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Devia,” which have been reprinted some few years since; Bishop Bedell’s “Letters to Waddesworth," of which there are several editions, and Bishop Forbes's “Instructiones Historico-Theologicæ," written in the times of James and Charles I., together with Bishop Davenant's “Prælectiones et Determinationes,” deserve remembrance. After the restoration of Charles II., we ought not to forget Poole's “ Nullity of the Romish Faith,” and his “ Dialogue between a Popish Priest and an English Protestant," of which there are several editions ; Bishop Barlow's tracts, “ Popery: or the Principles and Positions approved by the Church of Rome, dangerous to all;" his “ Brutum Fulmen, or the Bull of Pius V. against Queen Elizabeth ;” both of these bad more than one edition ; and his “ Few Plain Reasons why a Protestant of the Church of England should not turn Roman Catholic.”_I may also notice the Hon. R. Boyle's tract, with a like title, “ Reasons why a Protestant should not turn Papist;" Dr. Comber's “ Plausible
а Arguments of a Romish Priest answered from Scripture ;''* also “ Plausible Arguments of a Romish Priest from Antiquity answered;" and his “ Friendly and Seasonable Advice to the Roman Catholicks of England,” of which the fourth edition, in 1685, is now before me. Bishop Williams's “Catechism, truly representing the doctrines and practices of the Church of Rome,” (the third edition, in 1713,) has the doctrine of the Roman church stated in its own words ;-to which I would add, Bishop Lloyd's “Seasonable Discourse, shewing the necessity of maintaining the Established Religion in opposition to Popery,” (the fourth edition in 1673,) and Staveley's “ Romish Horseleech," (of several editions, which two last, in addition to other particulars, give "An Impartial Account of the intolerable Charge of Popery to this Nation” in the times of its former domination.
The successful labours of the learned men of the foreign Reformed Churches against Popery claim our attention ; not that I would now speak of the chief three-Luther, Melancthon, and Calvin--nor of their immediate contemporaries, but of those who followed them. Among these, Chamier, in his “Panstratia Catholica,"+ may be compared to
Gibson's Collection contains “ The Texts examined which Papists cite out of the Bible, to prove their doctrine concerning-1. Celibacy and Vows, by Payne2. Supremacy of Peter and the Pope, by Patrick_3. Visibility of the Church, by Resbury-4. Infallibility, by Tully-5. Insufficiency of Scripture, and Necessity of Tradition, by Williams-6. Obscurity of the Holy Scriptures, by Fowler-7. Sacrifice of the Mass, by Gee and Kidder-8. Prayer in an unknown Tongue, by Scott-9. Worship of Angels and Saints, by Freeman-10. Worship of Images and Relicks, by Gee-11. Seven Sacraments, by Gee- 12. Transubstantiation, by Williams—13. Auricular Confession, by Linford—14. Satisfactions, by Gascarth—15. Merits, by Linford—16. Purgatory, by Brampston.” These were collected into one volume, by Dr. Tenison, with a Preface by himself, and printed in 1688, under the title of “ Popery not founded on Scripture: or the Texts which the Papists cite out of the Bible,” &c. This volume I hope to see shortly reprinted. A single tract, which embraced several of these subjects, published in the same year as the above, was reprinted in 1825, under the title of “ Popish Errors exposed; or a Selection of Texts of Scripture," &c. Fulke's “ Confutation of the Notes, &c., of the Rheimish New Testament” deserves especial regard. It has been lately reprinted in the United States.
+ Printed at Geneva, in 1629. VOL. VIII. - Nov. 1835.
, “the Tachmonite, that sat in the seat, chief among the captains.
