, &c. Tbat is, to what side










He rules a moment: Chaos umpire sits,
And by decision more embroils the fray,
By which he reigns: next him, high arbiter,
Chance governs all. Into this wild abyss,
The womb of nature, and perhaps her grave, —
Of neither sea, nor shore, nor air, nor fire,
But all these in their pregnant causes mix'd
Confusedly, and which thus must ever fight,
Unless the Almighty Maker them ordain
His dark materials to create more worlds ;-
Into this wild abyss the wary fiend
Stood on the brink of hell, and look'd a while
Pondering his voyage; for no narrow frith
He had to cross. Nor was his ear less peal'd
With noises loud and ruinous, (to compare
Great things with small) than when Bellona storms,
With all her battering engines bent to rase
Some capital city; or less than if this frame
Of heaven were falling, and these elements
In mutiny had from her axle torn
The stedfast earth. At last his sail-broad vans
He spreads for flight, and in the surging smoke
Uplifted spurns the ground; thence many a league.
As in a cloudy chair, ascending rides
Audacious; but, that seat soon failing, meets
A vast vacuity: all unawares
Fluttering his pennons vain, plumb down he drops
Ten thousand fathom deep; and to this hour
Down had been falling, had not by ill chance
The strong rebuff of some tumultuous cloud,
Instinct with fire and nitre, hurried him
As many miles aloft: that fury stay'd,
Quench'd in a boggy Syrtis, neither sea,
Nor good dry land: nigh founder'd on he fares,
Treading the crude consistence, half on foot,
Half flying; behoves him now both oar and sail.
As when a gryphon, through the wilderness
With winged course, o'er hill or moory dale,
Pursues the Arimaspian, who by stealth
Had from his wakeful custody purloin'd
The guarded gold; so eagerly the fiend
O’er bog or steep, through strait, rough, dense, or rare
With head, hands, wings, or feet pursues his way,





Foever the atoms temporarily adhere, that 943. Gryphon. The gryphon, or griffin, side rules for the moment.

was a fabulous, bird-like species of ani. 918. Stood on the brink. Satan pauses mal, with the body of a lion and the head for a moment, terrified at the danger of and wings of an eagle. They were fabled his enterprise.

to dwell in the Ripharan mountains, be927. Vans, wings: so Beaumont and tween the Hyperboreans and the one-eyed Fletcher have "sail-stretched wings." Arimaspians, and to guard the gold of the

938. That fury stay'd. That fiery re- north. These ove-eyed Arimaspians were buff ceasel, quenched, and put out by a said to be of Scythia, and to adorn their soft quicksand: Syrtis is explained by hair with gold. neither sea nor good dry land.

948. Oer bog, &c. “The difficulty of






And swims, or sinks, or wades, or creeps, or flies.
At length a universal hubbub wild
Of stunning sounds and voices all confused,
Borne through the hollow dark, assaults his ear
With loudest vehemence: thither he plies,
Undaunted to meet there whatever power
Or spirit of the nethermost abyss
Might in that noise reside, of whom to ask
Which way

the nearest coast of darkness lies,
Bordering on light; when straight behold the throne
Of Chaos, and his dark pavilion spread
Wide on the wasteful deep: with him enthroned
Sat sable-vested Night, eldest of things,
The consort of his reign; and by them stood
Orcus and Ades, and the dreaded name
Of Demogorgon; Rumour next, and Chance,
And Tumult and Confusion all embroil'd;
And Discord with a thousand various mouths.

To whom Satan turning boldly, thus:--Ye powers,
And spirits of this nethermost abyss,
Chaos and ancient Night, I come no spy,
With purpose to explore or to disturb
The secrets of your realm; but by constraint
Wandering this darksome desert,

-as my way
Lies through your spacious empire up

to light,-
Alone, and without guide, half lost, î seek
What readiest path leads where your gloomy bounds
Confine with heaven; or if some other place,
From your dominion won, the Ethereal King
Possesses lately, thither to arrive
I travel this profound: direct my course;
Directed, no mean recompense it brings
To your behoof, if I that region lost,
All usurpation thence expellid, reduce
To her original darkness and your sway,
Which is my present journey, and once more
Erect the standard there of ancient Night:
Yours be the advantage all, mine the revenge.

