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DRAMATIS PERSONÆ

SATURNINUS, Son to the late Emperor of Rome, and afterwards

declared Emperor.
BASSIANUS, Brother to Saturninus, in love with Lavinia.
TITUS ANDRONICUS, a noble Roman, General against the Goths.
MARCUS ANDRONICUS, Tribune of the People, and Brother to Titus.
LUCIUS,
QUINTUS,

Sons to Titus Andronicus.
MARTIUS,
MUTIUS,
Young Lucius, a Boy, Son to Lucius.
PUBLIUS, Son to Marcus Andronicus.
SEMPRONIUS,
Caius,

Kinsmen to Titus.
VALENTINE,
ÆMILIUS, a noble Roman.
ALARBUS,
DEMETRIUS,

Sons to Tamora.
CHIRON,
AARON, a Moor, beloved by Tamora.
A Captain, Tribune, Messenger, and Clown.
Goths and Romans.

TAMORA, Queen of the Goths.
LAVINIA, Daughter to Titus Andronicus.
A Nurse, and a black Child.
Senators, Tribunes, Officers, Soldiers, and Attendants.

Scene: Rome, and the Country near it.

2

TITUS ANDRONICUS

ACT I

SCENE I.-Rome.

The Tomb of the Andronici appearing. The Tribunes and

Senators aloft; and then enter SATURNINUS and his
Followers at one door, and BASSIANUS and his Followers

at the other, with drum and colours. Sat. Noble patricians, patrons of my right,

Defend the justice of my cause with arms;
And, countrymen, my loving followers,
Plead my successive title with your swords:
I am his first-born son, that was the last

5
That wore the imperial diadem of Rome;
Then let my father's honours live in me,

Nor wrong mine age with this indignity.
Bass. Romans, friends, followers, favourers of my right,

4. successive) legitimate, in due suc- 8. age] seniority, i.e. deprive me of cession to his father. Vide 2 Henry what is due me as the elder son. A form VI. i. i. 49; Hamlet, v. ii. 284. of half-personification or synecdoche Steevens quotes a like use of it from very common in Shakespeare. Raleigh.

9. Romans, friends, followers, etc.) 5. his first-born ... that} A con- It is well to note how carefully the struction longer allowable in characters of the two brothers are disEnglish=I am the first-born son of tinguished from the first, and the him who was the last, etc. “That” different style of their address to their for modern "who" is frequent in followers. Bassianus speaks in that Shakespeare.

strain of aristocratic republicanism

no

3

1ο

If ever Bassianus, Cæsar's son,
Were gracious in the eyes of royal Rome,
Keep then this passage to the Capitol,
And suffer not dishonour to approach
The imperial seat, to virtue consecrate,
To justice, continence, and nobility;
But let desert in pure election shine,
And, Romans, fight for freedom in your choice.

15

Enter MARCUS ANDRONICUS, aloft, with the crown.
Marc. Princes, that strive by factions and by friends

Ambitiously for rule and empery,
Know that the people of Rome, for whom we stand 20
A special party, have by common voice,
In election for the Roman empery,
Chosen Andronicus, surnamed Pius,
For many good and great deserts to Rome.
A nobler man, a braver warrior,

25
Lives not this day within the city walls:
He by the senate is accited home

which we find both in Julius Cæsar 21. special party) as representatives. and Coriolanus. Saturninus, a despic- Party in Shakespeare means cause, inable character throughout, appeals terest, party (in political or military merely to his right by primogeniture. sense), and never has the (vulgar) 12. Keep) defend, hold.

modern use=

= person. 15. continence] may either have a 22. In election, etc.) This seems to rather broader meaning than that we mean, not that Titus was finally elected now give it=self-mastery, or may be in Emperor, but was put forward as can. allusion to known defects in his brother's didate by the people, as distinguished character. The New Eng. Dict. quotes from the Patricians, the Senate, etc. from Elyot : “Continence is a virtue He was merely candidatus, as Marcus which keepeth the plesaunt appetite of says in a later speech. man under the yoke of reason.