(2 Sam. xxiii. 8.) This vast undertaking, fully equal to Bellarmine's Disputations in extent, he has divided into four parts. 1. De Canone. 2. De Deo. 3. De Homine. 4. De Sacramentis. The first division includes whatever disputes there are raised on the part of the Romanists, concerning the Scriptures; as to the Authority of the Church ; the Apocryphal books; the Perfection; the right of reading the various Versions and Interpretation of the Scriptures. The second division, concerning God, relates to the Trinity; the Attributes of God; the Author of Sin ; the Incarnation of Christ ; the Descent into Hell; the Body of Christ ; his Office as Mediator ; the Head of the Church, whether Peter or the Bishop of Rome is such ; the temporal power of the latter, and the question of Antichrist; also of Worship of Creatures, Saints and Angels ; of Images, and the Cross. The third division, concerning man, is arranged under those of Sin ; Freewill; the question concerning the Virgin Mary, as to Original Sin, &c.; also, Predestination, Sanctification, Justification, Faith, Works, Wedlock, including Celibacy and impediments to Marriage ; of Fasts, Vows, &c., Satisfactions, Indulgences, Purgatory. The fourth division relates to the Sacraments; their efficacy; their number, wherein first the five Romishones, Confirmation, Penance, Extreme Unction, Order, and Matrimony, are considered; then Baptism, and the Eucharist; its Adoration, &c.; the Administration in both kinds—the words of Consecration and of Manducation. Thus far Chamier proceeded, when, unexpectedly deprived of life, he left the subject of the Eucharist unfinished. Alstedius, in his Supplement, has considered the questions of the Presence of Christ in the Eucharist, Transubstantiation, and the Sacrifice of the Mass. The fifth part, also by him, relating to the Church, is divided into five books: the first relates to its Nature and Privileges ; the second, to its Notes, particularly as laid down by Bellarmine; the third, as to Councils
, their convoking, authority, &c.; the fourth, as to the Members of the Church Militant, its clergy and laity, and the authority of the magis trate therein ; the fifth, and last book, concerns the Jurisdiction of the Church Militant, and slightly touches upon the state of the Church triumphant, and that of the pretended Church. After Chamier, we may mention Hospinian, who, like the former, was unable to finish what he designed. His work, “ De Templis," contains much against the Romanists, concerning Images, Invocation of Saints, Holy Water
, Votive Offerings, Pilgrimages, the Vessels and Instruments employed in Worship. Of his “ De Festis Christianorum,” to pass over those relating to the heathen and the Jews, I may be allowed to say that
, in many respects, important proofs will be obtained against the false pretences of the papists, as to the saints which have had, or never had, any existence. His “Historia Sacramentaria," part the first, treats of the origin, progress, and ceremonies of the Mass, and of Transubstantiation, at great length; his work, “ De Monachis," discovers the rise, progress, and mischiefs of Monkery; as also his “ Historia Jesuitica," of another and worse scourge of Christianity.* Of Rivet's
* Hospinian's works were printed at Geneva in 1681, &c.
“Treatise against the Romanists, on the Worship of the Virgin” mention has been already made ; his " Catholicus Orthodoxus," is a reply to their errors generally; his “ Isagoge ad Sacram Scripturam, on our Disputes with the Papists concerning the Scriptures;" and, not to insist on other of his productions, his “ Animadversions upon Grotius's Annotations upon Cassander's Consultation” deserve consideration.*
On the Reformation of the Church from the errors of Popery, Hottinger's “ Historia Ecclesiastica,” the fifth, and following parts, will be of good service; as also his tract, “ De Necessitate Reformationis,” contained in his “ Analecta Historico-Theologica;" to which inay be added many things in Wolfius's “Lectiones Memorabiles," against the pretended power of the Bishop of Rome, as unfolded in Baronius's Annals;" Isaac Casaubon's “Exercitationes," and Basnage's continuation, under the same title, together with his "Annales," must be noticed; which last work deserves to be better known than, I fear, it is, among us, containing, as it does, an examination of many principal matters in history, chronology, doctrines, rites, and the works of the Fathers, &c., for the first six centuries. Against the papal power, generally, that excellent man, Plessis du Mornay's work, “Historia Papatus,” which is also translated into English; De Dominis’s“De Republica Ecclesiastica," the first six books ; (which, however, contain some other matters of controversy, particularly on the Eucharist ;)+ ought to be noticed ; and also Du Moulin's “ De Monarchia Temporali,” &c.
