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thrown by the free winds.
Wherefore in the winter they are hardly taken notice of, when the free winds wander most: but are more observable in the summer, when those wandering winds grow weak.
12. In Europe these are the chief stayed winds, north winds from the solstice, and they are both forerunners and followers of the dogstar. West winds from the equinoctial in autumn, east winds from the spring equinoctial; as for the winter solstice, there is little heed to be taken of it, by reason of the varieties.
13. The winds called ornithii, or bird winds, had that name given them because they bring birds out of cold regions beyond the sea, into warm climates; and they belong not to stayed winds, because they for the most part keep no punctual time: and the birds, they for the convenience of them, whether they come sooner or later and many times when they have begun to blow a little, and turn, the birds being forsaken by it, are drowned in the sea, and sometimes fall into ships.
Injunction. Human diligence hath almost ceased and stood still in the observation of attend. ing winds in particular places, which, notwithstanding, should not have been, that observation being profitable for many things. I remember, I asked a certain merchant, (a wise and discreet man,) who had made a plantation in Greenland, and had wintered there, why that country was so extreme cold, seeing it stood in a reasonable temperate climate. He said, it was not so great as it was reported; but that the cause was twofold: One was, that the masses and heaps of ice which came out of the Scythian sea were carried thither. The other (which he also thought to be the better reason) was because the west wind there blows many parts of the year, more than the east wind; as also (said he) it doth with us; but there it blows from the continent, and cold, but with us from the sea, and warmish. And (said he) if the east wind should blow here in England so often and constantly as the west wind does there, we should have far colder weather, even equal to that as is there.
14. The returns of these certain or stayed winds 6. The west winds are attendants of the pomeare not so precise at a day or an hour, as the flow-ridian or afternoon hours: for, towards the deing of the sea is. Some authors do set down a clining of the sun, the winds blow oftener from day, but it is rather by conjecture than any con- the east than from the west. stant observation.
Customary or Attending Winds.
Of the fourth and fifth articles. Connexion.
The word of attending wind is ours, and we thought good to give it, that the observation concerning them be not lost, nor confounded. The meaning is this, divide the year if you please (in what country soever you be) into three, four, or five parts, and if any one certain wind blow, then two, three, or four of those parts, and a contrary wind but one; we call that wind which blows most frequently the customary, or attending wind of that country, and likewise of the times.
1. The south and north winds are attendants of the world, for they, with those which are within their sections or divisions, blow oftener over all the world, than either the east or the west.
2. All the free winds (not the customary) are more attendant in the winter than in the summer; but most of all in the autumn and spring.
7. The south wind is attendant on the night; for it rises and blows more strongly in the night, and the north wind in the daytime.
8. But there are many and great differences between winds which are attendant on the sea, and those which are attendant upon the land. That is one of the chief which gave Columbus occasion to find out the new world; namely, that sea winds are not stayed, but land winds are: for the sea abounding in vapours, which are indifferently everywhere, winds are also engendered indifferently everywhere, and with great inconstancy are carried here and there, having no certain beginnings nor sources. But the earth is much unlike for the begetting of winds: some places are more efficacious to engender and increase winds, some less: wherefore they stand most from that part where they have their nourishment, and take their rise from thence.
9. Acosta is unconstant in his own position. He saith that at Peru, and the sea coasts of the 3. All free winds are attendants rather in the south sea, south winds do blow almost the whole countries without the tropics, and about the polar year: and he saith in another place, that upon circles, than within: for in frozen and in torrid those coasts sea winds do blow chiefliest. But the countries, for the most part they blow more spar-south wind to them is a land wind, as likewise ingly, in the middle regions they are more fre- the north and east wind also, and the west wind quent.
4. Also all free winds, especially the strongest and most forcible of them, do blow oftener and more strongly, morning and evening, than at noon and night.
5. Free winds blow frequently in hollow places, and where there be caves, than in solid and firm ground.
is their only sea wind. We must take that which he sets down more certainly; namely, that the south wind is an attending and familiar wind of those countries: unless, peradventure, in the name of the south sea he hath corrupted his meaning, or his speech, meaning the west by the south, which blows from the south sea. But the sea which they call the south sea is not properly the souti
sea; but as a second western ocean, being stretched | out in the like situation as the Atlantic sea is.
