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plainly the consent of flesh and flesh, especially purges (unless they be very immoderate) it is not in live fleshes.

so, seeing they work principally upon the hu28. Touching the particular inteneration of the mours. But, the best purges for this intention principal bowels, the stomach, lungs, liver, heart, are those which are taken immediately before brain, marrow of the backbone, guts, reins, gall, meat, because they dry the body less; and, thereveins, arteries, nerves, cartilages, bones, the in- fore, they must be of those purges which do quisition and direction would be too long, seeing least trouble the belly. we now set not forth a practice, but certain indi- These intentions of the operations which we cations to the practice.

have propounded (as we conceive) are most true,

the remedies faithful to the intentions. Neither X. The Operation upon the purging away of old is it credible to be told (although not a few of

Juice, and supplying of new Juice; or of Reno- these remedies may seem but vulgar) with what vation by Turns.

care and choice they have been examined by us, The history.

that they might be (the intention not at all imAlthough those things which we shall here set peached) both safe and effectual. Experience, no down have been, for the most part, spoken of doubt, will both verify and promote these matters. before; yet because this operation is one of the And such, in all things, are the works of every principal, we will handle them over again more prudent counsel, that they are admirable in their at large.

effects, excellent also in their order, but seeming 1. It is certain, that draught oxen, which have vulgar in the way and means. been worn out with workiny, being put into fresh and rich pastures, will gather tender and young

The Porches of Death. flesh again; and this will appear even to the We are now to inquire touching the porches of taste and palate; so that the inteneration of flesh death, that is, touching those things which hapis no hard matter. Now, it is likely that this pen unto men at the point of death, both a little inteneration of the flesh being often repeated, before and after; that seeing there are many paths will in time reach to the inteneration of the bones which lead to death, it may be understood in what and meinbranes, and like parts of the body. common way they all end, especially in those

2. It is certain, that diets which are now much deaths which are caused by indigence of nature, in use, principally of guaiacum, and of sarsapa- rather than by violence; although something of rilla, china, and sassafras, if they be continued for this latter also must be inserted, because of the any time, and according to strict rules, do first connexion of things. attenuate the whole juice of the body, and after

The history. consume it, and drink it up. Which is most 1. The living spirit stands in need of three manifest, because that by these diets the French things that it may subsist; convenient motion, pox, when it is grown even to a hardness, and temperate refrigeration, and fit aliment. Flame hath eaten up and corrupted the very marrow of seems to stand in need but of two of these, namely, the body, may be effectually cured. And, further, motion and aliment, because flame is a simple because it is manifest, that men who, by these substance, the spirit a compounded, insomuch diets, are brought to be extreme lean, pale, and, that if it approach somewhat too near to a flamy as it were, ghosts, will soon after become fat, well nature, it overthroweth itself. coloured, and apparently young again. Where- 2. Also flame by a greater and stronger fiame fore we are absolutely of opinion, that such kind is extinguished and slain, as Aristotle well noted, of diets in the decline of age, being used every much more the spirit. year, would be very useful to our intention; like 3. Flame, if it be much compressed and straitthe old skin or spoil of serpents.

ened, is extinguished; as we may see in a candle 3. We do confidently affirm (neither let any having a glass cast over it, for the air being diman reckon us among those heretics which were lated by the heat doth contrude and thrust together called Cathari) that often purges, and made even the fiame, and so lesseneth it, and in the end exfamiliar to the body, are more available to long tinguisheth it; and fires on hearths will not fiame, life than exercises and sweats. And this must if the fuel be thrust close together, without any needs be so, if that be held which is already laid space for the flame to break forth. for a ground, that unctions of the body, and opple- 4. Also things fired are extinguished with comtion of the passages from without, and exclusion pression; as if you press a burning coal hard of air, and detaining of the spirit within the mass with the tongs, or the foot, it is straight extinof the body, do much conduce to long life. For guished. it is most certain, that by sweats and outward 5. But to come to the spirit; if blood or phlegmı perspirations, not only the humours and excre- get into the ventricles of the brain, it causeth sudmentitious vapours are exhaled and consumed, den death, because the spirit hath no room to but together with them the juices also, and good move itself. spirits, which are not so easily repaired; but in 6. Also a great blow on the head induceth sudden death, the spirits being straitened within the 17. Notwithstanding, use and custom prevail ventricles of the brain.

