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Upon the materials water is very slowly poured. measure, by contact of air. But the proper plan The liquid, after digestion, is suffered to run would be to employ an alkali previously deslowly off into a reservoir sunk in the ground. prived as much as possible of its sulphur. Those The first portion, or ley No. 1, is of course the who decompose sulphate of soda, with the view strongest, and is reserved for the last operation of using the alkali in saponification, are liable to in soap-boiling. Dr. Ure found that a gallon of many accidents from the above cause. Much that of average strength contains 1000 grains of balsam of sulphur is formed at the expense of real soda, so that one pound of the alkali is pre- the soap; and the manufactured article is genesent in seven gallons of the ley. The second rally inferior in detergent powers to the kelp portion run off contains 800 grains in one gallon, soap, which, however, is by no means so free equivalent to a pound in eight gallons and three- from sulphur as it might be made, previous to quarters. The third contains 600 grains per its employment, by simple methods, which would gallon, or one pound in eleven gallons and two at the same time double its alkaline powers. thirds; and the fourth 200 grains, or one pound For brown or yellow soap, a mixture of talin thirty-five gallons. The last is not employed low and resin, with a little palm oil to improve directly, but is thrown on a fresh mixture in the the color, is used. Soap of the coarser quality cave, to acquire more alkaline strength.
is made with equal parts of resin and tallow. Six days are required to make one boiling of But that of better quality requires three parts of soap, in which two tons or upwards of tallow tallow to one of resin; and for every ton of that may be employed. The leys 2 and 3, mixed, mixture, half a hundred weight of palm oil. The are used at the beginning, diluted with water, on resin soaps consume less alkaline ley than those account of the excess of sea-salt in the kelp: A with fat alone. quantity of ley, not well defined, is poured on Soft soups. The compounds of fats or oils the melted tallow, and the mixture is boiled, a with potash remain soft, or at least pasty. Three workman agitating the materials to facilitate the kinds of these are known in commerce; the soaps combination. The fire being withdrawn, and the from rape-seed, and other oleaginous seeds, called aqueous liquid having subsided, it is pumped green soaps ; toilette soaps, made with hog'soff, and a new portion is thrown in. A second lard; and common soft soaps, made with fish boil is given, and so on in succession. Two or oils. Manufacturers of green soap prepare their three boils are performed every twelve hours potash leys as those of hard soap do their soda for six days, constituting twelve or eighteen ope- leys, and conduct their operations in the same rations in the whole. Towards the last the stronger manner till the whole oils be added. In this ley is brought into play. Whenever the work- state the soap resembles an unguent. It conman perceives the saponification perfect the pro- tains excess of oil, is white, and hardly transpacess is stopped ; and the soap is lifted out and rent. After tempering the fire, they keep stirring put into the moulds.
continually the bottom of the caldron with large When the price of American potash is such spatulas; they then add, by degrees, new leys as to admit of its economical employment, a ley perfectly caustic, and somewhat stronger than of that alkali, rendered caustic by lime, is used the first. The saturation of the oil is thus efin the saponification, and the soft potash soap fected, and the soap becomes transparent. The which results is converted into a hard soda soap, fire is now continued to give the soap a suitable by double decomposition. This is effected either consistency, after which it is run off into barrels by the addition of common salt, or rather of a to be offered for sale. kelp ley, which supplies abundance of muriate We perceive that this species of soap
differs of soda. The muriatic acid goes to the potash, considerably from the soap manufactured with to constitute muriate of potash, which dissolves olive oil and soda. Here, from the commencein the water, and is drawn off in the spent ley; ment of the operation to its end, the art of the while the soda enters into combination with the soapboiler consists in effecting the combination fat (or rather the margaric and oleic acids, now of the oil with the potash, without the soap. ceasevolved), and forms a soap, which becomes solid ing to be dissolved in the ley : whilst in the faon cooling. A weak potash ley is used at first, brication of hard soap it is necessary, on the conand subsequently one of greater strength. Dr. trary, as we have seen, to separate the soap from Ure found the potash ley of a respectable manu- the ley, even before the saturation of the oil is facturer to contain 3000 grains of real potash accomplished. per gallon; which is equivalent to one pound of Green soap contains, in general, more alkali real alkali in two gallons and one-third. But than is absolutely necessary for the saturation of this proportion is not any standard; for prac- the oil. It is, in fact, a perfect soap, dissolved tical soap-boiling is, in regard to the alkaline in an alkaline ley. It should be transparent, o. strength of the leys, in a deplorable state of a fine green color; a shade sometimes produced darkness and imperfection. To this cause chiefly by means of indigo. According to M. Thenard we may ascribe the perpetual disappointments it is usually composed of which occur in the soap manufactories.
