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and in summer, by detaining the spirits within, And therefore linen is to be preferred for delicacy and prohibiting the resolution of them, and keep- and neatness, but to be suspected for our opeing off the force of the air, which is then most ration. predatory.
27. The wild Irish, as soon as they fall sick, 21. Seeing the anointing with oil is one of the the first thing they do is to take the sheets off most potent operations to long life, we have their beds, and to wrap themselves in the woollen thought good to add some cautions, lest the health clothes. should be endangered; they are four, according 28. Some report that they have found great to the four inconveniences which may follow benefit in the conservation of their health, by thereupon.
wearing scarlet waistcoats next their skin, and 22. The first inconvenience is, that by repress- under their shirts, as well down to the nether ing sweats it may engender diseases from those parts as on the upper. excrementitious humours. To this a remedy must 29. It is also to be observed, that air accustombe given by purges and clysters, that evacuation ed to the body doth less prey upon it than new air may be duly performed. This is certain, that and often changed; and therefore poor people, in evacuation by sweats commonly advanceth health, small cottages, who live always within the smell and derogateth from long life, but gentle purges of the same chimney, and change not their seats, work upon the humours, not upon the spirits as are commonly longest lived ; notwithstanding, to sweat doth.
other operations (especially for them whese spirits 23. The second inconvenience is, that it may are not altogether dull) we judge change of air to heat the body, and in time inflame it; for the be very profitable, but a mean must be used which spirits shut in, and not breathing forth, acquire may satisfy on both sides. This may be done by heat. This inconvenience may be prevented, if removing our habitation four times a year, at conthe diet most usually incline to the colder part, stant and set times, unto convenient seats, that so and that at times some proper cooling medicines the body may neither be in too much peregrinabe taken, of which we shall straight speak in the tion, nor in too much station. And touching the operation upon the blood.
operation upon the exclusion of air, and avoiding 24. The third is, that it may annoy the head; the predatory force thereof, thus much. for all oppletion from without strikes back the vapours, and sends them up into the head. This III. The Operation upon the Blood, and the San inconvenience is remedied by purgers, especially
guifying Ilcal. rlysters, and by shutting the mouth of the stomach strongly with sty ptics, and by combing and rub
The history. bing the head, and by washing it with convenient 1. The following operations answer to the two lees, that something may exhale, and by not precedent, and are in the relation of passives and omitting competent and good exercises, that actives; for the two precedent intend this, that something also may perspire by the skin. the spirits and air in their actions may be the
25. The fourth inconvenience is a more subtile less depredatory. But because the blood is an cvil; namely, that the spirit being detained by the irrigation or watering of the juices and members, closing up of the pores, is likely to multiply it- and a preparation to them, therefore we will put self too much; for when little issueth forth, and the operation upon the blood in the first place : new spirit is continually engendered, the spirit concerning this operation we will propound cerincreaseth too fast, and so preyeth upon the body tain counsels, few in number, but very powerful more plentifully. But this is not altogether so; in virtue: they are three. for all spirit closed up is dull, (for it is blown and 2. First, there is no doubt, but that if the blood excited with motion as flame is,) and therefore it be brought to a cold temper, it will be so much is less active, and less generative of itself; indeed the less dissipable. But because the cold things it is thereby increased in heat, (as flame is,) but which are taken by the mouth agree but ill with slow in motion. And therefore the remedy to this many other intentions, therefore it will be best to inconvenience must be by cold things, being find out some such things as may be free from sometimes mixed with oil, such as are roses and these inconveniences. myrtles, for we must altogether disclaim hot 3. The first is this : let there be brought into things, as we said of cassia.
use, especially in youth, clysters not purging at 26. Neither will it be unprofitable to wear all, or absterging, but only cooling, and somenext the body garments that have in them some what opening: those are approved which are ninctuosity, or oleosity, not aquosity, for they made of the juices of lettuce, purslane, liverwort, will exhaust the body less; such as are those of house-leek, and the mucilage of the seed of fleawoollen, rather than those of linen. Certainly it wort, with some temperate opening decoction, is manifest in the spirits of odours, that if you lay and a little camphire; but in the declining age sweet powders amongst linen, they will much let the house-leek and purslane be left out, and sooner lose their smell than amongst woollen. I the juices of borage and endive, and the like, be
put in their rooms. And let these clysters be re- malignant quality in the dissolutions of them, tained, if it may be for an hour or more. neither will they be beaten to that exquisite fine
4. The other is this, let there be in use, espe- ' ness that leaf-gold hath. As for all glassy and cially in summer, baths of fresh water, and but transparent jewels, we like them not, (as we said Jukewarm, altogether without emollients, as mal. before,) for fear of corrosion. Jows, mercury, milk, and the like; rather take new 11. But, in our judgment, the safer and more whey in some good quantity, and roses.
