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" Who but must weep? For where,
soon be a greater number of the children of Israel Above thy bulwarks fair,
located in Jerusalem, than there has been at any Once floated Judah's banners to the breeze, given period since its destruction by the Roman Shadowing thy fanes and palaces;
The lurid crescent gleams,
We had several conversations on religious sub
jects, during our stay at Jerusalem, with different
classes of individuals. It has been visited by ProThe bannarel of Mecca's prophet waves, testant missionaries, and some have remained here And holds with truth and virtue ceaseless strife.” a few months, but their principal attention was of
MRS. BULMER, necessity directed towards the pilgrims, among
whom they distributed many tracts and copies of
the Scriptures. The brethren whom I accompaThe Jews occupy a portion of the city that bor- nied here, Messrs. Nicolaison and Thompson, took ders upon the temple. They are said to be prin- a house not far from the Jaffa gate, and intended cipally old people, who come here to die. In the to remove here with their families, and make it. appearance of many of them I could not distin- their permanent residence. They had hopes of guish that peculiarity of feature we are accustomed being able to establish a school. They need nos to attribute to their nation; but there are others apprehend any danger from the government, and who might sit to the painter, and their portraits individuals are kept in too much fear to do them would be immediately recognized as intended for harm. In the city I retained the European dress, Moses or some of the other ancient worthies.- and it may now be worn with safety. The only The women are fair, and less afraid to be seen of insults we met with were from women and chil. men than the other eastern females. The child dren, who called us monks, pügrims, Jews, dogs, ren are pretty: on being introduced, they kiss the and devils, and would sometimes spit upon the hand of the visiter, and touch it with their fore- ground as we passed. head. The houses of the more respectable persons are clean, and the principal room has a divan with rich cushions and carpets. Many of the Jews have a synagogue in their own house. I The mount of Olives will ever be the favorite partook with them of the bread of the passover. resort of the Christian, when he wishes to drink On the last day of the feast, I visited the principal in the inspiration of the place, and to draw wisdom synagogue. It is divided into many rooms, and from the instructive pages of its eventful history. is mean in its appearance. Service was performed We will pass over Kedron, and tread on this holy in all the apartments at the same time. There ground. In all other parts of the city there is are both Spanish and German Jews, but the latter doubt, and in too many disgust, but when standing are comparatively few. There might be present upon this famous eminence, it is as if we listened about 600 men, a small proportion of the whole to the words of some messenger of truth, furnished population, as there were many others assembled from heaven with sure and certain evidence of his at the same time in private places of worship.-high commission. There have been those who The women sat on the steps at the entrance, and have doubted of the truth of prophecy, but let in the outer court. The service was chaunted, in them accompany us in our present exercise, and general by the voices of the whole assembly. they can doubt no more. Doubt no more," did Nearly all had books in their hands, and they I say? Nay, they may still doubt, for men in this moved their bodies to and fro continually, in con- very spot have doubted of miracles that they saw formity as they say to the words of David :-“All performed with their own eyes, and prophecy is my bones shall praise thee.” It was mournful to only the standing miracle of the present and future see old men suddenly, and with an expression near ages of the church, that grows in power as it to agony, lifting up their long, thin, fleshless fin- grows in years. gers towards heaven, and crying aloud, as if to say, When we read the account given by Josephus, ** Lord, how long?" Some parts of the same ser. of the immense stones that were used in some vice have been performed in the same city, and in parts of the city, borne out by the words of the the same language, and by the same people, since disciples, “ Master, see what manner of stones, its first erection, but how different was the sight and what buildings are here!" and then turn to now witnessed to that which was presented when the bold language uttered by our Saviour in reSolomon held a feast, and all Israel with him, and, ference to the same, “Seest thou these great they offered unto the Lord 22,000 oxen, and 120,- buildings; there shall not be one stone left upon 000 sheep, at the dedication of the temple : and another, that shall not be thrown down :"-we the people “ blessed the king, and went unto their almost tremble to think, lest the words of the tents joyful and glad of heart for all the goodness prophecy should have been overcharged in the that the Lord had done for David, his servant, and fervor of inspiration, and lest we should find, upon for Israel, his people.” When shall that Jesus, a personal examination of the facts, that they are whorn with wicked hands their forefathers cruci- in some degree contrary to the declarations of fied and slew, be again declared unto them with Scripture. Our fears may cease, for nothing can power? The Jews being now comparatively free be more true. We know from undisputed aufrom oppression, great numbers are flocking from thority, that the prophecy was literally fulfilled at all parts, especially from the northern states of the siege of Titus ; and looking now on the city Africa, towards the city, and there will probably has it lies beneath our feet, we cannot point out one