9.5 Two tons of tallow, properly saponified, should
44.0 yield fully three tons of marketable white soap.
Toilette soaps, made with hog's-lard and pot- soap. Rape oil forms a hard soap, neither so ash, should have as small an alkaline excess as consistent por so white as that from olive-oil. possible. The finer soaps for the toilette are Hempseed oil produces a green-colored soap, remade with oil of sweet almonds, with nut oil, ducible to a paste by a small portion of water. palm oil, suet, or butter. They are either pot- The soaps prepared with oils procured from ash or soda soaps, as they may be preferred in beech-mast and clove July-flowers, are of a the pasty or solid state.
clammy glutinous consistence, and generally of The following facts from Chaptal, on soft a grayish color. Nut-oil forms a soap not prosoaps, are worthy of insertion. After introducing per for the hands; it is of a yellowish-white cointo the caldron the half of the oil intended for lor, of a moderate degree of consistence, unctuone coction, the fire is kindled, and, when the oil ous, gluey, and continues so on exposure to the begins to grow hot, we add to it a portion of the air. The soap of which linseed oil forms a conpotash lixivium. The remainder of the oil and stituent part is at first white, but changes to yel. lixivium must afterwards be gradually poured in low in a short time on exposure to the air.' It during the ebullition. If too much of the lixi- possesses a strong odor, is unctuous, clammy, viumbe employed at the commencement, no glutinous, does not dry in the air, and softens combination takes place; if the lixivium be too with a very small quantity of water. From wbat strong, the mixture separates into clots; and, if it has been said we may conclude that the soaps be too weak,the union is incomplete. The quan- prepared with desiccative oils are of a very indiftity of the ley employed in one coction ought to ferent quality, that they remain always glutinous, be in the proportion of four parts to three of oil. and readily change their color on exposure to 200 parts of oil, and 125 of potash, yield 325 of the atmosphere. Some of the volatile oils are no: soap. When the union is fully accomplished, less susceptible of entering into combinations and the liquor rendered transparent, nothing re with the alkalies; but, as such soaps are not emmains but to employ the necessary degree of ployed in the arts, we shall not enter into any coction. The soapboilers judge of the degree description of these saponaceous compounds. of coction by the consistency, by the color, and Metallic soaps.
These soaps have been exfrom the time which the soap takes to coagulate. amined by M. Berthollet, who has proposed In order to make the froth subside, and render some of them as paints, and others as varnishes; the mass fit for barrelling, one ton of soap (ready but it does not appear that any of them has been made?) is emptied into the caldron. The soap hitherto applied to these purposes. held in the greatest request is of a brown color, 1. Soap of mercury may be formed by mixing inclining to black. The manufacturers in Flan- together a solution of common soap and of corders dye the soap, by throwing into the caldron, rosive muriate of mercury. The liquor becomes half an hour before the termination of the boiling milky, and the soap of mercury is gradually preor coction, a composition of one pound of the cipitated. This soap is viscid, not easily dried, sulphate of iron, half a pound of galls, and an loses its white color when exposed to the air, equal quantity of red wood; and boiling it with and acquires a slate-color, which gradually be the lixivium.
comes deeper, especially if exposed to the sun When the soap is prepared with a great por- or to heat. It dissolves very well in oil, but tion of warm or yellow oil, a green color may be sparingly in alcohol. It readily becomes soft and imparted to it, by pouring into the ley a solu- Auid when heated. tion of indigo. This soap is reckoned of the 2. Soap of zinc may be formed by mixing tobest quality : it remains always in the state of gether a solution of sulphat of zinc and of soap. a soft paste, on which account it is placed in It is of a white color, incl to yellow. It casks as expeditiously as possible.