effectual way would be by the use of woods in 5. But (that which is the principal in this in- infusions and decoctions; for there is in them suftention and new) we advise that before the bath- ficient to cause firmness of blood, and not the like iny, the body be anointed with oil, with some danger for breeding obstructions; but especially, thickness, whereby the quality of the cooling may because they may be taken in meat and drink, be received, and the water excluded : yet let not whereby they will find the more easy entrance the pores of the body be shut too close, for when into the veins, and not be avoided in excrements. the outward cold closeth up the body too strongly, 12. The woods fit for this purpose are sanders, it is so far from furthering coolness, that it rather the oak, and vine. As for all hot woods or someforbids, and stirs up heat.
thing rosiny, we reject them ; notwithstanding, 6. Like unto this is the use of bladders, with you may add the woody stalks of rosemary dried, some decoctions and cooling juices, applied to the for rosemary is a shrub, and exceedeth in age icferior region of the body, namely, from the ribs many trees, also the woody stalks of ivy, but in to the privy parts: for this also is a kind of bath- such quantity as they may not yield an unpleasing, where the body of the liquor is for the most ing taste. part excluded, and the cooling quality admitted. 13. Let the woods be taken either boiled in
7. The third counsel remaineth, which belong. broths, or infused in must or ale before they leave ath not to the quality of the blood, but to the sub- working; but in broths (as the custom is for guaistance thereof, that it may be made more firm and acum and the like) they would be infused a good less dissipable, and such as the heat of the spirit while before the boiling, that the firmer part of the may have the less power over it.
wood, and not that only which lieth loosely, may 8. And as for the use of filings of gold, leaf-gold, be drawn forth. As for ash, though it be used for powder of pearl, precious stones, coral, and the cups, yet we like it not. And touching the operalike, we have no opinion of them at this day, un- tion upon the blood, thus much. less it be only as they may satisfy this present operation. Certainly, seeing the Arabians, Gre
IV. The Operation upon the Juices of the Body. cians, and modern physicians, have attributed
The history. such virtues to these things, it cannot be altogether 1. There are two kinds of bodies (as was said nothing, which so great men have observed of before in the inquisition touching inanimates) the:n. And, therefore, omitting all fantastical which are hardly consumed, hard things and fat opinions about them, we do verily believe, that if things, as is seen in metals and stones, and in oil there could be some such things conveyed into and wax. the whole mass of the blood in minute and fine 2. It must be ordered, therefore, that the juice portions, over which the spirits and heat should of the body be somewhat hard, and that it be fat have little or no power, absolutely it would not or subroscid. only resist putrefaction, but arefaction also, and 3. As for hardness, it is caused three ways: by be a most effectual means to the prolongation of aliment of a firm nature, by cold condensing the life. Nevertheless, in this thing several cautions skin and flesh, and by exercise, binding and comare to be given; first, that there be a most exact pacting the juices of the body, that they be not comminution: secondly, that such hard and solid soft and frothy. things be void of all malignant qualities, lest 4. As for the nature of the aliment, it ought to while they be dispersed and lurk in the veins, be such as is not easily dissipable, such as are they breed some illconvenience: thirdly, that they beef, swine's flesh, deer, goat, kid, swan, goose, be never taken together with meats, nor in any ringdove, especially if they be a little powdered ; such manner as they may stick Jong, lest they fish is likewise salted and dried, old cheese, and beget dangerous obstructions about the mesentery: the like. lastly, that they be taken very rarely, that they 5. As for the bread, oaten bread or bread with may not coagulate and knot together in the veins. some mixture of pease in it, or rye bread, or barley
9. Therefore, let the manner of taking them be bread, are more solid than wheat bread, and in fasting, in white wine, a little oil of almonds wheat bread, the coarse wheat bread is more solid mingled therewith, exercise used immediately than the pure manchet. upon the taking of them.