single building, or part of a building, not even so area, Jesus Christ suffered for our sins. We insignificant a ruin as two stones together, that must not for a moment associate his sufferings the most zealous antiquarian can suppose to have with that of the sinful men who have here perishexisted in the time of Christ. Other cities have ed; he suffered in our stead, but we are not to been sacked and partially destroyed, but the ruin look upon the thorns of his crown or the nails of has not been total. I have seen the Parthenon his cross as the sole ministers of his sorrow. He at Atheps, the Colosseum at Rome, and there are gave his soul an offering for sin. Without prytemples still standing even at Thebes : here rage ing with too curious an eye into the particulars of hath done its worst, and there is no present edifice place or pain, enough is it for me, that my soul over which the Jews can weep, and say, Our fa- was there ransomed, and that I may now be cleansthers reared these walls. The sepulchres alone ed from all sin by his blood. No city upon earth have come down to our time, but they are hewn has been so guilty as Jerusalem, yet it was here out of the rock and not built, and it is only with that our Lord offered himself as a sacrifice for rethe stone that contains them they can perish. So bellious man, and when the offers of salvation were pitiless has been the angel of destruction, as he commanded to be made to all the world, so far from swept from the face of heaven the guilty city, so being excluded from the hope of forgiveness, it complete the exercise of his commission, that were was here, in the centre of iniquity, that the aposit not for these certain memorials, we might al. tles were told to begin the exercise of their gramost doubt the identity of the place, and for this cious commission. Who then need despair? purpose what could be more appropriate than The history of the temple alone would detain us tombs, once consecrated by affection and tears, long to trace the whole of the events we know but now stripped of their love-tokens and orna- concerning it. It was the place chosen by God ments, and thrown open to the careless tread of for the placing of his name. On that spot, to the passing traveller?
which the sound of our voice might be heard, the The site of Jerusalem is peculiarly adapted to temple rose in silence, ribbed with cedar, and have appeared in beauty, when its hills were ter- adorned with gold, and the glory of the Lord filled raced after the manner of the east, and were ver. its courts. In the splendor of its worship might dant with the olive, the fig-tree, and the vine; but once be seen the priest in his gorgeous robes, and that which was then its beauty now adds to its the various vessels of untold value. The solemn deformity, and the bare and blasted rocks seem ritual
, the swelling music, the grateful incense, to say that God in his anger has passed by, and and the prayers of a thousand votaries, ascended cursed the city for its sins. There are rocks, but from thence to heaven. The sacrifice was there they have no sublimity; hills, but they have no slain upon the altar, an emblem of “the Lamb of beauty; fields and gardens, but they have no rich- God that taketh away the sin of the world.” Its ness; valleys, but they have no fertility; a distant treasures were the ark of the covenant, with the sea, but it is the Dead Sea. No sound is now rod that budded, the pot of manna, the brazen serheard, but that of the passing wind where the au- pent lifted up in the wilderness, and a copy of the dible voice of Jehovah once spoke in thunder; the law. There were also the Urim and Thummim, sky is now cloudless and serene, where the angel the sacred fire upon the altar lighted from heaven, of the Lord was once seen in glory; the paths are and the divine presence in the holy of holies. In now deserted, where the tribes once approached that court Solomon offered up his consecration from the most distant parts, to the festivals of the prayer, and blessed the people, “with his hands temple, the old man, and the venerable matron, spread up to heaven;" and along its paths, kings, and the beloved son, and the beautiful daughter, and priests, and prophets, and apostles, and marweeping for very gladness as they came; and in tyrs, have come to supplicate before the Lord.that city, where once was the monarch, his brow In after times, when this erection had been deencircled with the golden diadem, and in his train stroyed, amidst the opposition of the enemy, anthe noble and the wise, there is now no higher other edifice was built about which we have this power than a delegated governor, and its own affecting testimony: “Many of the priests and people are the most despised of men.