On the subject of the Eucharist, Aubertin's great work will claim the precedence ; # after which, I would name Mornay's “ De Sacra Eucharistia,” and L’Arroque's, with a similar title, to be had both in French and English; as is De Rodon's “ Funeral of the Mass.” What Daille has written on this subject, in his “ De Cultus religiosi objecto," and in his “ De Cultibus,” ought not to be passed over; nor his various works on Purgatory, the Romish Sacraments, and the worship of Saints and Images, as contained in the last-mentioned book.
The family of Spanheim cannot be forgotten; for the Reformed Churches are under considerable obligation to it. Of the elder Frederick Spanheim, we have the “Dubia Evangelica," wherein many passages of Scripture are vindicated against the
papists. Of the younger, of the same name, we have the “ Geographia Sacra et Ecclesiastica,” wherein we see the government of the ancient church set forth, and how small a portion of it fell to the lot of the Roman bishop; in his “ Historia Christiana,” the general history of the Church, the rise and
progress of the Papacy, its errors and corruptions; in his “ De Ficta Profectione Petri,” the subject of Peter's arrival at Rome; not to insist upon what he has written on the Sixth Canon of the Council of Nice, on the pretended agreement of the Greek and Roman Churches, on Pope Joan, the history of Images, the vindication of
Rivet's works, at Rotterdam, in 1651, &c. + The first vol. of De Dorninis was published at Heidelberg in 1618; the second, at London in 1620. These contain the six first books. As to the following books, see “ Maresii Systema Theologicum.” Loc. 17, s. 17, note (a).
I “ De Eucharistia.” Davent. 1654, and also in French.
various passages of Scripture, strictures on Bossuet, and various other writers, &c.
Among the members of the Roman-catholic Church itself, even since the Reformation and the Council of Trent, we see her doctrine and Discipline arraigned ; as by Wicelius, in his “ Via Regia," Cassander, in his “ Consultatio ;' and Barnes, in his “ CatholicoRomanus Pacificus;* not to speak particularly of anonymous publications on various questions,t which tend to shew the want of real unity of which that Church so frequently and vainly boasts.
In the controversy between the churches of England and Rome, the writings of the Fathers of the Church will, of necessity, be continually adverted to. Unfortunately, however, they are both scarce and dear. We have many passages collected from their works in the “Catalogus Testium Veritatis," and the “Loci Communes" of Andrew, and also Wolfgang Musculus, beside others. Scultetus has given us a very useful analysis of the works of the earlier among the Fathers ;+ it is to be regretted that his labours did not embrace those of Ambrose, Augustine, Jerome, and Chrysostome; though, as it regards these and others, Du Pin's “ Ecclesiastical Writers,” will be of good service, it being remembered that he was a member of the Roman Church, In reading the Fathers, especially those of the Roman editions, we must not forget the advice and directions of Dr. Cave, in the Prolegomena to his “ Historia Literaria ;"Ş that the Romanists have corrupted their writings, both by additions and diminutions, is evident from James's work,ll in which many instances are given; those of Cook and Rivet, ** enter upon the subject more at large ; nor should Daille's “Right Use of the Fathers," which we have in French, Latin, and English, be omitted, though some objections have been made against it.tt
For the present I conclude, and remain, Mr. Editor, your humble servant,
A COUNTRY PARSON,
These, except Cassander, which is published separately, are to be found in Brown's “ Fasciculus Rerum,” Append. p. 703, &c. 826, &c.
† Among these may be mentioned, “ Sure and Honest Means for the Conversion of all Hereticks.” (London, 1688.) “De la Primauté du Pape." (Londres, 1770.) “ An Historical Treatise on Transubstantiation." (London, 1687.)
“ Wholesome Advices from the Blessed Virgin.” (London, 1687.)
“Sculteti Medullæ Theologiæ Patrum Syntagma.” Franc. 1634, &c. Ś Cave, as above, sect. 7, especially n.6, p.31, of the edition at Oxford, in 1740. As to the Indexes of the Roman Church, see Mendham's “ Policy of the Church of Rome, exhibited in an account of her Damnatory Catalogues, or Indexes, both prohibitory and expurgatory.” London, 1830.
|| James's Treatise of the “ Corruptions of Scripture, Councils and Fathers, by the Prelates &c. of the Church of Rome:"the last edition in 1688. To this we may add, James's “ Bellum Papale, sive Concordia discors Sixti v. et Clementis viii." ' The last edition, London, 1678.
f“ Coci Censura quorundam Scriptorum, quæ sub nominibus sanctorum et veterum Auctorum et Pontificiis citari solent." Londini, 1623. “Riveti Critici Sacri,” lib. iv. ; in his collected works, tom. ii. p.