dries speedily and becomes friable. Dr. Ure learned the following particulars on 3. Soap, of cobalt, made by mixing nitrate of the manufacture of soft soap, from an eminent cobalt and common soap, is of a dull leaden soapboiler, near Glasgow:-273 gallons of whale color, and dries with difficulty, though its parts or cod oil, and four hundred weight of tallow, are are not conducted. Berthollet observed that, but into the boiler, with 252 gallons of potash ley, towards the end of the precipitation, there fell whose alkaline strength I find to be such, that one down some green coagula, much more consistent gallon contains 6600 grains of real potash. Heat is than soap of cobalt. These be supposed to be applied, when the mixture froths up very much, a soap of nickel, which is generally mixed with but is prevented from boiling over by the wooden cobalt. crib, which surmounts the iron caldron. If it 4. Soap of tin may be formed by mixing comnow subside into a doughy magma, the ley has mon soap with a solution of tin in nitro-muriatic been too concentrated. It should have a thin acid. li is white. Heat does not fuse it like gluey aspect. There are next poured in two other metallic soaps, but decomposes it. measures of a stronger ley, holding each twenty 5. Soap of iron may be formed by means of one gallons (containing per gallon 8700 grains sulphate of iron. It is of a reddish-brown color, real potash), and after a little interval other two tenacious, and easily fusible. When spread upon measures, and so on progressively, till fourteen wool it sinks in and dries. It is easily soluble measures have been added in the whole. After in oil, especially of turpentine. Berthollet prosuitable boiling, without agitation, the soap is poses it as a varnish. formed, amounting in all to 100 firkins of sixty 6. Soap of copper may be formed by means of four pounds each, from the above quantity of mate- sulphate of copper. It is of a green color, has rials. The manufacture of soft soap is reckoned the feel of a resin, and becomes dry and brittle. more difficult and delicate than that of hard Hot alcohol renders its color deeper, but scarcely
dissolves it. Ether dissolves it, liquifies it, and ever, and probably, first of all, about the time renders its color deeper and more beautiful. It of Galen, these soaps began to be employed in is very soluble in oils, and gives them a pleasant the scouring of woollen stuffs, as well as for the
purpose of general cleanliness : for, after having 7. Soap of lead may be formed by means of stated the different repute of the soaps of difacetite of lead. It is white, tenacious, and very ferent countries, he thus expresses himself, as adhesive when heated. When fused it is trans- though he were relating a truth not generally parent, and becomes somewhat yellow if the heat known: Verum omnis sapo potest omnem is increased.
sordem de corpore abstergere, vel de pannis.' 8. Soap of silver may be formed by means of • But every kind of soap is capable of removing nitrate of silver. It at first white, but becomes filth, of whatever description, whether from the reddish by exposure to the air. When fused, its body or from clothes.' surface becomes covered with a brilliant iris; Dr. Good farther observes that, antecedently beneath the surface it is black.
to the use of soap, the detersive materials com9. Soap of gold is formed by means of muriate monly employed were urine, which for this purof gold. "It is at first white and of the consiste pose was collected at Rome in large reservoirs, ence of cream. It gradually assumes a dirty lixivium or lye, and various plants, of which purple color and adheres to the skin.
the chief appears to have been what the Hebrews 10. Soap of manganese is formed of sulphate called borith (098), the Greeks struthos or struof manganese. It is at first white, and then, by thion (otpovoos or otpovolov), and the Romans absorbing oxygen, it becomes red.