Levites, and chief of the fathers, who were ancient There is no part of the city that has not its own men, that had seen the first house, when the separate history, each of which is without a paral. foundation of this house was laid before their eyes, lel. Upon that distant mount Titus encamped, wept with a loud voice, and many shouted aloud and it was there that his active mind planned the for joy, so that the people could not discover the stratagems of the siege. Upon that nearer plain noise of the shout of joy from the noise of the weepthe Egyptians, Assyrians, Persians, Greeks, and ing of the people." Though in metals and gems Romans, the caliph of Mahomet, the Christian the glory of this latter house might be less than crusaders, the Saracens, and the Turks, have all that of the former, in essential glory it was far encamped in battle array, and displayed their ban- greater, for its courts were visited by “God maniners before the sun. The guilt and the woes of fest in the flesh.” In the siege under Titus, the the city itself are of too awful a description to be temple was the principal scene of battle from its written in words. The aggregate of its groans, great strength. The Roman general was wishful and tears, and blood, is too immense to be calcu- to preserve it, but God had ordained otherwise, lated. Death has here held his richest festivals, and a soldier having thrown into it a lighted brand, and has called with glee to his crimson banquet, it was speedily consumed. It was then THEIR the dog from the plain, and the worm from the house, forsaken by God. The sun still shines earth, and the vulture from the sky. But it was upon the same spot, and there is a temple, a book, here too that death was overcome, and the victory and worshippers, but the temple is a mosque of wrested from his fatal grasp. In some part of that the false prophet, the book is the Kuran, and the
Forshippers are the haughty Moslem. “ The but how cold our own affections, how earthly our ways of Zion do mourn, because none come to her desires, how languid our efforts, how small the solemn feasts: all ker gates are desolate. sacrifices we are willing to make for Christ. From the daughter of Zion all beauty is departed. .... She spreadeth forth her hands, and there is “And shall we then for ever live pone to comfort her. . . . . Is this the city that At this poor dying rate? men call the perfection of beauty, the joy of the Our love so faint, so cold to Thee, whole earth?" There is a voice comes from the
And thine to us so great! ruin, and whispers of hope, and tells us of happier times. The restoration of the Jews may not take "Come, Holy Spirit, heavenly Dove, place in all that fulness that some have supposed, With all thy quickening powers; but we cannot doubt that the city, now “trodden Come, shed abroad the Saviour's love, down of the Gentiles, until the times of the Gen
And that shall kindle ours.” tiles be fulfilled,” in a spiritual sense at least will arise again from the ashes, and be as a queen Above us, is the place of the Ascension. “ And among men; the now rejected Saviour will then he led them out as far as to Bethany, and he lifted be received as the Messiah, and the now despised up his hands, and blessed them: and it came to Israelites will be among the honorable of the earth. pass while he blessed them that he was parted Let us therefore pray for the prosperity of Jerusa- from them, and carried up into heaven.... Then relem, for they that love her shall prosper. turned they unto Jerusalem, from the mount call
The mount upon which we stand is, if possible, ed Olivet, which is from Jerusalem a Sabbath still more interesting in the details of its story. day's journey.". The heavens received his gloriThere are yet a few olive-trees that maintain fied form from the sight of his sorrowing disciples, their ground, though in nation, language, and re- and he is now seated at the right hand of the ligion, their owners have once and again been throne of God, “ to be a Prince and a Saviour, for changed. Some of them appear very ancient, to give repentance to Israel, and remission of sins." with gnarled branches and hollow trunks, and we cannot now look upon the actual body woundthough not so old as Christianity, they may be ed for our transgressions, but we can come boldly lineally descended, by not more than one remove, to the throne of grace, and receive freely, without from the trees that here flourished when Christ money and without price, the pardon of sin, and be trod upon the same spot. In this direction David filled with all the fulness of God. retired from the city on the rebellion of Absalom, We may now retire from this memorable posiwith the priests and the Levites bearing the ark tion. It appears to us as if invested with attriof the covenant of God. “ And David went up butes that are not of earth, like some land that is by the ascent of mount Olivet, and wept as he went midway between earth and heaven, the story of up, and had his head covered, and he went bare- which obtains an equal prominence in the records foot: and all the people that were with him, co- of angels as in the more perishing pages of our vered every man his head, and they went up, weep- own poets and historians. It has been said of ing as they went up.” This mount was the favor- the reflective mind, that it ite place of retirement to our Saviour and his disciples from the noise and distraction of the city, of "Finds tongues in trees, books in the running brook, which we have many evidences in the gospels. Sermons in stones, and good in every thing." " As he sat upon the mount of Olives, over against the temple, Peter and James and John and Andrew And admitting the general truth and beauty of the asked him privately, Tell us, when shall these sentiment, we may ask, what trees can discourse things be ?.... At night, he went out, and abode in with such eloquence as the venerable olives in the the mount that is called the mount of Olives.... garden of Gethsemane ? what brook unfolds a Jesus went unto the mount of Olives.... And