1041-1152 and also separately.
Against Daille, Scrivener wrote his “ Apologia," and Reeves the Preface to his translation of the “Apologies of Justin Martyr," and others. (Daille's book should rather be called the “ Wrong Use of the Fathers." Young men especially should be warned against his extravagant depreciation of these great Witnesses and Keepers of the Truth.--Ed.]
NOTICES AND REVIEWS.
The Book of Family Worship. By the Editor of “ The Sacred Harp.” Lon
don : Whittaker and Co. 1835. 8vo. pp. 340. This volume contains morning and evening prayers for a month, occasional prayers, and Jeremy Taylor's " Devotions for the Sacrament.” Without any affectation, one may say that it is painful to criticize devotional works, whether prose or verse. Many criticisms may arise from mere difference of taste; and it is disagreeable to set up one taste against another. Then the extreme difficulty of devotional composition, on every account, ought to be remembered ; and where the feeling seems right, finding fault with words appears contemptible, if not worse. Yet, on the other hand, it is reasonable and right that greater care and caution should be felt on a subject of such extreme weight and delicacy; and that the young and inexperienced should be warned against a false tone or style of prayer, which may lead to worse errors than those of taste.
The present volume contains a great deal to like. But who could write fifty-six long prayers well? One of the ordinary faults of prayers is, mistaking meditation, reflexion, and even instruction and rebuke, for prayer; and this volume cannot, of course, from its length, escape this fault. For a single example of this and other faults, take the following, (p. 110) :—“When a few more of these weekly periods have rolled away, our flesh will be laid beneath the cold stone or the green turf, and our spirits will be returned to God who gave them; and the solemn decision will have passed, he that is holy, let him," &c., &c. How is this prayer? (See again p. 45, at the bottom, and p. 66.) Again, the giving our Maker information is another everlasting fault of prayer-makers, as for example (p. 172,3)—“ Thy goodness, wisdom, and power shall be exerted through all eternity, in giving life and intelligence to innumerable beings; and the plans of thy providence shall receive a more perfect accomplishment in higher worlds, than that which is given to them amidst the irregularities and imperfections of this earthly scene.” Under one or other of these heads come the everlasting explanations in prayers, why we pray. All these matters should be touched on, if at all, in a short exhortation before prayer, (after Bishop Wilson's manner,) and not in prayer.
Again, the language is sometimes over fine, sometimes vulgar, sometimes vague and unmeaning. Thus, for the over fine,-"May we feel more of the tender and benevolent agency of the gospel,” (p. 112.) This is vague, as well as fine. “ Thou hast given thy Holy Spirit to breathe as a renovating energy over the wilderness of life,” (p. 175.) “ May holy converse with thee give us a disrelish for the society of those who are strangers to thee,” &c. (p. 205.) “ At the same cross--we would—find resources for all the exigencies of the divine life,” (p. 107.) The whole preceding paragraph is inflated and unnatural. “ This day ride forth in the chariot of thy everlasting gospel, conquering and to conquer,” (p. 61.) For the vague, unmeaning, or absurd« Oh, teach us to fear nothing so much as to be made everlasting monuments of thy vengeance,” (p. 212.) “ To enable us for our respective duties, and to furnish us with a sufficient provision of grace, (!) that we may make thy glory the ultimate end,” &c. (p. 27.) “ Oh, for more of the hidden life of Jesus,” (p. 77.) Does this mean “the hidden life wbich Jesus led,” or the inward and spiritual life of devotion which a follower of Jesus in spirit ought to lead? There is a great tendency to this half-figurative language, in which scripture phrases are often used without any propriety. “The love and beauty of Jehovah Jesus,” (p. 78.) What is the meaning or propriety of this? “ May we remember that thou hast bereaved us, (this is after a funeral,) not as an aggressor, but as a proprietor,” (p. 287.) Vulgar—“As