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And, therefore, as strong wines, and spices, and 60. And as touching the condensing of the spithe like, do burn the spirits and shorten life; so, rits by cold, thus much. The third way of conon the contrary side, nitre doth compose and densing the spirits we said to be by that which repress them, and furthereth to life.
we call stroking the spirits. The fourth, by 52. Nitre may be used with meat, mixed with quieting the alacrity and unruliness of them. our salt, to the tenth part of the salt; in broths 61. Such things stroke the spirits as are pleastaken in the morning, for three grains to ten, also ing and friendly to them, yet they allure them in beer; but howsoever it be used, with modera- not to go abroad; but rather prevail, that the spition, it is of prime force to long life.
rits, contented as it were in their own society, do 53. As opium holds the pre-eminence in con. enjoy themselves, and betake themselves into densing the spirits, by putting them to flight, and their proper centre. hath withal his subordinates less potent, but more 61. For these, if you recollect those things safe, which may be taken both in greater quantity which were formerly set down, as subordinates to and in more frequent use, of which we have for- opium and nitre, there will need no other inquisimerly spoken; so also nitre, which condenseth tion. the spirits by cold, and by a kind of frescour, (as 62. As for the quieting of the unruliness of the we now-a-days speak,) hath also his subordinates. spirits, we shall presently speak of that, when we
54. Subordinates to nitre are, all those things inquire touching their motion. Now then, seeing which yield an odour somewhat earthy, like the we have spoken of that condensation of the spirits smell of earth, pure and good, newly digged or which pertaineth to their substance, we will come turned up; of this sort the chief are, borage, bu- to the temper of heat in them. loss, langue de bouf, burnet, strawberry leaves, 63. The heat of the spirits, as we said, ought and strawberries, frambois, or raspis, raw cucum- to be of that kind, that it may be robust, not eager, bers, raw pearmains, vine leaves, and buds, also and may delight rather to master the tough and violets.
obstinate, than to carry away the thin and light 55. The next in order, are those which have a humours. certain freshness of smell, but somewhat more 64. We must beware of spices, wine, and inclined to heat, yet not altogether void of that strong drinks, that our use of them be very tem. virtue of refreshing by coolness; such as are perate, and sometimes discontinued. Also of balm, green citrons, green oranges, rosewater dis- savory, wild marjorum, pennyroyal, and all such tilled, roasted wardens; also the damask, red, and as bite and heat the tongue; for they yield unto musk roses.
the spirits a heat not operative, but predatory. 56. This is to be noted, that subordinates to 65. These yield a robust heat, especially elecamnitre do commonly confer more to this intension pane, garlick, carduus benedictus, watercresses, raw, than having passed the fire, because that the while they are young, germander, angelica, zespirit of cooling is dissipated by the fire, therefore doary, vervin, valerian, myrrh, pepperwort, elder they are best taken either infused in some liquor, flowers, garden chervile. The use of these things,
with choice and judgment, sometimes in salads, 57. As the condensation of the spirits by subor- sometimes in medicines, will satisfy this opedinates to opium is, in some sort, performed by ration. odours, so also that which is by subordinates to 66. It falls out well, that the grand opiates will nitre; therefore the smell of new and pure earth, also serve excellently for this operation, in respect taken either by following the plough, or by dig- that they yield such a heat by composition, which ging, or by weeding, excellently refresheth the is wished, but not to be found in simples. For spirits. Also the leaves of trees in woods, or the mixing of those excessive hot things, (such as hedges, falling towards the middle of autumn, are euphorbium, pellitory of Spain, stavisacre, yield a good refreshing to the spirits, but none so dragonwort, anacordi, castoreum, aristolochium, good as strawberry leaves dying. Likewise the opponax, ammoniachum, galbanum, and the like, smell of violets, or wallfowers, or beanflowers, or which of themselves cannot be taken inwardly,) sweetbrier, or honeysuckles, taken as they grow, to qualify and abate the stupefactive virtue of the in passing by them only, is of the same nature. opium, they do make such a constitution of a
58. Nay, and we know a certain great lord medicament as we now require; which is excelwho lived long, that had every morning, imme- lently seen in this, that treacle and mithridate, diately after sleep, a clod of fresh earth laid in a and the rest, are not sharp, nor bite the tongue, fair napkin under his nose, that he might take the but are only somewhat bitter, and of strong scent, smell thereof.