Thus Satan; and him thus the anarch old,
With faltering speech and visage incomposed,
Answer’d:-I know thee, stranger, who thou art;
That mighty leading angel, who of late
Made head against heaven's King, though overthrown.
I saw and heard; for such a numerous host
Fled not in silence through the frighted deep,
With ruin upon ruin, rout on rout,
Confusion worse confounded; and heaven gates
Pour'd out by millions her victorious bands

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Satan's voyage is very well expressed by so inany inonosyllables as follow, which caunot be pronounced but slowly, and with frequent pauses."-Newton.

964. Orcue, Orcus for Pluto. Ades foi any dark place, or the world of the dead. ** The very uume of Demogorgon the ancients supposed capable of producing the





Pursuing. I upon my frontiers here
Keep residence; if ali I can will serve,
That little which is left so to defend,
Encroach'd on still through your intestine broils
Weakening the sceptre of old Night: first hell,
Your dungeon, stretching far and wide beneath;
Now lately heaven and earth, another world,
Hung o'er my realm, link'd in a golden chain
To that side heaven from whence your legions fell:
If that way be your walk, you have not far;
So much the nearer danger: go, and speed:
Havock, and spoil, and ruin are my gain.

He ceased; and Satan stay'd not to reply:
But, glad that now his sea should find a shore,
With fresh alacrity and force renew'd
Springs upward, like a pyramid of fire,
Into the wild expanse; and through the shock
Of fighting elements, on all sides round
Environ’d, wins his way; harder beset
And more endanger'd, than when Argo pass'd
Through Bosporus betwixt the justling rocks;
Or when Ulysses on the larboard shunn'd
Charybdis, and by the other whirlpool steer'd.
So he with difficulty and labour hard
Moved on, with difficulty and labour he;
But he once past, soon after, when man fell,
(Strange alteration!) Sin and Death amain
Following his track, (such was the will of Heaven)
Paved after him a broad and beaten way
Over the dark abyss, whose boiling gulf
Tamely endured a bridge of wondrous length
From hell continued, reaching the utmost orb
Of this frail world; by which the spirits perverse

easy intercourse pass to and fro
To tempt or punish mortals, except whom
God and good angels guard by special grace.
But now at last the sacred influence
Of light appears, and from the walls of heaven
Shoots far into the bosom of dim Night


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most terrible effects, which they there- as formed out of Chaos for the residence fore dreaded to pronounce. He is men- of man. That is, the substance from tioned as of great power in incantations." which Hell and Earth were formed, bo -NEWTON.

longed, before the “intestine broils" took 999. If au I can, &c. As if he had place in heaven, to the kingdom of Chaos aid, " If all I can do will serve so that is, and old Night. by my keeping here upon my frontiers) to 1018. Justling rocks. These rocks, at defend that little which is still encroach'd the entrance of the Black Sea from the on through your intestine broils, I shall Bosporus, are called in Greek Sympledo that all. That your broils have weak gades, from two words meaning “to ened my sceptre is clear, for in conse- strike together," because they were so quence of your rebellion Hell first on- near that at a distance they seemed to croscbed on my domains, it being formed open and shut again, and to justle ono out of them for the abode of the apostate another, as the ship varied her course angels; and then Earth with the sur. from side to side: So Satan's voyage rounding heavens encroached on them, through the fighting elements was more



A glimmering dawn: here Nature first begins
Her farthest verge, and Chaos to retire
As from her utmost works, a broken foe,
With tumult less and with less hostile din;
That Satan, with less toil, and now with ease,
Wafts on the calmer wave by dubious light;
And, like a weather-beaten vessel, holds
Gladly the port, though shrouds and tackle torn;
Or in the emptier waste, resembling air,
Weighs his spread wings, at leisure to behold
Far off the empyreal heaven, extended wide
In circuit, undetermined square or round,
With opal towers and battlements adorn'd
Of living sapphire, once his native seat;
And fast by, hanging in a golden chain,
This pendent world, in bigness as a star
Of smallest magnitude close by the moon.
Thither, full fraught with mischievous revenge,
Accursed, and in a cursed hour, he hies.



difficult and dangerous than that of the prised at the sudden view of all this world Argonauts through narrow seas betwixt at once, (iii. 542.) This new created unijustling rocks.

verse, when beheld far off, appeared, in 1052. This pendent world. "By this is comparison with the empyreal hearen meant not the Earth, but the new crea- no birger than a star of smallest magnition, Heaven and Earth, (line 1004,) or the tude when close by the moon, whose sunew created universe; for Satan did not perior light cuuses & star so near to be see the Earth yet: he was afterwards sur- 1 scarcely visible.”—NEWTON.

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