much in this natural action of breathing; as it is 7. Opium, and other strong stupefactives, do in the Delian divers and fishers for pearl, who by coagulate the spirit, and deprive it of the motion. long use can hold their breaths at least ten times

8. A venomous vapour, totally abhorred by the longer th other men can do. spirit, causeth sudden death; as in deadly poisons, 18. Amongst living creatures, even of those which work (as they call it) by a special malig- that have lungs, there are some that are able to nity; for they strike a loathing into the spirit, that hold their breaths a long time, and others that the spirit will no more move itself, nor rise against cannot hold them so long, according as they need a thing so much detested.

more or less refrigeration. 9. Also extreme drunkenness, or extreme feed- 19. Fishes need less refrigeration than terrestrial ing, sometimes cause sudden death, seeing the creatures, yet some they need, and take it by their spirit is not only oppressed with over-much con- gills. And as terrestrial creatures cannot bear densing, or the malignity of the vapour, (as in the air that is too hot, or too close, so fishes are opium and malignant poisons,) but also with the suffocated in waters if they be totally and long abundance of the vapours.

frozen. 10. Extreme grief or fear, especially if they be 20. If the spirit be assaulted by another heat sudden, (as it is in a sad and unexpected mes- greater than itself, it is dissipated and destroyed ; sage,) cause sudden death.

for it cannot bear the proper heat without refrigera11. Not only over-much compression, but also tion, much less can it bear another heat which is over-much dilatation of the spirit, is deadly. far stronger. This is to be seen in burning fevers,

12. Joys excessive and sudden have bereft many where the heat of the putrefied humours doth of their lives.

exceed the native heat, even to extinction or dis13. In greater evacuations, as when they cut sipation. men for the dropsy, the waters flow forth abun- 21. The want also and use of sleep is referred dantly, much more in great and sudden fluxes of to refrigeration; for motion doth attenuate and blood, oftentimes present death followeth; and rarefy the spirit, and doth sharpen and increase this happens by the mere flight of vacuum within the heat thereof: contrarily, sleep settleth and the body, all the parts moving to fill the empty restraineth the motion and gadding of the same; places; and, amongst the rest, the spirits them for though sleep doth strengthen and advance the selves. For, as for slow fluxes of blood, this matter actions of the parts and of the lifeless spirits, and pertains to the indigence of nourishment, not to all that motion which is to the circumference of the diffusion of the spirits. And touching the the body, yet it doth in great part quiet and still motion of the spirit so far, either compressed or the proper motion of the living spirit. Now, diffused, that it bringeth death, thus much. sleep is regularly due unto human nature once

14. We must come next to the want of refri- within four-and-twenty hours, and that for six, or geration. Stopping of the breath causeth sudden five hours at the least; though there are, even in death; as in all suffocation or strangling. Now, this kind, sometimes miracles of nature; as it is it seems this matter is not so much to be referred recorded of Mæcenas, that he slept not for a long to the impediment of motion as to the impediment time before his death. And as touching the of refrigeration; for air over-hot, though attracted want of refrigeration for conserving of the spirit, freely, doth no less suffocate than if breathing thus much. were hindered; as it is in them who have been 22. As concerning the third indigence, namely, sometimes suffocated with burning coals, or with of aliment, it seems to pertain rather to the parts, charcoal, or with walls new plastered in close than to the living spirit; for a man may easily chambers where a fire is made; which kind of believe that the living spirit subsisteth in identity, death is reported to have been the end of the Em- not by succession or renovation. And as for the peror Jovinian. The like happeneth from dry reasonable soul in men, it is above all question, baths over-heated, which was practised in the that it is not engendered of the soul of the parents, killing of Fausta, wife to Constantine the Great. nor is repaired, nor can die. They speak of the

15. It is a very small time which nature taketh natural spirit of living creatures, and also of to repeat the breathing, and in which she desireth vegetables, which differs from that other soul to expel the foggy air drawn into the lungs, and essentially and formally; for out of the confusion to take in new, scarce the third part of a minute. of these, that same transmigration of souls, and

16. Again, the beating of the pulse, and the innumerable other devices of heathens and heremotion of the systole and diastole of the heart, are tics have proceeded. three times quicker than that of breathing; inso- 23. The body of man doth regularly require much that if it were possible that that motion of renovation by aliment every day, and a body in the heart could be stopped without stopping the health can scarce endure fasting three days togebreath, death would follow more speedily there ther; notwithstanding, use and custom will do upon than by strangling.