24. deserts) merit, good deeds, as in 16. pure election) free choice, apart Marlowe's Tamburlaine, If you from the considerations of birth, which retain desert of holiness," New. Eng. were in favour of his brother.

Dict. 19. empery] rule, absolute sway, 27. accited] summoned. This and Henry V. I. ii. 226.

other slightly pedantic words in the

From weary wars against the barbarous Goths ;
That, with his sons, a terror to our foes,
Hath yok'd a nation strong, train'd up in arms. 30
Ten years are spent since first he undertook
This cause of Rome, and chastised with arms
Our enemies' pride: five times he hath return'd
Bleeding to Rome, bearing his valiant sons
In coffins from the field.

35
And now at last, laden with honour's spoils,
Returns the good Andronicus to Rome,
Renowned Titus, flourishing in arms.
Let us entreat, by honour of his name,
Whom worthily you would have now succeed,
And in the Capitol and senate's right,
Whom you pretend to honour and adore,
That you withdraw you and abate your strength;
Dismiss your followers, and, as suitors should,

Plead your deserts in peace and humbleness. 45 Sat. How fair the tribune speaks to calm my thoughts ! Bass. Marcus Andronicus, so I do affy

In thy uprightness and integrity,
And so I love and honour thee and thine,
Thy noble brother Titus and his sons,

50 And her to whom my thoughts are humbled all,

40

play, used in their purely classic sense, 30. yok'd] brought under the yoke, have been cited as arguments against as Two Gentlemen of Verona, 1. i. 40 ; Shakespeare's authorship. But we find 1 Henry VI, 11. iii. 64. the same thing in other plays, such 42. pretend) profess, claim. As in as Macbeth, where such words as the original meaning of “The Preconvince"=overcome, “inform” = tender ” =claimant, whether justly or shape (Lat. informare) are quite common.

47. affy) confide in; occurs in 2 29. That] who, or he who. Very Henry VI. iv. i. = betroth. New common in Shakespeare. See Abbott, Eng. Dict. has "so greatly she affied pars. 258, etc.

him," Turberville.

no.

Gracious Lavinia, Rome's rich ornament,
That I will here dismiss my loving friends,
And to my fortunes and the people's favour
Commit my cause in balance to be weigh'd. 55

[Exeunt the Followers of Bassianus. Sat. Friends, that have been thus forward in my right,

I thank you all and here dismiss you all ;
And to the love and favour of my country
Commit myself, my person, and the cause.

[Exeunt the Followers of Saturninus. Rome, be as just and gracious unto me

60 As I am confident and kind to thee.

Open the gates, and let me in.
Bass. Tribunes, and me, a poor competitor.

[Flourish. They go up into the Senate-house.

65

Enter a Captain.
Cap. Romans, make way! the good Andronicus,

Patron of virtue, Rome's best champion,
Successful in the battles that he fights,
With honour and with fortune is return'd
From where he circumscribed with his sword,
And brought to yoke, the enemies of Rome.

52. Gracious] has numerous mean- blood, as the eldest son of the late ings in Shakespeare-(1) kind, (2) Emperor. agreeable, (3) holy, (4) fortunate, (5) 63. a poor competitor) either poor in lovely, (6) condescending (applied to having no wealthy or influential backkings, etc.); but here either (3) or (5). ing, as his brother had, or a mere touch Schmidt.

of mock humility, in order to curry 55, 59. cause] the decision, or trial favour with the tribunes and people. of the matter, as often elsewhere in 68. circumscribed) restrained, limited, Shakespeare. Richard III, ul. v. 66. as in Hamlet, I. iii. 22. New Eng.

61. confident] confiding. See New Dict. gives Defoe, Robinson Crusoe, Eng. Dici. “Kind” may mean kindly ix. 185 (ed. 1840), “I was alone disposed, or it may mean near in circumscribed by the ocean."

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