herba lanaria, or radix lanaria, probably the saThere is no doubt that the ancients, as early ponaria of Linnéus. The fullers of Rome emat least as the age of Pliny, were in possession ployed also absorbent earths in conjunction with of a substance which they denominated soap; lyes and detersive plants. These were of various but as the word sapo, so far as we are able to kinds, and from various countries: the most trace it, was first employed by Pliny, we have esteemed was that denominated Cimolian earth, no reason to suppose that the material which it from the Isle of Cimolis, which was one of the designates was known, at least among the Ro- Cyclades, and where it was found in abundance. mans, much earlier than his time; and the mode It was known at least as early as the time of of making it, as well as the name, appears to Aristophanes, whu mentions it in his comedy of have been introduced into Rome from the an- The Frogs; and it is still in use, according to cient Germans, whose term for it was sepe, and Bomare, among the inhabitants of the Archipelago, who certainly employed and manufactured it in and applied to the same purpose of bleaching an earlier period than the Romans. In effect it stuffs and linens. They also employed another was ascribed by the Romans themselves to the kind of absorbent earth, which was procured in Germans and Gauls, as has been observed by the the island of Sardinia; which, however, was late Dr. Good in his note to his translation of principally made use of in cleaning white dresses, Lucretius, b. iv. 1046, “There is no doubt,' he and did not equally succeed when applied to says, that the ancients were in possession of a colored; whence it is styled, by Nonius Marcelsubstance which they denominated soap; and it lus, inutilis versicoloribus. is equally unquestionable that such soap was
• These earths or boles were, for the most formed in a manner not very different from our part, pressed into the stuffs or cloths by the own. This soap, moreover, was of two sorts, hands or feet; hence the phrase in Nonius : hard and soft; but it does not appear that soap pedibus cretam dum compescis;' and these was ever employed among the Greeks, nor very various operations produce an amazing change early among the Romans, as an article of trade, in their texture by driving the web of the woof by their fullers or scourers, and, notwithstand- more closely to that of the chain, and hence ing the similarity of manufacture which seems blending them more intimately together. When to have prevailed, these soaps, whether hard or cloths and serges first proceed from the hands of soft, were rather unguents for the head, than ar the weaver, they are loose and coarse, and in ticles made use of for the purpose of blanching. this state would be but of little value or juration. • Prodest est sapo,' says Pliny, xxviii. 12. "Gal- But, by intermingling and amalgamating the web liarum hoc inventum mutandis capillis. Fit ex of the chain with that of the woof, the artist sebo et cinere, optimus fagino et capirno. Duobus renders both finer and stronger. This operation modis, spissus ac liquidus. Uterque apud Ger- of fulling, as just observed, was chiefly produced manos majore in usa viris quam fæminis.' Soap by the action of the hands or feet; by rubbing is also useful, which is an invention of the Gauls, with the former or trampling with the latter, and for deepening the color of the hair. It is made is significantly expressed by the Greek terms of suet and ashes, the best soap being from the TaTELV Ovu Tateodai, and by Nonius, argutari suet of the goat and the ashes of the beech-tree. pedibus. 'Rollers were, nevertheless, occasionThere are two sorts of soap, a solid and a liquid. ally employed in this branch of the business, as Among the Germans the men employ both kinds well for beating as for pressing the cloth; and more freely than the women? That it was ap- Cato, among other utensils with which a farmplied to the hair, for the purpose here specified, house ought to be stocked, enumerates, in conwe learn also from Martial, who, in one of his sequence, the pilæ fullonicæ, or fuller's beams epigrams, advises an old coquette who raved at or rollers, which, he expressly tells us, were her gray locks to procure soap_balls from Ger- formed of wood.' many to change their color. 'By degrees, how The present duties imposed on soap are : Vol. XX.
Duty. Keep my body in temperance, soberness, and chas.
£ d. tity. Soap, hard, the cwt.
4 10 0 In setting down the form of common prayer, there soft, the cwt.
3 11 3 was no need that the book should mention either the the produce of any British
learning of a fit, or the unfitness of an ignorant, mi.
nister, more than that he which describeth the map possession in the East Indies, viz. hard, the cwt. 1 8 0
ner how to pitch a field should speak of moderation and sobriety in diet.
Hooker, soft, the cwt. 1 3
A law there is among the Grecians, whereof PitSOAPWORT. See SAPONARIA.
tachus is author ; that he which being overcome with SOAR, v. n., v. a., & n. s. Ital. sorare. To drink did then strike any man, should suffer punishfly aloft; tower; mount; properly to fly without ment double as much as if he had done the same any visible action of the wings : to rise intellec
Id. tually: Milton uses it actively: as a noun sub
This same young sober blooded boy a man cannot
make him laugh. stantive, towering flight.
Shall offer me, disguised in sober robes, "Tis but a base ignoble mind
To old Baptista as a schoolmaster. Id. That mounts no higher than a bird can soar.
Enquire, with all sobriety and severity, whether Shakspeare.
there be in the footsteps of nature any such transHow high a pitch his resolution soars. Id.
mission of immateriate virtues, and what the force of Feathered soon and fledged, imagination is.
Bacon, They summed their pens, and soaring th' air sub Let any prince think soberly of his forces, except lime,
his militia of natives be valiant soldiers. ld. With clang despised the ground.