6. The inhabitants of the Orcades, which live 10. The simples which may satisfy this opera- upon salted fish, and generally all fish eaters, aro tion are, instead of ail, gold, pearls, and coral; for long-lived. all metals, except gold, are not without some 7. The monks and hermits which fod sparingly.
and upon dry aliment, attained commonly to a suming than water, so in paper or linen, it sticketb great age.
longer, and is later dried, as we noted before. 8. Also, pure water usually drunk, makes the 18. To the irroration of the body, roasted meats juices of the body less frothy; unto which if, for or baked meats are more effectual than boiled the dulness of the spirits, (which no doubt in meats, and all preparation of meat with water is water are but a little penetrative,) you shall add a inconvenient; besides oil is more plentifully exlittle nitre, we conceive it would be very good. tracted out of dried bodies than out of moist bodies. And touching the firmness of the aliment, thus 19. Generally, to the irroration of the body much.
much use of sweet things is profitable, as of 9. As for the condensation of the skin and flesh sugar, honey, sweet almonds, pineapples, pis. by cold: they are longer lived for the most part tachios, dates, raisins of the sun, corans, figs, and that live abroad in the open air, than they that the like. Contrarily, all sour, and very salt, and live in houses; and the inhabitants of the cold very biting things are opposite to the generation countries, than the inhabitants of the hot.
of roscid juice. 10. Great store of clothes, either upon the bed 20. Neither would we be thought to favour the or back, do resolve the body.
Maenichees, or their diet, though we commend 11. Washing the body in cold water is good for the frequent use of all kinds of seeds, kernels, length of life; use of hot baths is naught: touch- and roots in meats or sauces, considering all bread ing baths of astringent mineral waters, we have (and bread is that which maketh the meat firin) spoken before.
is made either of seeds or roots. 12. As for exercise, an idle life doth manifestly 21. But there is nothing makes so much to the make the flesh soft and dissipable: robust exer- irroration of the body as the quality of the drink, cise (so it be without overmuch sweating or wea- which is the convoy of the meat; therefore, let riness) maketh it hard and compact. Also exere there be in use such drinks as without all acricise within cold water, as swimming, is very mony or sourness are notwithstanding subtile; good; and generally exercise abroad is better than such are those wines which are (as the old wothat within houses.
man said in Plautus) vetustate edentula, toothless 13. Touching frications, (which are a kind of with age, and ale of the same kind. exercise,) because they do rather call forth the 22. Mead (as we suppose) would not be ill if aliment that hardens the flesh, we will inquire it were strong and old; but because all honey hereafter in the due place.
hath in it some sharp parts, (as appears by that 14. Having now spoken of hardening the juices sharp water which the chymists extract out of of the body, we are to come next to the oleosity it, which will dissolve metals,) it were better to and fatness of them, which is a more perfect and take the same portion of sugar, not lightly inpotent intention than induration, because it hath fused into it, but so incorporated as honey useth no inconvenience or evil annexed. For all those to be in mead, and to keep it to the age of a year, things which pertain to the hardening of the at least six months, whereby the water may juices are of that nature, that while they prohibit lose the crudity, and the sugar acquire subtilty. the absumption of the aliment, they also hinder 23. Now, ancientness in wine or beer hath this the operation of the same; whereby it happens, in it, that it engenders subtilty in the parts of the that the same things are both propitious and ad- liquor, and acrimony in the spirits, whereof the verse to length of life; but those things which first is profitable, and the second hurtful. Now, pertain to making the juices oily and roscid, help to rectify this evil commixture, let there be pul on both sides, for they render the aliment both into the vessel, before the wine be separated from less dissipable, and more reparable.
the must, swine's flesh or deer's flesh well boiled, 15. But, whereas we say that the juice of the that the spirits of the wine may have whereupon body ought to be roscid and fat, it is to be noted to ruminate and feed, and so lay aside their morthat we mean it not of a visible fat, but of a dewi- dacity. ness dispersed, or (if you will call it) radical in 24. In like manner, if ale should be made not the very substance of the body.
only with the grains of wheat, barley, oats, pease, 16. Neither again let any man think, that oil, and the like, but also should admit a part (supor the fat of meat or marrow, do engender the like, pose a third part to these grains) of some fat and satisfy our intention: for those things which roots, such as are potado roots, pith of artichokes, are once perfect are not brought back again; but burre roots, or some other sweet and esculent the aliments ought to be such, which after diges. roots; we suppose it would be a more useful tion and maturation, do then in the end engender drink for long life than the ale made of grains oleosity in the juices.
only. 17. Neither again let any man think, that oil Also, such things as have very thin parts, yet, or fat by itself and simple is hard of dissipation; notwithstanding, are without all acrimony or but in mixture it doth not retain the same nature: mordacity, are very good salads; which virtue for as oil hy itself is much more longer in con- we find to be in some few of the flowers, namely,
flowers of ivy, which, infused in vinegar, are that it were out again, saying, he had no need of pleasant even to the taste, marigold leaves, which the broth, but only of the warmth. are used in broths, and flowers of betony. And, 6. I do verily conceive it good that the first touching the operation upon the juices of the draught either of wine, or ale, or any other drink body, thus much.