10. Sea winds are questionless more moist than land winds, but yet they are more pure, and will easilier, and with more equality be incorporated with the pure air. For terrestrial winds are ill composed, and smoky. Neither let any one object, that they ought to be grosser by reason of the saltness of the sea. For the nature of terrestrial salt doth not rise in vapours.
11. Sea winds are lukewarm or cold, by reason of the two foresaid qualities, humidity and pureFor by humidity they mitigate the colds, (for dryness increaseth both heat and cold,) and with their pureness they cool. Therefore without the tropics they are lukewarm, within the tropics they are cold.
12. I believe that sea winds are everywhere attendant upon particular countries, especially such as stand upon the sea-coasts: that is to say, winds blow more frequently from that side where the sea is, by reason of the greater plenty of matter which winds have in the sea, than in the land; unless there be some firm wind blowing from the land, for some peculiar reason. But let no man confound firm or stayed winds with attendant winds the attendants being always more frequent; but the stayed ones for the most part blowing more seldom. But that is common to them both, namely, to blow from that place from which they receive their nourishment.
13. Sea winds are commonly more vehement than land winds: yet when they cease, the sea is calmer from the shores than near unto them; insomuch that mariners, to avoid calms, will sometimes coast along the shore, rather than launch into the deep.
14. Winds which are called tropei, that is to say, retorted, namely, such as, when they have blown a little way, suddenly turn again, such winds I say blow from the sea towards the shore: but retorted winds and whirlwinds are most commonly in gulfs of seas.
15. Some small gales blow for the most part about all great waters, and they are most felt in a morning; but more about rivers than at sea, because of the difference which is between a land gale and a water gale.
16. In places which are near the sea, trees bow and bend, as shunning the sea air: but that comes not through any averseness to them; but sea winds, by reason of their humidity and thickness, are as it were more heavy and ponderous.
The Qualities and Powers of Winds. To the seventh, twenty-eighth, twenty-ninth, thirtieth, and
thirty-first articles. Connexion.
Concerning the qualities and powers of winds, men have made careless and various observations: we will cull out the most certain, and the rest, as too light, we will leave to the winds themselves.
1. With us the south wind is rainy, and the northern wind clear and fair, the one gathers together and nourishes the clouds; the other scatters and casts them off. Wherefore the poets, when they speak of the deluge, feign the northern wind at that time to be shut up in prison, and the south wind to be sent out with very large commission.
2. The west wind hath with us been held to be the wind which blew in the golden age, the companion of a perpetual spring, and a cherisher of flowers.
3. Paracelsus his scholars, when they sought for a place for their three principles in Juno's temple also, which is the air, placed three, but found no place for the east wind.
They Mercury ascribe to the south winds,
To the rich western blasts the sulphur mines,
4. But with us in England the east wind is thought to be mischievous, so that it goes for a proverb, " that when the wind is in the east, it is neither good for man nor beast."
5. The south wind blows from the presence of the sun, the north from the absence in our hemisphere. The east wind in order to the motion of the air, the west wind from the sea, the east wind from the continent, most commonly in Europe and the western parts of Asia. These are the most radical and essential differences of winds; from which truly and 'really depend most of the qualities and powers of the winds.
6. The south wind is not so anniversary or yearly, nor so stayed as the northern wind is, but more wandering and free; and when it is stayed, it is so soft and mild that it can scarcely be perceived.
7. The south wind is lower, and more lateral, and blowing of one side; the northern wind is higher and blows from above; we do not mean the polar elevation and depression of which we have spoken formerly; but because the north wind for the most part hath its beginnings higher, and the south wind for the most part nearer to us.
8. The south wind to us is rain, (as we said before,) but in Africa it causes clear weather, but bringing great heat along with it, and not cold, as some have affirmed. In Africa it is pretty healthful, but to us, if the south wind last long with fair weather and without rain, it is very pestilent.
9. The south winds and west winds do not engender vapours, but they blow from those coasts where there is great store of them, by reason of the increase of the sun's heat, which draws forth the vapours, and therefore they are rainy. But if they blow from dry places, which have no vapours in them, they are fair. But, notwithstanding, sometimes they are pure and sometimes turbulent.