he volume like that of Kedron, and what stones can came out, and went, as he was wont, to the mount preach sermons so powerful as the masses scatterof Olives.” In passing to Bethany, where Jesus ed at the foot of mount Olivet, that have been appears generally to have lodged during his visits huried from their foundations by Jehovah, monuto the city, he would have to cross this mountain. ments at once of his anger against sin, and that It was probably along that path, which still leads the words of Scripture are the words of the living from the village, that he rode in triumph, attended God? In taking the last look of the city, we may by acclaiming thousands; and at that turn in the pray, that as we now behold from hence the Jeruroad, where the city in all its magnitude bursts at salem desolate, we may one day behold “the holy once upon the sight, that he wept. “When he city, new Jerusalem,” the gates of which are of was come near, he beheld the city, and wept over one pearl, and the streets of pure gold, where God it, saying, If thou hadst known, even thou, at least shall wipe away all tears from all eyes, and there in this thy day, the things which belong unto thy shall be no more death. peace! But now they are hid from thy eyes. Beneath us is the garden of Gethsemane. Let us here kneel meekly upon our knees, for it is sacred ground. Here Jesus prayed, and“ being JERICHO.—THE JORDAN.—THE DEAD in an agony he prayed more earnestly, and he
SEA-BETHANY. sweat as it were great drops of blood falling to the ground.” In such a place, how deep appears the We mounted our horses soon after sunrise, April love of God, how unfathomable the mystery of our 16, to accompany the pilgrims to the river Jordan, rederoption, how infinite the debt of our gratitude; and found them assembled near St. Stephen's
gate, awaiting the arrival of the governor and his here to shine with a more beautiful lustre, as he guard, who soon afterwards made their appearance, was at a distance from his own city, among and had with them two banners and a rude band strangers, seen by no one who could tell it in the of music. The slopes that overlook the Kedron, circles from whence alone applause was grateful, both on the side of the city and of mount Olivet, and the wounded man belonged to a people who were crowded with people who had come to wit- regarded every individual of his own nation with ness the procession. When we reached the bed the bitterest scorn. About three hours from the of the brook, we were in a vast amphitheatre, and city there are the ruins of a convent and khan, looking upwards, we found ourselves surrounded erected upon the spot where it is said the inn of by long lines of females, row above row, all in the parable formerly stood. The monks have white dresses, and the sights, the shouts, the mu- taken it for granted that the facts actually occursic, and the freshness of the morning breeze, red, which is not improbable, though to the proba. tended to raise the spirits into gladness, and give bilities of the case they pay little regard, as in some animation to the otherwise desolate rocks: but a place not far from this, they show the tomb of single stumble of the horse's foot soon dissipated Moses, though he was not permitted to enter the the illusion, for it had struck upon a lettered stone, promised land, and " no man knoweth of his sepuland we were passing over the graves of the dead. chre unto this day.” The neighborhood is still The thoughts were carried back at once to the infested with thieves, and had we been alone, or olden time, and after all, what was this to the had we stepped but a little way out of the comspectacle the same site must then have presented, mon path, it would soon have been said of each of when the sound of the silver trumpets swelled to us; “a certain man went down from Jerusalem the sky, and Jerusalem poured forth a free and to Jericho, and fell among thieves, which stripped happy people from her gates, and the destroyer's him of his raiment, and wounded him, and departhand was far away from her terraces and towers, ed, leaving him half dead." There would I fear and the mercy of God rested upon her tribes. have been this difference, that no Samaritan would The guard observed no kind of order, nor were have passed that way ; to have compassion and they distinguished by any particular costume. bind up the wounds, pouring in oil and wine, and They fired their muskets without ceasing, which to set us on his own heast, and bring us to an inn, rendered them dangerous, even to their friends, and on the morrow when he departed, to take out as they always fire with ball, and are among the two pence, and give them to the host, saying Take most careless fellows in existence. I observed care of him ; and whatsoever thou spendest more, one of the groups of women thrown suddenly into when I come again, I will repay thee. confusion, and smiled at what I supposed were From this place the rocks are principally calca. needless fears : but one of them had been shot reous, with scarcely any vegetation, though the dead upon the spot by accident, and I was the rains had only just ceased. The precipices along next individual to the man who had committed the which we travelled were stecp and dangerous ; in deed. When we had proceeded a little distance, one place the road has been cut through the rock; the guard waited for the rest of the pilgrims, but and in some directions the hills were above us we thought it better to push onwards, that we threatening the traveller with destruction by their might avoid the general confusion. We passed projecting cliffs. In two hours more we saw bethrough Bethany, from whence we descended in- neath us the plain of Jordan, nearly the whole of to a narrow valley, at the entrance of which is a it barren, and on the opposite side the mountains of fountain, where it is probable our Saviour and his Moab. The question was asked, almost unvolundisciples often refreshed themselves on their way tarily, Can this be the same scene that Moses saw to and from Jericho.