much, even in this case; but in sickness fasting even

is less grievous to the body. Also, sleep doth death ; destitution of the spirit in the motion, in supply somewhat to nourishment; and on the the refrigeration, in the aliment. other side, exercise doth require it more abun- It is an error to think that the living spirit is dantly. Likewise there have some been found perpetually generated and extinguished as flame who sustained themselves (almost to a miracle is, and abideth not any notable time; for ev in nature) a very long time without meat or Name itself is not thus out of its own proper nadrink.

ture, but because it liveth amongst enemies; for 24. Dead bodies, if they be not intercepted by Aame within flame endureth. Now, the living putrefaction, will subsist a long time without any spirit liveth amongst friends, and all due obsequinotable absumption; but living bodies, not above ousness. So then, as, flame is a momentary subthree days, (as we said,) unless they be repaired stance, air is a fixed substance, the living spirit is by nourishment; which showeth that quick ab- betwixt both. sumption to be the work of the living spirit, which Touching the extinguishing of the spirit by the either repairs itself, or puts the parts into a neces- destruction of the organs (which is caused by sity of being repaired, or both. This is testified diseases and violence) we inquire not now, as by that also which was noted a little before, we foretold in the beginning, although that also namely, that living creatures may subsist some- endeth in the same three porches. And touching what the longer without aliment, if they sleep: the form of death itself, thus much. now, sleep is nothing else but a reception and 29. There are two great forerunners of death, retirement of the living spirit into itself.

the one sent from the head, the other from the 25. An abundant and continual effuxion of heart; convulsion, and the extreme labour of the blood, which sometimes happeneth in the hæmorr- pulse: for as for the deadly hiccough, it is a kind hoids, sometimes in vomiting of blood, the in- of convulsion. But the deadly labour of the ward veins being unlocked or broken, sometimes pulse hath that unusual swiftness, because the hy wounds, causeth sudden death, in regard that heart at the point of death doth so tremble, that the blood of the veins ministereth to the arteries, the systole and diastole thereof are almost conand the blood of the arteries to the spirit. founded. There is also conjoined in the pulse a

26. The quantity of meat and drink which a weakness and lowness, and oftentimes a great in. man, eating two meals a day, receiveth into his termission, because the motion of the heart faileth, body, is not small; much more than he voideth and is not able to rise against the assault stoutly again either by stool, or by urine, or by sweating. or constantly. You will say, no marvel, seeing the remainder 30. The immediate preceding signs of death goeth into the juices and substance of the body. are, great unquietness and tossing in the bed. It is true; but consider, then, that this addition fumbling with the hands, catching and grasping is made twice a day, and yet the body aboundeth hard, gnashing with the teeth, speaking hollow. not much. In like manner, though the spirit trembling of the nether lip, paleness of the face. be repaired, yet it grows not excessively in the the memory confused, speechless, cold sweats, ihr quantity.

body shooting in length, listing up the white of 27. It doth no good to have the aliment ready, the eye, changing of the whole visage, (as the in a degree removed, but to have it of that kind, nose sharp, eyes hollow, cheeks fallen,) contracand so prepared and supplied, that the spirit may tion and doubling of the coldness in the extreme work upon it; for the staff of a torch alone will parts of the body, in some, shedding of blood, not maintain the flame, unless it be fed with wax, or sperm, shrieking, breathing thick and short, neither can men live upon herbs alone. And falling of the nether chap, and such like. from thence comes the inconcoction of old age, 31. There follow death a privation of all sense that though there be flesh and blood, yet the and motion, as well of the heart and arteries, as spirit is become so penurious and thin, and the of the nerves and joints, an inability of the body juices and blood so heartless and obstinate, that to support itself upright, stiffness of the nerves they hold no proportion to alimentation. and parts, extreme coldness of the whole body

28. Let us now cast up the accounts of the after a little while putrefaction and stinking. needs and indigences according to the ordinary Eels, serpents, and the insecta, will move 3 and usual course of nature. The spirit hath need long time in every part after they are cut asunder. of opening and moving itself in the ventricles of insomuch that country people think that the parts the brain and nerves even continually, of the mo- strive to join together again. Also birds will tion of the heart every third part of a moment, flutter a great while after their heads are pulled of breathing every moment, of sleep and nourish- off; and the hearts of living creatures will pant a ment once within three days, of the power of long time after they are plucked out. I remember nourishment commonly till eighty years be past; I have seen the art of one that was bowelled, and if any of these indigences be neglected, death as suffering for high treason, that being cast intu ensueth. So there are plainly three porches of the fire, leaped at the first at least a foot and half