and at last manifest their heat when they come 59. There is no doubt but the cooling and tem- into the stomach, and in their subsequent operapering of the blood by cool things, such as are tions. endive, succory, leverwort, purslain, and the like, 67. There conduces also to the robust heat of uo also by consequent cool the spirits. But this the spirits, Venus often excited, rarely performed ; is about, whereas vapours cool immediately. and no less some of the affections, of which shall
he spoken hereafter. So touching the heat of the sometimes destitute of honey, and likewise butspirits, analogical to the prolongation of life, thus terflies and other flies. much.
76. Sleep after dinner (the stomach sending up 68. Touching the quantity of the spirits, that no unpleasing vapours to the head, as being the they be not exuberant and boiling, but rather first dews of our meal) is good for the spirits, sparing, and within a mean, (seeing a small flame but derogatory and hurtful to all other points of doth not devour so much as a great fame,) the health. Notwithstanding in extreme old age inquisition will be short.
there is the same reason of meat and sleep, for 69. It seems to be approved by experience, that both our meals and our sleeps should be then frea spare diet, and almost a pythagorical, such as is quent, but short and little; nay, and towards the either prescribed by the strict rules of a monas- last period of old age, a mere rest, and, as it tical life, or practised by hermits, which have ne- were, a perpetual reposing doth best, especially cessity and poverty for their rule, rendereth a man in winter-time. long-lived.
77. But as moderate sleep conferreth to long 70. Hitherto appertain drinking of water, a hard life, so much more if it be quiet and not disturbed. bed, abstinence from fire, a slender diet, (as, 78. These procure quiet sleep, violets, lettuce, namely, of herbs, fruits, flesh, and fish, rather especially boiled, syrup of dried roses, saffron, powdered and salted, than fresh and hot, a hair balm, apples, at our going to bed; a sop of bread shirt, frequent fastings, frequent watchings, few in malmsey, especially where musk-roses have sensual pleasures, and such like ; for all these been first infused; therefore it would not be amiss diminish the spirits, and reduce them to such a to make some pill or a small draught of these quantity as may be sufficient only for the func- things, and to use it familiarly. Also those things tions of life, whereby the depredation is the which shut the mouth of the stomach close, as less.
coriander seed prepared, quinces and wardens 71. But if the diet shall not be altogether so roasted, do induce sound sleep; but above all rigorous and mortifying, yet, notwithstanding, things in youth, and for those that have sufficient shall be always equal and constant to itself, it strong stomachs, it will be best to take a good worketh the same effect. We see it in flames, draught of clear cold water when they go to bed. that a flame somewhat bigger (so it be always Touching voluntary and procured trances, as alike and quiet) consumeth less of the fuel, than also fixed and profound thoughts, so as they be a lesser flaine blown with bellows, and by gusts without irksomeness, I have nothing certain ; no stronger or weaker. That which the regiment doubt they make to this intention, and condense and diet of Cornarus, the Venetian, showed the spirits, and that more potently than sleep, seeplainly, who did eat and drink so many years to- ing they lay asleep, and suspend the senses as gether by a just weight, whereby he exceeded a much or more. Touching them, let further inhundred
of age, strong in limbs, and entire quiry be made. So far touching sleep. in his senses.