(to which a man is most accustomed) be taken
at supper warm. V. The Oneration upon the Bouels of their Extru
7. Wine in which gold hath been quenched, I sion of Aliment.
conceive, would be very good once in a meal ; The history.
not that I believe the gold conferreth any virtue 1. What those things are which comfort the thereunto, but that I know that the quenching of principal bowels, which are the fountains of all metals in any kind of liquor doth leave a most concoctions, namely, the stomach, liver, heart, potent astriction. Now, I choose gold, because, and brain, to perform their functions well, (where- besides that astriction which I desire, it leaveth by aliment is distributed into the parts, spirits are nothing behind it of a metalline impression. dispersed, and the reparation of the whole body 8. I am of opinion that the sops of bread dipis accomplished,) may be derived from physi- ped in wine, taken at the midst of the meal, are cians, and from their prescripts and advices. better than wine itself, especially if there were
2. Touching the spleen, gall, kidneys, mesen- infused into the wine in which the sops were dipteries, guts, and lungs, we speak not, for these ped, rosemary and citron pill, and that with sugar, are members ministering to the principal, and that it may not slip too fast. whereas speech is made touching health, they 9. It is certain that the use of quinces is good require sometimes a most special consideration, to strengthen the stomach, but we take them to because each of these have their diseases, which, be better if they be used in that which they call unless they be cured, will have influence upon quiddeny of quinces, than in the bodies of the the principal members. But, as touching the quinces themselves, because they lie heavy in prolongation of life, and reparation by aliments, the stomach. But those quiddenies are best and retardation of the incoction of old age; if taken, after meals, alone; before meals, dipped the concoctions and those principal bowels be in vinegar. well disposed, the rest will commonly follow 10. Such things as are good for the stomach according to one's wish.
above other simples are these, rosemary,
elecami3. And as for those things which, according pane, mastic, wormwood, sage, mint. to the different state of every man's body, may 11. I allow pills of aloes, mastic, and saffron, be transferred into his diet, and the regiment winter-time, taken before dinner, but so as the of his life, he may collect them out of the aloes be not only oftentimes washed in rose-water, books of physicians, which have written of but also in vinegar in which tragacanth hath been the comforting and preserving the four prin- infused, and after that be macerated for a few hours cipal members; for conservation of health hath in oil of sweet almonds new drawn, before it be commonly need of no more than some short made into pills. courses of physic, but length of life cannot be 12. Wine or ale, wherein wormwood has been hoped without an orderly diet, and a constant infused, with a little elecampane and yellow race of sovereign medicines. But we will pro- sanders, will do well, taken at times, and that pound some few, and those the most select and especially in winter. prime directions.
13. But in summer, a draught of white wine 4. The stomach (which, as they say, is the allayed with strawberry water, in which wine, master of the house, and whose strength and powder of pearls, and of the shells of crawfishes goodness is fundamental to the other concoctions) exquisitely beaten, and (which may, perhaps, ought so to be guarded and confirmed that it may seem strange) a little chalk have been infused, be without internperateness hot; next, astricted doth excellently refresh and strengthen the or bound, not loose ; furthermore, clean, not sur- stomach. charged with foul humours, and yet (in regard it 14, But, generally, all draughts in the mornis nourished from itself, and not from the veins) ing (which are but too frequently used) of cool. not altogether empty or hungry; lastly, it is to be ing things, as of juices, decoctions, whey, barley kept ever in appetite, because appetite sharpens waters, and the like, are to be avoided, and no. digestion.
thing is to be put into the stomach fasting which 5. I wonder much how that same calidum bi- is purely cold. These things are better given, it bere, to drink warm drink, (which was in use need require, either at five in the afternoon, on amongst the ancients,) is laid down' again. I else an hour after a light breakfast. knew a physician that was very famous, wh in 15. Often fastings are bad for long life ; bothe beginning of dinner and supper, would usur sides, all thirst is to be avoided, and the stomach ally eat a few spoonfuls of very warm broth with is to be kept clean, but always moist. much greediness, and then would presently wish 16. Oil of olives new and good, in which a little mithridate hath been dissolved, anointed | dried figs, dates, parsnips, potatoes, and the like, upon the backbone, just against the mouth of the with the mixture of liquorice sometimes. Also, a stomach, doth wonderfully comfort the stomach. julip of the Indian grain; (which they call maize,)
17. A small bag filled with locks of scarlet with the mixture of some sweet things, doth wool steeped in red wine, in which myrtle, and much to the same end. But it is to be noted, citron pill, and a little saffron have been infused, that the intention of preserving the liver in a kind may be always worn upon the stomach. And of softness and fatness, is much more powerful touching those things which comfort the stomach, than that other which pertains to the opening of thus much, seeing many of those things also the liver, which rather tendeth to health, than to which serve for other operations are helpful to length of life, saving that obstruction which inthis.