10. The south and west winds here with us, seem to be confederate, and are warm and moist,
and on the other side the north and east winds have some affinity between them, being cold and dry.
11. The north and south winds (whereof we have also spoken before) do blow oftener than the east and west winds, because there is a great inequality of vapours in those parts, by reason of the absence and presence of the sun, but to the east and to the west the sun is, as it were, indifferent.
12. The south wind is very healthful when it comes from the sea, but when it blows from the continent it is more unhealthful; and so, contrariwise, the north wind is suspicious blowing from the sea, from the continent it is healthful. Likewise, the south sea wind is very agreeable with plants and fruits, killing their cankers, or rusts, and other hurtful annoyances.
13. A gentle south wind doth assemble and gather together clouds much, especially if it continue but a short while; but if it blow too boisterously, or long, it clouds the sky and brings in rain. But especially when it ceases or grows remiss, more than in its beginning, and when it is in its chiefest vigour.
14. When the south wind either begins to blow or ceases, for the most part there are changes of weather, from fair to cloudy, and from hot to cold, and contrariwise. The north wind many times rises and ceases, the former weather remaining and continuing.
15. After hoary frosts and long continued snow, there scarcely blows any other wind than a south wind, there being, as it were, a concoction or digestion made of cold, which then at last dissolves; neither doth rain also follow; but this likewise happens in changes or intervals of fair weather.
16. The south wind rises oftener and blows stronger in the night than in the day, especially in winter nights. But the north wind, if it rise in the night, (which is contrary to its custom,) it doth usually last above three days.
17. When the south wind blows, the waves swell higher than when the north wind blows, though it blows with an equal or lesser force.
blow together, whereby they are broken and disturbed.
21. Beware of a northern wind when you sow seed, neither would I wish any one to inoculate or graft in a southern wind.
22. Leaves fall from trees soonest on the south side, but vine sprouts or stalks bud forth, and grow most that way.
23. In large pasture, shepherds must take care (as Pliny saith) to bring their flocks to the north side, that they may feed against the south. For, if they feed towards the north, they grow lame and blear-eyed, and distempered in their bellies. The northern wind, also, doth so weaken their coupling, that if they couple looking that way, they will for the most part bring forth ewe-lambs. But Pliny doth not stand very stiffly to this opinion, having, as it were, taken it up upon trust and borrowed it.
24. Winds are hurtful to wheat and all manner of grain at three times, namely, at the opening and at the falling of the flower, and when the grain itself is ripe, for then they blow the corn out of the ear, and, at the other two times, either they blast the flower or blow it off.
25. While the south wind blows, men's breath grows ranker, all creatures' appetites decay, pestilent diseases reign, men wax more slow and dull. But when the wind is northwardly, men are more lively, healthful, and greedy after food. Yet the northern wind is hurtful for them that are troubled with the phthisick, cough, gout, or any other sharp defluxions.
26. An east wind is dry, piercing, and mor tifying. The west wind moist, meek, and nourishing.
27. If the east wind blow when the spring is any thing forward, it is hurtful to fruits, bringing in of worms and caterpillars, so that the leaves are hardly spared: neither is it very good to grain. Contrariwise, the west wind is very propitious and friendly to herbs, flowers, and all manner of vegetables. And so is the east wind too about the autumnal equinox.
28. Western winds are more vehement than eastern winds, and bow and bend trees more.
29. Rainy weather, which begins when the east wind blows, doth last longer than that which begins when a west wind blows, and may perad
18. The south wind blowing, the sea becomes blue and more bright than when the north wind blows, which causes it to look darker and blacker. 19. When the air becomes warmer on a sud-venture hold out for a whole day. den, it sometimes betokens rain; and, again, at other times, when on a sudden it grows colder, it likewise betokens rain. But this happens according to the nature of the winds; for if the air grow warm whilst the south or east wind blows, there is rain at hand, and likewise when it grows cold during the northern or western blasts.
30. The east and north wind, when they orce begin to blow, blow more constantly; the south and west wind are more mutable.
20. The south wind blows for the most part entire and alone. But the north wind blowing, especially the east-north-east, or the north-west, oftentimes contrary and various, or divers winds
31. In an eastern wind all visible things do appear bigger; but in a western wind all audible things are heard further, as sounds of bells and the like.
