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vantage, which will always,overbaIancethe flow Improvements of gradual Cottection, Mu,ch less ought our written Language to comply with the Corruptions of oral Utterance, or copy that which every Variation of Time or Place makea disferent from itself, and imitate those Changes, which wijl again be changed, while imitatifcn is employed La observing them.

7 bis Recommendation of Steadiness aad Uniformity does not proceed from au Opinion, that particular Combinations of Letters have much Influence on human Happiness; or that Truth may not be successsully taught by Modes of Spelling.fancisul and erroneous: I am pot yet so lost in Lexicography, as to sorget that Words ar.t the Paygbleri of Martb, and that Things, aye the Sons of Heaven. Language is only the Instrument of Science, and Words are hut the Signs, of Ideas: I wish, however, that the Instrument might be less apt todecay^and thaj the Sign^ might be permanent, like the Things whi^h they denpte.

In settling the Orthography* I have not wholly neglected the Pronunciation, which I have directed, by putting an Accent upon the acme or elevated Syllable. It \vill sometimes bs foupd, that the Accent js placed by the Authour quoted^ on a disferent Syllable from that marked in the alphabetical Series i g is then to be understood l;hat Custom has varied, or that the Authour has,, in my Opinion, pronounces wrong; Short Directions are somqtimes given where the Sound of Letter?, isirregular; and, if they are some? times. orr\itted, Desect in such minute Observation? will be more easily excused than Superfluity.

In the Investigation both of the Orthography and Signisication of Words, their Etymology was necesfarily to be considered, and |hey w,ere therefore to be divided into Primitives a,nd Derivative.?. A primitive Word is that; which can be traced no surther t» -any Englijh Root; thus cir.(ws(e8,x circumvents dr

tumjiance^ eumftance, delude, concave, and complicate, though Compounds m the Latin, are to us Primitives. Derivatives are all thofe that can be reserred to any Word in Englijb of greater Simplicity.

The Derivatives I have reserred to their Primitives, with an Accuracy fometimes needless; for who does not fee that Remoteness comes from remote, lovely from Love, Concavity {torn concave, and demonstrative from demonstrate? but this grammatical Exuberance the Scheme of my Work did not allow me torepress. It is of great Importance in examining the. general Fabrick of a Language, to trace one Word from another, by noting the usual Modes of Derivation and Inflection; and Uniformity must be preserved in systematical Works, though fometimes at the Expence of particular Propriety.

Among other Derivatives I have been careful toinsert and elucidate the andmalous Plurals of Nounsand Preterites of Verbs, which hi the Teutonick Dialects are very frequent; and though familiar to thofe who have always used them, interrupt and embarrass the Lcarrters Of our Language.

The two Languages from which our Primitives have been derived, are the Roman and Teutonick: Under the Roman I comprehend the French and Provincial Tongues; and under the 'Teutonics: range the Saxon, Germdn, and all their kindred Dialects. Mast of our Polysyllables are Roman, and our Words ef one Syllable are very osten Teutonick.

In assigning the Roman Original, it-has perhaps fometimes happened that I have mentioned only the Latin, when the Word was borrowed from the French j and considering myself us employed only in the Illustration- of my own Language, 1 have not been very caresul to observe whether the Latin Word be pure ©r barbarous, or the French elegant or obfolete.

For the Teutonick Etymologies I am commonly indebted to Junius and Skir.nsr, the only Names which I have forborne to quote when I copied their Books i not that I might appropriate their Labours to usurp their Honours, but that I might spare a perpetual Repetition by one general Acknowledgment, Of these, whom 1 ought not to mention but with the Reverence due to Instructors and Benesactors, Junius appears to have excelled in Extent of Learning, and Skinner in Rectitude of Understanding. Junius was accurately skilled in all the northern Languages. Skinner probably examined the ancient and remoter Dialects only by occasional Inspection into Dictionaries ; but the Learning of Junius is often of no other Use than to shew him a Track by which he may deviate from his Purpose, to which Skinner always presses forward by the shortest Way. Skinner is often ignorant, but never ridiculous: Junius is always sull of Knowledge; but his Variety distracts his Judgment, and his Learning is very frequently disgraced by his Absurdities.

The Votaries of the northern Muses will not perhaps easily restrain their Indignation, when they sind the Name of Junius thus degraded by a difadvantageous Comparison; but whatever Reverence is due to his Diligence, or his Attainments, it can be no criminal Degree of Censoriousness to charge that Etymologist with Want of Judgment, who can seriously derive Dream from Drama, because Life is a Drama, and a Drama is a Dream; and who declares with a Tone of Desiance, that no Man can fail to derive Moan from pw®', monos, who considers that Gries naturally loves to be alone *.

* That I may not appear to have spoken too Irreverently of Junius, 1 have here subioined a few specimens os his etymological Extravagance.