79. As for motion and exercise, lassitude hurt72. Care also must be taken, that a body, plen- eth, and so doth all motion and exercise which is tifully nourished, and not emaciated by any of too nimble and swist, as running, tennis, fencing, these aforesaid diets, omitteth not a seasonable and the like; and, again, when our strength is use of Venus, lest the spirits increase too fast, extended and strained to the uttermost, as dancing, and soften and destroy the body. So then, touch- wrestling, and such like; for it is certain, that the ing a moderate quantity of spirits, and (as we spirits being driven into straits, either by the may say) frugal, thus much.
swiftness of the motion, or by the straining of the 73. The inquisition, touching bridling the mo- forces, do afterward become more eager and pretions of the spirits, followeth next. Motion doth datory. On the other side, exercises which stir manifestly attenuate and inflame them. This up a good strong motion, but not over swist, or to bridling is done by three means; by sleep, by our utmost strength, (such as are leaping, shooiavoiding of vehement labours, immoderate exer- ing, riding, bowling, and the like, do not hurt, cise, and, in a word, all lassitude; and hy re- but rather benefit. fraining irksome affections. And, first, touching We must come now to the affections and pas. sleep.
sions of the mind, and see which of thein are 74. The fable tells us, that Epimenides slept hurtful to long life, which profitable. many years together in a cave, and all that time 80. Great joys attenuate and diffuse the spirits, needed no meat, because the spirits waste not and shorten life; familiar cheerfulness strengthens much in sleep.
the spirits, by calling them forth, and yet not re75. Experience teacheth us that certain creatures, solving them. as dormice and bats, sleep in some close places a 81. Impressions of joy in the sense are naught; whole winter together; such is the force of sleep ruminations of joy in the memory, or apprehenlo restrain all vital consumption. That which sions of them in hope or fancy, are good. bees or drones are also thought to do, though 82. Joy suppressed, or communicated sparingiy, doth more comfort the spirits, than joy poured | Isocrates, Seneca. And, certainly, as old men are forth and published.
for the most part talkative, so talkative men do 83. Grief and sadness, if it be void of fear, and often grow very old : for it shows a light contemaMict not too much, doth rather prolong life; for plation, and such as do not much strain the spirits, it contracteth the spirits, and is a kind of con- or vex them; but subtle, and acute, and eager indensation.
quisition shortens life, for it tireth the spirit, and 81. Great fears shorten the life; for though wasteth it. grief and fear do both strengthen the spirit, yet in And as touching the motion of the spirits, by grief there is a simple contraction; but in fear, the affections of the mind, thus much. Now, we hy reason of the cares taken for the remedy, and will add certain other general observations touchhopes intermixed, there is a turmoil and vexing ing the spirits, besides the former, which fall not of the spirits.
into the precedent distribution. 85. Anger suppressed is also a kind of vexa- 92. Especial care must be taken that the spirits tion, and causeth the spirit to feed upon ita juices be not too often resolved; for attenuation goethi of the body; but let loose and breaking forth, it before resolution, and the spirit once attenuated helpeth; as those medicines do, which induce doth not very easily retire, or is condensed. Now, robust heat.
resolution is caused by over-great labours, over86. Envy is the worst of all passions, and vehement affections of the mind, over-great sweats, feedeth upon the spirits, and they again upon the over-great evacuation, hot baths, and an untempebody, and so much the more, because it is per- rate and unseasonable use of Venus; also by overpetual, and, as it is said, keepeth no holidays. great cares and carpings, and anxious expectations;
87. Pity of another man's misfortune, which is lastly, by malignant diseases, and intolerable pains not likely to befall ourselves, is good; but pity, and torinents of the body; all which, as much as which may reflect with some similitude upon the may be, (which our vulgar physicians also adparty pitying, is naught, because it exciteth fear. vise,) must be avoided.