from the top of yon Pisgah, which the imagination The scenery is wilder, the hills are more preci- paints as all that is fair, and lovely, and luxuriant, pitous, and the ravines are deeper, than in the and which was showed him expressly by the Lord road by which we approached Jerusalem from Jaffa, as a last privilege upon earth before he entered but there is here more cultivation, and the rocks heaven? The sins of the Jews have changed are covered with richer verdure. As we proceed- the scene; and every rock and every vale seems ed, the dangers of the road gradually opened upon to be possessed by a spirit that year after year and us, and we were soon surrounded by desolation. century after century mutters aloud one fearful It has been well observed, that a more appropri- lamentation, an echo of the words of God: “Cursate place could not have been chosen as the scene ed shalt thou be in the city, and cursed shalt thou of the parable of the good Samaritan, compared be in the field: cursed shall be thy basket and thy with which, as to simplicity, and beauty, and store: cursed shall be the fruit of thy body, and power, all the far-famed allegories of the east ap- the fruit of thy land, the increase of thy kine, and pear only like stories to amuse children, whilst the flocks of thy sheep : cursed shalt thou be the moral of this is divine. It is easy to talk when thou comest in, and cursed shalt thou be about mercy and compassion, but in what shaster, when thou goest out.” in what chapter of the Koran, is the duty to our We soon reached Jericho, where we sheltered neighbor exhibited in a light that strikes upon the ourselves under the leaves of a spreading fig-tree, soul with equal force? It makes the best of us, near a tower said to be built over the spot where when reading it, feel ashamed that this sacred law the house of Zaccheus formerly stood. The present has been broken by us in so many instances. town does not consist of more than thirty houses, The hearts of the Levite and priest must indeed of most miserable appearance, each of which is have been callous, that they could refuse the defended by a barrier of dried thorns, and a stranoffices of charity under circumstances so distress- ger might easily suppose of the whole town, that ing; and the piety of the good Samaritan seems I it is merely a heap of sticks and dead branches of
trees collected out of the plain to be burnt. The Elisha, the passage of the Israelites, the cure of
was here far advanced, and the heat Naaman, the baptism of Christ, and the preaching many degrees greater than at Jerusalem. There of John. Upon the near bank was Gilgal, where are one or two palms, the only representatives of Joshua set up the twelve stones, the children of the large forests that formerly existed. I pur- Israel were the second time circumcised, the chased a bottle of the oil called by the natives manna ceased, and the people first ate of the old zhaccum, thought to be the famous balsam of the corn of the land; here too the angel of the Lord, ancients, and the origin of the friar's balsam so in the time of the Judges, came up to speak unto much used at present. Its virtues have been tried the children of Israel
, and they lifted up their since my return, and the effect was such, that in voices and wept ; and to this place Samuel came the strong language of my informant, it was little from year to year, that he might hold the annual less than miraculous. It was at one period in so assize of justice. In the plain, the patriarchs had great demand, that it sold for its weight in silver. pitched their tents; the battle of the four kings The neighborhood of Jericho is called by Josephus, against five was fought, in which Lot was taken “ the most fruitful country of Judea, which bears prisoner ; David smote 18,000 men of the Syria vast number of palm-trees, besides the balsam ans, Amaziah slew 10,000 men of Edom, and Zetree, whose sprouts they cut with sharp stones, dekiah was taken prisoner by the princes of Babyand at the incisions they gather the juice which lon. Near the miserable village that presented drops down like tears." The palm-trees were itself, the walls of Jericho had fallen down at the given by Marc Antony, in the extravagance of his noise of the voices of the people and the trumpets love, to Cleopatra, the beautiful queen of Egypt. of the priests; there was a school of the prophets, Jericho is called in Scripture the city of palms," Elijah and Elisha performed many miracles, Zacit was the first place taken from the Canaanites cheus entertained our Lord, and Bartimeus was by Joshua on this side of the Jordan, and at one restored to sight. It could not be far distant from period it was inhabited by 12,000 priests, and was us that Elisha was ploughing with twelve yoke of the second city of Judea. It had a royal palace, oxen, when he was anointed prophet by Elijah at in which died Herod the Great. There was the command of God. Towards the north, were here a school of the prophets, and it was blessed memorials of the cities of Gibeon, the siege of Ai, by a visit from Christ, who healed here two blind the sin and punishment of Achan, and the feeding men.