Banish, rtligart, tx banns vil terrhorio exigui, in exilium tgirtt O. banmr. It. trandirc, bandeggiert. H. btndir, B. tunnen. Ævi medii seriptcres bannire dicebant. V. spelm. in B..nnum & in Ban** leuga. Qwniam veto regionum. urbiumq; Hmites arduis plerumct; montibus, ahis fluminibus, longis deniq; flexuosii'q; angulUflimalum vinum unsractibus includebattur, sieri potest id genui limite*

tut

Our Knowledge of the Northern Literature is soscanty, that of Words undoubtedly Teutonhk, the Original is not always to be found in any ancient Language; and 1 have theresore inserted Dutch or German Substitutes, which I consider no*, as radical, but parallel; not as the Parents, but Sisters of the EngUJh.

The Words which are represented as thus related bj Descent or Cognation, do not always agree in Sense; for it is incident to Words, as to their Authours, to degenerate from their Ancestors, and tochange their Manners when they change their Country. It is sufsicient,, in etymological Enquiries, if the Senses of kindred Words be found, such as may easily pass into each other, or such as may both be reserred to one general Idea.

The Etymology, so far as it is yet known, was easily found in the Volumes where it is particularly and prosessedly delivered; and, by proper Attention to the Rules of Derivation, the Orthography was

ban diet ab eo quod Bawarat & Bawa-r^oi Tarentinis olim, sicuti tradit Hesychius, vocabantur al Xi£pt £ ph IQvrtm: oXoi, "obliquæ ac "minime in rectum tendentes vise.** Ac fortasse quoque hue facie quod Bavuc, eodem Hesychio ttste, dicebant <Sg>i r*z;yC>.<i momes arduos.

Empty, emtie, vacuus, hams, A. s. Æm«5. Nefcio an sin* ab \sxioo vel l/xs-raw. Vomo, evomo, vomitu evacuo. Videtur interim etymologiam hanc non obseute sinnare codex Rush. Mat. xii. 22. ubi antique seriptum invenimus jemoereo hit emej-15. "Invenit am "vacantem."

Hill, mons, colHs. A. s. hyll. Quod videri potest abicifl'um e;e xoXw'vii vel K:Ax;;<r. Coliis, tumulus, locus in piano editior. Horn. 1L b. T. 811, If *-" Tic vrpnra guide TPoXt®* a.\ir{ia.t xeXavn. sJbi au~ thori brevium scholioium noXoSm exp.ToV^1 tic :j^,& dvrjKM, y£a»'Ao$(&

H'Xfi

Nap, to tab a Nap. Dormin, eendormifare. Cym, heppian. A.s. hnæppan. Quod postremum videri pntest desumptum ex x*l<f«c, obscuritas, tenebræ: nihil enim æque solet conciliate somnum, quara caliginosa profundæ notis obscurita3.

Stammerer, Balbut, blæsus Goth. sTAMMs. A. s. pcamep. JTamup. D. stam. B. stameler. su. st.mma. 1st. stamr. sunt a rot;Mte', yel rxpixtei,, nimia loquacitate alios oftendere; quod impedite loquentes libentisiimc gairire Meant; vel quod aliis mmii semper videantur, etiam parciflime loquentes.

soon foon adjusted.' Tfti't to -collect the Words Of 6ilf Language was a Task of greater Difficulty: The Deficiency of Dictionaries was immediately apparent; and when they were exhausted, what was yet "wanting must be fought by fortuitous and unguidefl Excursions into Book, and gleaned as Industry should sind, or Chance should offer it, in the boundless Chaos of a living Speech. My Search, however, has been either skilsul or lucky; for 1 have much augmented the Vocabulary.

As my Design was a Dictionary, common or ap* pellative, I have omitted all Words which have Relation to proper Names; such as Arian, Soanian, 'Calvinij?, Benedicline, Mahometan: but have retained those of a more general Nature; as Heathen, Pagan*

Of the Terms of Art, I have received such as •could be found either in Books of Science, or technical Dictionaries; and have often inserted, from philosophical Writers, Words which are supported perhaps only by a single Authority"; and which being not admitted into general Use, stand yet as Candidates or Probationers, and must depend for their Adoption on the Suffrage of Futurity.

The Words which our Authours have introduced by their Knowledge of foreign Languages, or Ignorance of their own, by Vanity or Wantonness, by Compliance wiih Fashion, or Lust of Innovation, I have registered as they occurred, though commonly only to censure them, and warn others against the Folly of naturalizing useless Foreigners, to the Injury of the Natives.

I have not rejected any by Design, merely because they were unnecessary or exuberant •, but have rej ceived those which by difserent Writers have beert differently formed; as viscid, and Viscidity; viscoust and Viscojity.

Compounded or double Words I have seldom noted, except when they obtain a Signisication different

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