To the sixteenth article.


in height, and after, by degrees, lower and lower, which fall into swoonings. I have heard also of for the space, as I remember, of seven or eight a physician, yet living, who recovered a man to minutes. There is also an ancient and credible life which had hanged himself, and had hanged tradition of an ox lowing after his bowels were half an hour, by frications and hot baths; and the plucked out. But there is a more certain tradition same physician did profess, that he made no doubt of a man, who being under the executioner's hand to recover any man that had hanged so long, so for high treason, after his heart was plucked out, his neck were not broken with the first swing. and in the executioner's hand, was heard to utter three or four words of prayer; which therefore The Difference nf Youth and Old Age. we said to be more credible than that of the ox in sacrifice, because the friends of the party suffering 1. The ladder of man's body is this, to be condo usually give a reward to the executioner to ceived, to be quickened in the womb, to be born, despatch his office with the more speed, that they to suck, to be weaned, to feed upon pap, to put may the sooner be rid of their pain; but in sa-forth teeth the first time about the second year crifices, we see no cause why the priest should be of age, to begin to go, to begin to speak, to put so speedy in his office.

forth teeth the second time about seven years of 33. For reviving those again which fall into age, to come to puberty about twelve or fourteen sudden swoonings and catalepsies of astonish- years of age, to be able for generation, and the ments, (in which fits many, without help, would flowing of the menstrua, to have hairs about utterly expire,) these things are used, putting into the legs and arm-holes, to put forth a beard; and their mouths water distilled of wine, which they thus long, and sometimes later, to grow in stacall hot waters, and cordial waters, bending the ture, or to come to full years of strength and body forward, stopping the mouth and nostrils agility, to grow gray and bald; the menstrua hard, bending or wringing the fingers, pulling the ceasing, and ability to generation, to grow dehairs of the beard or head, rubbing of the parts, crepit, and a monster with three legs, to die. especially the face and legs, sudden casting of Meanwhile, the mind also hath certain periods, cold water upon the face, shrieking out aloud and but they cannot be described by years, as to suddenly, putting rose-water to the nostrils, with decay in the memory, and the like, of which vinegar in faintings; burning of feathers, or cloth, hereafter. in the suffocation of the mother; but especially a 2. The differences of youth and old age are frying-pan heated red-hot, is good in apoplexies; these: a young man's skin is smooth and plain, also a close embracing of the body hath helped an old man's dry and wrinkled, especially about

the forehead and eyes; a young man's fiesh is 34. There have been many examples of men in tender and soft, an old man's hard ; a young man show dead, either laid out upon the cold floor, or hath strength and agility, an old man feels decay carried forth to buria); nay, of some buried in the in his strength, and is slow of motion; a young earth; which notwithstanding have lived again, man hath good digestion, an old man bad; a which hath been found in those that were buried young man's bowels are soft and succulent, an (the earth being afterwards opened) by the bruis- old man's salt and parched ; a young man's body ing and wounding of their head, through the strug- is erect and straight, an old nian's bowing and gling of the body within the coffin ; whereof the crooked ; a young man's limbs are steady, an old most recent and memorable example was that of man's weak and trembling; the humours in a Joannes Scotus, called the subtile, and a school- young man are choleric, and his blood inclined man, who being digged up again by his servant, to heat, in an old man phlegmatic and melancho(unfortunately absent at his burial, and who knew lic, and his blood inclined to coldness; a young his master's manner in such fits,) was found in man ready for the act of Venus, an old man that state: and the like happened in our days in slow unto it; in a young man the juices of his the person of a player, buried at Cambridge. I body are more roscid, in an old man more crude remember to have heard of a certain gentleman and waterish ; the spirit in a young man plentiful that would needs make trial, in curiosity, what and boiling, in an old man scarce and jejune; a men did feel that were hanged ; so he fastened young man's spirit is dense and vigorous, an old the cord about his neck, raising himself upon a man's eager and rare; a young man his senses stool, and then letting himself fall, thinking it quick and entire, an old man dull and decayed ; should be in his power to recover the stool at his a young man's teeth are strong and entire, an old pleasure, which he failed in, but was helped by a man's weak, worn, and fallen out; a young man's friend then present. He was asked afterward hair is coloured, an old man's (of what colour what he felt; he said he felt no pain, but first he soever it were) gray; a young man hath hair, thought he saw before his eyes a great fire, and

baldness; a young man's pulse is burning; then he thought he saw all black, and stronger and quicker, an old man's more confused dark; lastly, it turned to a pale blue, or sea-water and slower; the diseases of young men are more green; which colour is also often seen by them acute and curable, of old men longer, and hard