88. Light shame hurteth not, seeing it con- 93. The spirits are delighted both with wonted tracteth the spirits a little, and then straight dif- things and with new. Now, it maketh wondersuseth them, insomuch that shamefaced persons fully to the conservation of the spirits in vigour, commonly live long; but shame for some great that we neither use wonted things to a satiety and ignominy, and which afflicteth the mind long, glutting; nor new things, before a quick and contracteth the spirits even to suffocation, and strong appetite. And, therefore, both customs are is pernicious.
to be broken off with judgment and care, before 89. Love, if it be not unfortunate, and too they breed a fulness; and the appetite after new deeply wounding, is a kind of joy, and is subject things to be restrained for a time until it grow to the same laws which we have set down touch-more sharp and jocund; and, moreover, the life, ing joy.
as much as may be, so to be ordered, that it may 90. Hope is the most beneficial of all the affec- have many renovations, and the spirits, by pertions, and doth much to the prolongation of life, petual conversing in the same actions, may not if it be not too often frustrated, but entertaineth wax dull. For though it were no ill saying of the fancy with an expectation of good; therefore Seneca's, The fool doth ever begin to live; yet they which fix and propound to themselves some this folly, and many more such, are good for end, as the mark and scope of their life, and con- long life. tinually and by degrees go forward in the same, 94. It is to be observed touching the spirits, are, for the most part, long-lived ; insomuch that (though the contrary used to be done,) that when when they are come to the top of their hope, and men perceive their spirits to be in good, placid, can go no higher therein, they commonly droop, and healthful state, (that which will be seen by and live not long after. So that hope is a leaf-joy, the tranquillity of their mind, and cheerful dispowhich may be beaten out to a great extension, sition) that they cherish them, and not change like gold.
them; but when in a turbulent and untoward 91. Adiniration and light contemplation are state, (which will also appear by their sadness, very powerful to the prolonging of life; for they lumpishness, and other indisposition of their hold the spirits in such things as delight them, mind,) that then they straight overwhelm them, and suffer them not to tumultuate, or to carry and alter them. Now, the spirits are contained in themselves unquietly and waywardly. And, the same state, by a restraining of the affections, therefore, all the contemplators of natural things, temperateness of diet, abstinence from Venus, which had so many and eminent objects to ad- moderation in labour, indifferent rest and repose. mire, (as Democritus, Plato, Parmenides, Apol- and the contrary to these do alter and overwhelm lunius,) were long-lived; also rhetoricians, which the spirits; as, namely, vehement affections, protasted but lightly of things, and studied rather fuse feastings, immoderate Venus, difficult labours. exornation of speech than profundity of matters, earnest studies, and prosecution of business. Yet were also long-lived; as Gorgias, Protagoras, men are wont, when they are merriest and best
disposed, then to apply themselves to feastings, greater dominion over the affections, especially Venus, labours, endeavours, business, whereas, if the daily affections, than either the heart or brain, they have a regard to long life, (which may seem only those things excepted which are wrought by strange,) they should rather practise the contrary. potent vapours, as in drunkenness and melanFor we ought to cherish and preserve good spirits; choly. and for the evil disposed spirits to discharge and 99. Touching the operation upon the spirits, alter them.
that they may remain youthful, and renew their 95. Ficinus saith not unwisely, that old men, vigour thus much, which we have done more accufor the comforting of their spirits, ought often to rately, for that there is for the most part amongst remember and ruminate upon the acts of their physicians, and other authors, touching these childhood and youth; certainly such a remem- operations, a deep silence; but especially, because brance is a kind of peculiar recreation to every old the operation upon the spirits, and their waxing man: and, therefore, it is a delight to men to green again, is the most ready and compendious enjoy the society of them which have been brought way to long life, and that for a twofold compenup together with them, and to visit the places of diousness; one, because the spirits work compentheir education. Vespasian did attribute so much diously upon the body; the other, because vapours to this matter, that when he was emperor, he would and the affections work compendiously upon the by no means be persuaded to leave his father's spirits, so as these attain the end, as it were, in a house, though but mean, lest he should lose the right line, other things rather in lines circular. wonted object of his eyes, and the memory of his childhood. And besides, he would drink in a II. The Operation upon the Exclusion of the Air. wooden cup tipped with silver, which was his
The History. grandmother's, upon festival days.