The governour of Scotland, being of great courage Within soar
and sober judgment, amply performed his duty both Of towering eagles, to all the fowls he seems before the battle and in the field. Hayward. A phenix.
Cieca travelled all over Peru, and is a grave and Flames rise and sink by fits; at last they soar sober writer. Abbot's Description of the World. In one bright blaze, and then descend no more. The vines give wine to the drunkard as well as to
Dryden. the sober man.
Taylor's Worthy Communicant. Valour soars above
Drunkenness is more uncharitable to the soul, and What the world calls misfortune and afflictions.
in scripture is more declaimed against, than gluttony; Addison.
and sobriety hath obtained to signify temperance in When swallows fleet soar high, and sport in air, drinking
Taylor. He told us that the welkin would be clear. Gay.
A report without truth ; and, I had almost said, SOB, v. n. & n. s. Sax. seob, complaining. without any sobriety or modesty. Waterland. To heave audibly with convulsive sorrow; sigh
Mirth makes them not mad; with convulsion : a sigh of this kind.
Nor sobriety sad.
Denham. When thy warlike father, like a child,
These confusions disposed men of any sober underTold the sad story of my father's death,
standing to wish for peace.
Clarendon. He twenty times made pause to sob and weep.
To these that sober race of men, whose lives Shakspeare.
Religious titled them the sons of God, As if her life and death lay on his saying,
Shall yield up all their virtue, all their fame
Ignobly to the trains and to the smiles
Milton. As if her hopes were dead through his delaying.
id. She sighed, she sobbed, and furious with despair
Had in her sober livery all things clad. She rent her garments, and she tore her hair.
A person noted for his soberness, and skill in spa. Dryden.
gyrical preparations, made Helmont's experiment Break heart, or choak with sobs my hated breath;
Boyle. Do thy own work, admit no foreign death. Id. Sobriety in our riper years is the effect of a well
When children have not the power to obtain their concocted warmth ; but where the principles are only desire, they will, by their clamour and sobbing, niain- phlegm, what can be expected but an insipid man. tain their title to it.
Locke on Education.
Dryden. There oft are heard the notes of infant woe,
Another, who had a great genius for tragedy, folThe short thick sob, loud scream, and shriller squall. lowing the fury of his natural temper, made every
man and woman in his plays stark raging mad; A wonderous bag with both her hands she binds: there was not a sober person to be had ; ail was tem
Id. There she collects the force of female lungs,
pestuous and blustering. Sighs, sobs, and passions, and the war of tongues.
The soberness of Virgil might have shewn the difId, ference.
Id. I sobbed; and with faint eyes
Whenever children are chastised, let it be done Looked upwards to the Ruler of the skies. Harte.
without passion, and soberly, laying on the blows
Locke. SOBER, adj. & v.a.
Fr. sobre; Lat. so. SOBER'ly, adv. brius. Temperate, par- he may be guilty of, can look with complacenery
No sober temperate person, whatsoever other sins SOBER’NESS, n. s. Sticularly in liquors; not
drunken: hence regu- bour. SOBRI'ETY,
upon the drunkenness and sottishness of his neigh.
South's Sermons. lar; calm in mind or character; serious ; grave: The libertine could not prevail on men of virtue to make sober: the adverb and noun substantive and sobriety to give up. their religion.
Be your designs ever so good, your intentions Young men likewise exhort to be sober minded.
ever so sober, and your searches directed in the fear Titus üi. 6. of God.
Waterland. Live a sober, righteous, and godly life.
What parts gay France from sober Spain ?
Of men born south or north o' th' hill,
to a usual termination, is called socage, in LaThose seldom move, these ne'er stand still. Prior. tin socagium; signifying thereby a free or pri
For Swift and him despised the farce of state, vileged tenure. It seems probable that the soThe sober follies of the wise and great. Pope. See her sober over a sampler, or gay over a jointed retained by such persons as had neither forfeited
cage tenures were the relics of Saxon liberty; baby.
