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course of the early Republican party-of the "system of administration" pursued by the Presidents who belonged to that party. He uniformly expressed the belief that these had been grossly misrepresented by the prominent historical writers who had thus far appeared. He had prepared some testimony on the subject himself;' and he expected Madison would combine all the proofs into a full vindication. It was his cause which he wished "taken care of," and himself only as a part of, or an instrument in, that cause. Mr. Madison understood the request as here explained. How little he supposed Mr. Jefferson stood in need either of public panegyric or defence will appear from the following letter:
MR. MADISON TO MR. N. P. TRIST.
MONTPELLIER, July 6, 1826.
I have just received yours of the 4th. A few lines from Dr. Dunglison had prepared me for such a communication; and I never doubted that the last scene of our illustrious friend would be worthy of the life which it closed. Long as this has been spared to his country and to those who loved him, a few years more were to have been desired for the sake of both. But we are more than consoled for the loss by the gain to him, and by the assurance that he lives and will live in the memory and gratitude of the wise and good, as a luminary of science, as a votary of liberty, as a model of patriotism, and as a benefactor of the human kind. In these characters I have known him, and not less in the virtues and charms of social life, for a period of fifty years during which there was not an interruption or diminution of mutual confidence and cordial friendship, for a single moment, in a single instance. What I feel, therefore, now, need not, I should say cannot be expressed. If there be any possible way in which I can usefully give evidence of it, do not fail to afford me the opportunity. I indulge a hope that the unforeseen event will not be permitted to impair any of the beneficial measures which were in progress, or in prospect. It cannot be unknown that the anxieties of the deceased were for others, not for himself. Accept, my dear sir, my best wishes for yourself and for all with whom we sympathize; in which Mrs. Madison most sincerely joins.
Letters of the tenor of the preceding poured in upon Mr. Jefferson's family from all quarters. We shall present extracts from but one other, and that only out of justice to the writer. It was addressed to Mr. Trist, July 12th, by Hon. Dabney
In his Ana.
2 Mr. Madison was understood to mean this for a delicately worded offer to contribute his aid and influence to further any present or contemplated measure for the relief of Mr. Jefferson's estate.
CHAP. XIII.] PUBLIC MANIFESTATIONS OF SORROW.
Carr, one of the Judges of the Court of Appeals of Virginia.' The original is before us, and it appears to be tear-stained:
"The loss of Mr. Jefferson [writes Judge Carr] is one over which the whole world will mourn. He was one of those ornaments and benefactors of the human race, whose death forms an epoch, and creates a sensation throughout the whole circle of civilized man. But that feeling is nothing to what those feel who are connected with him by blood, and bound to him by gratitude for a thousand favors. To me he has been more than a father, and I have ever loved and reverenced him with my whole heart. . . . . Taken as a whole, history presents nothing so grand, so beautiful, so peculiarly felicitous in all the great points, as the life and character of Thomas Jefferson."
These expressions were not confined to private sources. The death of Jefferson and Adams under ordinary circumstances would have attracted much notice. They were the last of the Presidents who had been prime actors in the Revolution-the only ones who had signed the Declaration of Independence. Jefferson had always been an unbounded favorite with a vast majority of his countrymen. John Adams was again beginning to be properly understood. His great earlier services were remembered, and his death extinguished the smouldering fires of partisan prejudice. When it became known that they had both died on the same day, and that day the fiftieth anniversary of the Declaration of Independence, it fell on the public ear as something Providential and awful. It seemed as if Heaven itself had interfered to specially honor the exit of these aged and illustrious patriots.
The voice of sorrow, but of triumphal sorrow, broke forth over the land. Newspapers every where exhibited the marks of national mourning. Public edifices were draped with the badges of death. Every American vessel wore her flag at half mast. Minute guns were fired from our ships of war and fortresses. There were, perhaps, no cities and few villages of any considerable size which did not exhibit some public ceremonials in honor of the dead. A great number of funeral orations were
1 The writer, Judge Carr, was the son of Mr. Jefferson's early friend of the same name, and of Mr. Jefferson's sister Martha. It was this widowed sister and her children that. Mr. Jefferson was accused of defrauding out of their property, by "the Rev. Cotton Mather Smith of Shena," and others. The Rev. Mr. Smith declared the charge "could! be proven." We have already said that any of the Carrs would have laid down their lives for their generous uncle. We have thought it proper to let one of the family speak. for himself over the grave of his benefactor
pronounced before vast audiences by individuals who were chosen by their fellow-citizens to perform that honorable duty. The best talents of the nation, irrespective of creed or party, were devoted to this labor of love.'
1 An octavo volume of selections from these orations has been published. The authors quoted are we believe the following and in the following order: "Tyler, Cushing, Cambreling, Samuel Smith, Sheldon Smith, Sergeant, Duer, P. Sprague, Shaw, Knapp, Webster, J. Sprague, Turner, Grundy, Johinson, Thornton, Wilkins, and Wirt." This list omits Everett, Biddle, and many others.