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to cure; a young man's wounds soon close, an man more grave and constant ; a young man is old man's later; a young man's cheeks are of a given to liberality, and beneficence, and humanity, fresh colour, an old man's pale, or with a black an old man to covetousness, wisdom for his own blood; a young man is less troubled with rheums, self, and seeking his own ends; a young man is an old man more. Neither do we know in what confident and full of hope, an old man diffident, things old men do improve, as touching their and given to suspect most things; a young man body, save only sometimes in fatness; whereof is gentle and obsequious, an old man froward the reason is soon given, because old men's and disdainful; a young man is sincere and openbodies do neither perspire well nor assimilate hearted, an old man cautelous and close; a young well. Now, fatness is nothing else but exube- man is given to desire great things, an old man rance of nourishment above that which is voided to regard things necessary; a young man thinks by excrement, or which is perfectly assimilated. well of the present tiines, an old man preferreth Also, some old men improve in the appetite of times past before them; a young man reverenceth feeding, by reason of the acid humours, though his superiors, an old man is more forward to tax old men digest worst. And all these things them; and many other things, which pertain which we have said, physicians negligently rather to manners than the present inquisition. enough will refer to the diminution of the natural Notwithstanding, old men, as in some things heat and radical moisture, which are things of no they improve in their bodies, so also in their worth for use. This is certain, dryness in the minds, unless they be altogether out of date; coming on of years doth forego coldness; and namely, that as they are less apt for invention, bodies, when they come to the top and strength so they excel in judgment, and prefer safe things, of heat, do decline in dryness, and after that fol- and sound things, before specious. Also, they lows coldness.

improve in garrulity and ostentation, for they seek 3. Now we are to consider the affections of the fruit of speech while they are less able for acthe mind. I remember when I was a young man. tion. So as it was not absurd that the poets feigned at Poictiers in France, I conversed familiarly old Tython to be turned into a grasshopper. with a certain Frenchman, a witty young man, but something talkative, who afterwards grew to be a very eminent man; he was wont to inveigh MOVABLE CANONS OF THE DURATION against the manners of old men, and would say,

OF LIFE AND FORM OF DEATH. that if their minds could be seen as their bodies are, they would appear no less deformed. Besides, being in love with his own wit, he would Consumption is not caused, unless that which is maintain, that the vices of old men's minds have departed with by one body passeth into another. some correspondence, and were parallel to the putrefactions of their bodies : for the dryness of their skin, he would bring in impudence; for the There is in nature no annihilating, or reducing hardness of their bowels, unmercifulness; for the to nothing. Therefore, that which is consumed lippitude of their eyes, an evil eye, and envy; for is either resolved into air, or turned into some the casting down of their eyes, and bowing their body adjacent. So we see a spider, or fiy, or ant body towards the earth, atheism ; (for, saith he, in amber, entombed in a more stately monument they look no more up to heaven as they are wont;) than kings are; to be laid up for eternity, for the trembling of their members, irresolutions although they be but tender things, and soon disof their decrees and light inconstancy; for the sipated. But the matter is this, that there is no bending of their fingers, as it were to catch, rapa- air by, into which they should be resolved, and city and covetousness; for the buckling of their the substance of the amber is so heterogeneous, knees, fearfulness; for their wrinkles, craftiness that it receives nothing of them. The like we and obliquity; and other things which I have for- conceive would be if a stick, or root, or some gotten. But, to be serious, a young man is mo- such thing were buried in quicksilver; also wax, dest and shamefaced, an old man's forehead is and honey, and gums, have the same operation, hardened; a young man is full of bounty and but in part only. mercy, an old man's heart is brawny; a young nian is affected with a laudable emulation, an old man with a malignant envy; a young man is in- There is in every tangible body a spirit, covered clined to religion and devotion, by reason of his and encompassed with the grosser parts of th: body, fervency and inexperience of evil, an old man and from it all consumption and dissolution hath cooleth in piety through the coldness of his cha- the beginning. rity, and long conversation in evil, and likewise through the difficulty of his belief; a young man's desires are vehement, an old man's mode- No body known unto us here in the upper part rate; a young man is light and movable, an old l of the earth is without a spirit, either by attenua





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