duceth torrefaction, is as opposite to long life as 18. The liver, if it be preserved from torrefac- those other arefactions. tion or desiccation, and from obstruction, it need- 25. I commend the roots of succory, spinage, eth no more; for that looseness of it which begets and beets cleared of their piths, and boiled till aquosities is plainly a sease, but the other two, they he tender in water, with a third part of white old age approaching ́induceth.
wine, for ordinary sallets, to be eaten with oil 19. Hereunto appertain most especially those and vinegar. Also asparagus, pith of artichokes, things which are set down in the operation upon and burroots boiled and served in after the same the blood; we will add a very few things more, manner. Also broths in the spring-time of vinebut those selected.
buds, and the green blades of wheat. And touch20. Principally, let there be in use the wine of ing the preserving of the liver, thus much. sweet pomegranates; or, if that cannot be had, 26. The heart receiveth benefit or harm most the juice of them newly pressed ; let it be taken from the air which we breathe, from vapours, and in the morning with a little sugar, and into the from the affections. Now, many of those things glass into which the expression is made put a which have been formerly spoken, touching the small piece of citron pill, green, and three or four spirits, may be transferred hither; but that undiwhole cloves; let this be taken from February gested mass of cordials collected by physicians till the end of April.
avails little to our intention; notwithstanding, 21. Bring also into use, above all other herbs, those things which are found to be good against water-cresses, but young, not old ; they may be poisons, may, with good judgment, be given to used either raw in sallets, or in broths, or in strengthen and fortify the heart, especially if they drinks; and after that take spoonwort.
be of that kind, that they do not so much resist 22. Aloes, however washed or corrected, is the particular poisons, as arm the heart and spirits hurtful for the liver, and therefore it is never to against poison in general. And touching these be taken ordinarily. Contrariwise, rhubarb is several cordials, you may repair to the table sovereign for the liver, so that these three cau- already set down. tions be interposed : First, that it be taken before 27. The goodness of the air is better known meat, lest it dry the body too much, or leave some by experience than by signs. We hold that air impressions of the stypicity thereof. Secondly, to be best where the country is level and plain, that it he macerated an hour or two in oil of sweet and that lieth open on all sides, so that the soil almonds new drawn, with rosewater, before it be be dry, and yet not barren or sandy; which puts infused in liquor, or given in the proper substance. forth wild thyme, and eyebright, and a kind of Thirdly, that it be taken by turns, one while marjoram, and here and there stalks of calamint ; simple, another while with tartar, or a little bay- which is not altogether void of wood, but corivesalt, that it carry not away the lighter parts only, niently set with some trees for shade, where the and make the mass of the humours the more ob- sweetbrier-rose smelleth something musky and stinate.
aromatically. If there be rivers, we suppose 23. I allow wine, or some decoction with steel, them rather hurtful than good, unless they be to be taken three or four times in the year, to very small, and clear, and gravelly. open the more strong obstructions ; yet so that a 28. It is certain, that the morning air is more draught of two or three spoonfuls of oil of sweet lively and refreshing than the evening air, though almonds, new drawn, ever go before, and the mo- the latter be preferred out of delicacy. ion of the body, especially of the arms and sides, 29. We conceive also, that the air stirred with constantly follow.
a gentle wind, is more wholesome than the air of 24 Sweetened liquors, and that with some fat- a serene and calm sky; but the best is, the wind ness, are principally, and not a little effectual to blowing from the west in the morning, and from prevent the arefaction, and saltness, and torrefac- the north in the afternoon. tion; and, in a word, the oldness of the liver, espe- 30. Odours are especially profitable for the cially if they be well incorporated with age. They comforting of the heart, yet not so, as thongh? are made of sweet fruits and roots ; as, namely, the good odour were the prerogative of a good air: wines and julips of raisins of the sun new, jujubes, for it is certain, that as there are some pestilential