Id. A little learning is a dangerous thing;
them to the king, nor been obliged to exchange Drink deep, or taste not the Pierian spring ;
their tenure for the more honorable, as it was There shallow draughts intoxicate the brain,
called, but at the same time more burdensome, And drinking largely sobers us again. Id. tenure of knight-service. This is peculiarly SOC (Sax.) signifies power or liberty to mi- remarkable in the tenure which prevails in Kent,
called gavelkind, which is generally acknownister justice or execute laws : also the circuit ledged to be a species of socage tenure; the preor territory wherein such
servation whereof inviolate from the innovations Whence the law Latin word socca is used for of the Norman conqueror is a fact universally seignory or lordship enfranchised by the king, known. And those who thus preserved their with the liberty of holding or keeping a court of liberties were said to hold in free and common his sockmen : and this kind of liberty continues socage. As therefore the grand criterion, and in divers parts of England to this day, and is distinguishing mark of this species of tenure, are known by the name of soke and soken.
the having its renders or services ascertained, it SOC'CAGE, n. s. Fr. soc, a ploughshare; will include under it all other methods of holdbarb. Lat. soccagium. In law, a tenure of lands ing free lands by certain and invariable rents for certain inferior or husbandly services to be and duties; and in particular, petit sergeantry, performed to the lord of the fee: so that what- tenure in burgage, and gavelkind. ever is not knight's service is soccage.
SOʻCIABLE, adj. Fr. sociable ; Lat. soThe lands are not holden at all of her majesty, or SO'CHABLENESS, n. s. ciabilis. Fit or ready to not holden in chief, but by a mean tenure in soccage, So CIABLY, adv. be conjoined or united; or by knight's service.
Social, adj. Soccage, in law, is a tenure of lands, for cial is in many respects synonymous; it means certain inferior or husbandly services to be per- also easy; relating to society : the noun substanformed to the lord of the fee. All services due tive and adverb follow the senses of sociable. for land being knight's service, or soccage; so Another law toucheth them, as they are sociable that whatever is not knight's service is soccage. parts united into one body; a law which bindeth This soccage is of three kinds; a soccage of free them each to serve unto other's good, and all to pretenure, where a man holdeth by free service offer the good of the whole before whatsoever their own
Hooker. twelve pence a year for all manner of services. particular. Soccage of ancient tenure is of land of ancient
In children much solitude and silence I like not, demesne, where no writ original shall be sued, needs be in that sociable and exposed age. Wotton.
nor any thing born before his time, as this must but the writ secundum consuetudinem manerii. Soccage of base tenure is where those that hold To sociableness a name profane.
Such as would call her friendship love, and .feign
Donne. it may have none other writ but the monstrave
He always used courtesy and modesty, disliked of runt, and such sockmen hold not by certain ser none ; sometimes sociableness and fellowship, well vice.-Cowel. The lands are not holden in liked by many.
Hayward. chief but by a mean tenure in soccage.--Bacon. Them thus employed beheld
Soccage or SOCAGE (says the learned Black- With pity heaven's high King, and to him called stone, in his Comm. vol. ii.), in its most general Raphael, the sociable spirit that deigned
Milton. and extensive signification, denotes a tenure by To travel with Tobias. any determinate service. In this sense it is by
Yet not terrible, ancient writers constantly put in opposition to
That I should fear; nor suciably mild, chivalry or knight-service, where the render was
As Raphael, that I should much confide,
Id. precarious and uncertain. The service must
Thou in thy secrecy althongh alone, therefore be certain, to denominate it soccage ;
Best with thyself accompanied, seekest not as to hold by fealty and 20s rent; or by homage, Social communication.
Id. fealty, and 20s rent; or by homage and fealty The two main properties of man are contemplation without rent; or by fealty and certain corporal and sociableness, or love of converse. More. services, as ploughing the lord's land for three To love our neighbour as ourselves is such a fundays; or by fealty only, without any other ser- damental truth, for regulating human society, that by vice; for all these are tenures in socage. Socage that alone one might determine all the cases in social
Locke. is of two sorts; free socage, where the services morality. are not only certain but honorable; and villein
To make man mild and sociable to man;
To cultivate the wild licentious savage socage, where the services, though certain, are of
With wisdom, discipline. Addison's Cato. a baser nature. See VILLENAGE. Such as hold
True self-love and social are the same. Pope. by the former tenure are called, in Glanvil and
Thus abandoned of aim or view in life, with a other subsequent authors, by the name of liberi strong appetite for sociability, as well from native hisokemanni, or tenants in free socage. The word larity as from a pride of observation and remark, a is derived from the Saxon appellation soc, which constitutional melancholy or hypochondriasm that signifies liberty or privilege; and, being joined made me fly solitude.