of Elijah by the ravens, near the brook Cherith. The governor and some of the more respecta- To the mountains at the east it is supposed that ble pilgrims had tents pitched upon the plain, and Jesus was led up of the Spirit to be tempted of towards evening we joined the multitude for the the devil
, and that it was from the nearest sumsake of protection, and slept upon the ground in mit that Satan showed him all the kingdoms of the open air. A great number of Bedouins were the world, and the glory of them.” The sky above called in from the surrounding country, under the us was not without its share of interest, as from pretence of forming a guard, but in reality to pre- thence was the translation of Elijah to heaven in vent them from becoming our plunderers. They a chariot of fire; and it was in the same expanse kindled a large fire, and danced round the flame, that the heavens were opened, and the Spirit of shouting aloud, and clapping their hands together God descended like a dove, lighting upon Jesus ; with great force. It was a beautiful star-light and lo, a voice from heaven, saying, “ This is my night, without a cloud. The sky was one clear beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased.” blue, and rested on all sides upon mountains that These, and many other circumstances of a simipresented their forms in rugged outline, and of the lar description, had all taken place within the darkest possible shade, the circle of which was bound of our vision, and it was no wonder that in only broken towards the south by an expanse of such a place one of my companions was unable to still water, forming the Dead Sea. When the sleep during the whole night. lights were all put out, the sounds were all silent, The camp was in motion long before day-break, and one after another of the pilgrims was stretch- and the pilgrims hurried towards the Jordan. It ed upon the ground, as if in the sleep of death, un- was quite dark, and there were only eight or ten til there was only one solitary being seen wander- torches to several thousand people. In this uning about, just to be distinguished in the gloom ; certain light we appeared like a multitude that no he seemed like the last man seeking in vain for a man could number, wandering among the shados. companion that yet had life, and then in his disap- We could easily imagine how every man's sword pointment passing towards the Dead Sea to drink might be raised against his fellow, as in case of the waters of oblivion, after which the same still an attack it would have been impossible to distinness and darkness were to continue undisturbed guish friend from foe. We arrived on the banks for ever. The associations of the plain, indepen- of the river a little before sunrise. The pilgrims dent of its actual appearance, were among the immediately rushed into the water, men, women, most interesting that could be conceived. The and children, in the utmost confusion, and the waters to the south brought to the remembrance scene was little calculated to produce the hallowthe visits of the angels to Abraham and Lot, and ed affections of the original institution. The the burning of the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah. clothes in which they are immersed are afterThe hills to the west included Nebo, Peor, and wards regarded as sacred, not again to be used Pisgah, and it was impossible to look at them until they are dressed for the grave. Whilst I without thinking of the wanderings of the Israel. was looking on, two men, a Russian and a Greek; ites, the altars of Barak, the prophecies of Balaam, were overpowered by the torrent, and as neither and the death of Moses. The river Jordan told of them could swim, they clung to each other, and of the dividing of its waters by Joshua, Elijah, and I were soon under the water. The Russian was