Mr. Jefferson's Religious Views-His Public Professions of a Belief in the Christian Religion-Uniform Tone of his State Papers on this Subject-These nowhere Shown to be Insincere by his Private Writings or History-His Contributions to Religious Objects, Attendance on Divine Worship, etc.-His Language and Deportment in respect to Religion-Letter to his Daughter on the Subject in 1803-His Avowal that he Leans on the Views of Priestley-To Dr. Rush on same Subject in 1803-His Syllabus of an Estimate of the Merit of the Doctrines of Jesus, Compared with those of Others-His dissent from some of the Leading Views of Priestley-His objection to a "Specified Creed" -His Degree of General Concurrence with Unitarians-He published no Attacks on the Faith or Character of any Sect-Three Classes of his Religious Letters published after his Death-Considerations to be kept in View in estimating their Contents-His Utter Avoidance of Proselytism even in his Family-Closing up of his Pecuniary AffairsThe Subscription drops and the Lottery fails-Sale of his Property-The ResultAnother Exhibition of Public Feeling-Action of South Carolina and Louisiana Legislatures-Descendants left by Mr. Jefferson at the time of his Death-His Monument and Epitaph-Death of Governor Randolph-Death of Mrs. Randolph-Publication of Randolph's Edition of Jefferson's Works-Sale of Mr. Jefferson's Manuscripts, and Publication of Congress Edition of his Works-Responsibility.
MR. JEFFERSON was a public professor of his belief in the Christian religion. In all his most important early State papers, such as his Summary View of the Rights of British America, his portion of the Declaration made by Congress on the Causes of taking up Arms, the Declaration of Independence, the draft of a Constitution for Virginia, etc., there are more or less pointed recognitions of God and Providence. In his two Inaugural Addresses as President of the United States, and in many of his annual messages he makes the same recognitions-clothes them on several occasions in the most explicit language-substantially avows the God of his faith to be the God of revelation-declares his belief in the efficacy of prayer, and the duty of ascriptions of praise to the Author of all mercies-and speaks of the Chris
tian religion as professed in his country as a benign religion, evincing the favor of Heaven.'
Had his wishes been consulted, the symbol borne on our national seal would have contained our public profession of Christianity as a nation."
There is nothing in his writings or in the history of his life to show that his public declarations were insincere, or thrown out for mere effect. On the contrary, his most confidential writings sustain his public professions, and advance beyond them into the avowal of a belief in a future state of rewards and punishments."
The following passages are from his first Inaugural Address: "enlightened by a benign religion, professed, indeed, and practised in various form, yet all of them including honesty, truth, temperance, gratitude, and the love of man; acknowledging and adoring an overruling Providence, which by all its dispensations proves that it delights in the happiness of man here and his greater happiness hereafter: with all these blessings, what more is necessary to make us a happy and prosperous people?
And may that Infinite Power which rules the destinies of the universe lead our counsels to what is best, and give them a favorable issue for your peace and prosperity." From his first Annual Message, December 8th, 1801:
"While we devoutly return thanks to the beneficent Being who has been pleased to breathe into them the spirit of conciliation and forgiveness, we are bound with peculiar gratitude to be thankful to him that our own peace has been preserved through so perilous a season, and ourselves permitted quietly to cultivate the earth, and to practise and improve those arts which tend to increase our comforts."
From his second Annual Message, December 15th, 1802:
"When we assemble together, fellow citizens, to consider the state of our beloved country, our just attentions are first drawn to those pleasing circumstances which mark the goodness of that Being from whose favor they flow, and the large measure of thankfulness we owe for his bounty. Another year has come around, and finds us still blessed with peace and friendship abroad; law, order, and religion, at home."
From his third Annual Message, October 17th, 1803:
"While we regret the miseries in which we see others involved, let us bow with gratitude to that kind Providence which, inspiring with wisdom and moderation our late legislative counsels while placed under the urgency of the greatest wrongs, guarded us from hastily entering into the sanguinary contest, and left us only to look on and to pity its ravages."
In his fourth Annual Message, (November 8th, 1804) transmitted to Congress near the time of the Presidential election-and while the Federalists were denouncing Mr. Jefferson as an atheist, a foe to the Christian religion, etc., we think no reference occurs to God or Christianity.
In his second inaugural address, March 4th, 1805, he said:
"I shall need, too, the favor of that Being in whose hands we are, who led our forefathers, as Israel of old, from their native land, and planted them in a country flowing with all the necessaries and comforts of life; who has covered our infancy with his providence, and our riper years with his wisdom and power; and to whose goodness I ask you to join with me in supplications, that he will so enlighten the minds of your servants, guide their councils, and prosper their measures, that whatsoever they do, shall result in your good, and shall secure you the peace, friendship and approbation of all nations."
It cannot be necessary to follow these quotations further.
2 See vol. 1, p. 192.
"We find him once, like John Adams and Hamilton, advocating a fast day for popular effect he in the Revolution, they in later partisan conflicts. This is all;-nor does it in any way conflict with the declaration in the text.
This is implied in his letter to Dr. Benjamin Waterhouse, June 26th, 1822. And if the inference needed any support it will be found in the fact that while he repeatedly dissents from doctrines imputed to Christ, he nowhere in his writings dissents from this one, which he enumerates as a cardinal doctrine of the Saviour and as "tending to the happiness of man." The letter to Waterhouse will be found in Randolph's edition of his Works, vol. iv. p. 349; in the Congress edition, vol. vii. p. 252.