1. The exclusion of the air ambient tendeth to 96. One thing above all is grateful to the spi- length of life two ways; first, for that the external rits, that there be a continual progress to the more air, next unto the native spirits, howsoever the air benign; therefore we should lead such a youth may be said to animate the spirit of man, and conand manhood, that our old age should find new ferreth not a little to health, doth most of all prey solaces, whereof the chief is moderate ease: and, upon the juices of the body, and hasten the desictherefore, old men in honourable places lay vio- cation thereof; and therefore the exclusion of it lent hands upon themselves, who retire not to their is effectual to length of life. case; whereof may be found an eminent example 2. Another effect which followeth the exclusion in Cassiodorus, who was of that reputation of air is much more subtile and profound : namely, amongst the gothish Kings of Italy, that he was that the body closed up, and not perspiring by as the soul of their affairs; afterwards, being near the pores, detaineth the spirits within, and turneth eighty years of age, he betook himself to a mo- it upon the harder parts of the body, whereby the nastery, where he ended not his days before he spirit mollifies and intenerates them. was a hundred years old. But this thing doth 3. Of this thing, the reason is explained in the require two cautions: one, that they drive not off | desiccation of inanimate bodies, and it is an axiom till their bodies be utterly worn out and diseased ; almost infallible, that the spirit discharged and for in such bodies all mutation, though to the more issuing forth, drieth bodies; detained, melteth and benign, hasteneth death ; the other, that they sur-intenerateth them. And it is further to be assumed, render not themselves to a sluggish ease, but that that all heat doth properly attenuate and moisten, they embrace something which may entertain their and contracteth and drieth only by accident. thoughts and mind with contentation; in which 4. Leading the life in dens and caves, where kind, the chief delights are reading and contem- the air receives not the sunbeams, may be effectual plation, and then the desires of building and to long life. For the air of itself doth not much planting.
towards the depredation of the body, unless it be 97. Lastly: the same action, endeavour, and stirred up by heat. Certainly, if a man shall labour, undertaken cheerfully and with a good recall things past to his memory, it will appear will, doth refresh the spirits, but with an aversa- that the statures of men have been anciently much tion and unwillingness, doth fret and deject them; greater than those that succeeded, as in Sicily, and therefore it conferreth to long life, either that and some other places: but this kind of men led a man hath the art to institute his life so as it may their lives, for the most part, in caves. Now, be free and suitable to his own humour, or else to length of life, and largeness of liinbs, have sono Jay such a command upon his mind, that whatso- affinity; the cave also of Epimenides walks among ever is imposed by fortune, it may rather lead him the fables. I suppose likewise, that the life of than drag him.
columnar anchorites was a thing resembling the 98. Neither is that to be omitted towards the life in caves, in respect the sunbeams could not yovernment of the affections, that especial care be much pierce thither, nor the an receive any great taken of the mouth of the stomach, especially that changes or inequalities. This is certain, both the it be not too much relaxed; for that part hath a Simeon Stelitas, as well Daniel as Saba, and
other columnar anchorites, have been exceeding 15. The same Irish used to wear safironed linen long-lived ; likewise the anchorites in our days, and shirts, which, though it were at first devised closed up and immured either within walls or to prevent vermin, yet howsoever I take it to be pillars, are often found to be long-lived.
very useful for lengthening of life ; for saffron, of 5. Next unto the life in caves, is the life on all things that I know, is the best thing for the mountains: for as the beams of the sun do not skin, and the comforting of the flesh, seeing it penetrate into caves, so on the tops of mountains, is both notably astringent, and hath besides an being destitute of reflection, they are of small oleosity and subtile heat without any acrimony. force. But this is to be understood of mountains I remember a certain Englishman who when he where the air is clear and pure; namely, whether went to sea carried a bag of saffron next his by reason of the dryness of the valleys, clouds and stomach, that he might conceal it, and so escape vapours do not ascend, as it is in the mountains custom; and whereas he was wont to be always which encompass Barbary, where, even at this exceeding seasick, at that time he continued very day, they live many times to a hundred and fifty well, and felt no provocation to vomit. years, as hath been noted before.
16. Hippocrates adviseth in winter to wear 6. And this kind of air of caves and mountains, clean linen, and in summer foul linen, and beof its own proper nature, is little or nothing pre- smeared with oil: the reason may seem to lie, bedatory; but air, such as ours is, which is preda- cause in summer the spirits exhale most, therefore tory through the heat of the sun, ought as much the pores of the skin would be filled up. as is possible to be excluded from the body. 17. Hereupon we are of opinion that the use of
7. But the air is prohibited and excluded two oil, either of olives or sweet almonds, to anoint the ways: first, by closing the pores: secondly, by skin therewith, would principally conduce to long filling them up.
life. The anointing would be done every morni8. To the closing of the pores, help coldness of ing when we rise out of bed with oil, in which a the air, going naked, whereby the skin is made little bay-salt and saffron is mixed. But this kard, washing in cold water, astringents applied anointing must be lightly done with wool, or to the skin, such as are mastick, myrrhe, myrile. some soft sponge, not laying it on thick, but
9. But much more may we satisfy this opera- gently touching and wetting the skin. tion by baths, yet those rarely used, (especially 18. It is certain that liquors, even the oily in summer,) which are made of astringent mineral themselves, in great quantities draw somewhat waters, such as may safely be used, as waters par- from the body; but, contrarily, in small quantities ticipating of steel and copperas, for these do po- are drunk in by the body; therefore the anointing tently contract the skin.
would be but light as we said, or rather the shirt 10. As for filling up the pores, paintings, and itself would be besmeared with oil. such like unctuous daubings, and (which may 19. It may happily be objected that this anointmost commodiously be used) oil and fat things, ing with oil which we cominend (though it were do no less conserve the substance of the body, never in use with us, and amongst the Italians than oil colours and varnish do preserve wood. is cast off again) was anciently very familiar
11. The ancient Britons painted their bodies amongst the Grecians and Romans, and a part of with woad, and were exceeding long-lived; the their diet, and yet men were not longer lived in Picts also used paintings, and are thought by those days than now. But it may rightly be ansome to have derived their name from thence. swered, oil was in use only after baths, unless it
12. The Brazilians and Virginians paint them- were perhaps amongst champions; now hot baths selves at this day, who are (especially the former) are as much contrary to our operation as anointvery long-lived; insomuch that five years ago, the ings are congruous, seeing the one opens the French Jesuites had speech with some who re- passages, the other stops them up; therefore the membered the building of Fernambuck, which bath without the anointing following is utterly was done a hundred and twenty years since, and bad, the anointing without the bath is best of all. they were then at man's estate.
Besides, the anointing amongst them was used 13. Joannes de 'Temporibus, who is reported to only for delicacy, or (if you take it at the best) have extended his life to three hundred years, for health, but by no means in order to long life; being asked how he preserved himself so long, is and therefore they used them with all precious said to have answered, By oil without, and by ointments, which were good for deliciousness, honey within.
but hurtful to our intention, in regard of their 14. The Irish, especially the wild Irish, even at heat; so that Virgil seemeth not to have said this day live very long; certainly they report, amiss, chat within these few years, the Countess of Des
-Nec casiâ liquidi corrumpitur usus olivi. mon.) lived to a hundred and forty years of age, That odoriferous cassia hath not supplanted the use of neat ord lired teeth three times. Now the Irish have a fobion to chafe, and, as it were, to baste them- 20. Anointing with oil conduceth to health, bote! !s with old salt butter against the fire. both in winter, by the exclusion of the cold air, 101. III.-63