32. The east-north-east wind draws clouds to it. It is a proverb amongst the Greeks to compare it to usurers, who by laying out money do swallow it up. It is a vehement and large wind.
which cannot remove clouds so fast, as they will turn back and press upon it. Which is likewise seen in great fires, which grow stronger against the wind.
33. Cardinal or semicardinal winds are not so stormy as the median.
34. Median winds from north to north-east are more fair, from north-east to east more stormy. Likewise from east to south-east more fair, from south-east to south more stormy. Likewise from south to south-west more fair, from south-west to west more stormy. Likewise from west to northwest more fair; from north-west to north more stormy. So that, proceeding according to the order of the heavens, the median winds of the first halfward are always disposed to fair weather, those of the latter halfward to storms and tempests.
35. Thunders and lightnings, and storms, with falling of broken clouds are, when such cold winds as participate of the north do blow, as the north-west, north-north-west, north-north-east, north-east, and east north-east. Wherefore those thunders likely are accompanied with hail.
36. Likewise snowy winds come from the north, but it is from those median winds which are not stormy, as the north-west, and north-east, and by north.
37. Winds gain their natures and properties five ways only: either by the absence or presence of the sun; or by agreeing or disagreeing with the natural motion of the air; or by the diversity of the matter which feedeth them, by which they are engendered; as sea, snow, marishes, or the like; or by the tincture of the countries through which they pass; or by their original local beginnings on high, under ground, in the middle; all which things the ensuing articles will better declare and explain.
38. All winds have a power to dry, yea, more than the sun itself, because the sun draws out the vapours; but if it be not very fervent, it doth not disperse them; but the wind both draws them out, and carries them away. But the south wind doth this least of any; and both timber and stones sweat more when the south wind blows a little, than when it is calm and lies still.
39. March winds are far more drying than summer winds; insomuch that such as make musical instruments will stay for March winds to dry their stuff they make their instruments of, to make it more porous, and better sounding.
40. All manner of winds purge the air, and cleanse it from all putrefaction, so that such years as are most windy, are most healthful.
41. The sun is like to princes, who sometimes having appointed deputies in some remote countries, the subjects there are more obsequious to those deputies, and yield them more respect than to the prince himself. And so the winds which have their power and origin from the sun, do
govern the temperatures of the countries, and the disposition of the air, as much or more than the sun itself. Insomuch that Peru (which, by reason of the nearness of the ocean, the vastness of rivers, and exceeding great and high hills, hath abundance of winds and blasts blowing there) may contend with Europe for a temperate and sweet air.
42. It is no wonder if the force and power of winds be so great, as it is found to be; vehement winds being as inundations, torrents, and flowing of the spacious air, neither (if we attentively heed it) is their power any great matter. They can throw down trees, which, with their tops, like unto spread sails, give them advantage to do it, and are a burden to themselves. Likewise they can blow down weak buildings; strong and firm ones they cannot, without earthquakes join with them. Sometimes they will blow all the snow off the tops of hills, burying the valley that is below them with it; as it befel Solomon in the Sultanian fields. They will also, sometimes, drive in waters, and cause great inunda tions.
43. Sometimes winds will dry up rivers, and leave the channels bare. For if, after a great drought, a strong wind blows with the current for many days, so that it, as it were, sweeps away the water of the river into the sea, and keeps the sea water from coming in, the river will dry up in many places where it doth not use to be so.
Monition. Turn the poles, and, withal, turn the observations as concerning the north and south. For, the presence and absence of the sun being the cause, it must vary according to the poles. But this may be a constant thing, that there is more sea towards the south, and more land towards the north, which doth not a little help the winds.
Monition. Winds are made or engendered a thousand ways, as by the subsequent inquisition it will appear; so, to fix that observation in a thing so various, is not very easy. Yet, those things which we have set down are, for the most part, most certain.
Local Beginnings of Winds.
To the eighth article. Connexion. To know the local beginnings of winds, is a thing which requires a deep search and inquisition, seeing that the whence and whither of winds are things noted even in the Scripture, to be abstruse and hidden. Neither do we now speak of the fountains or beginnings of particu lar winds, (of which more shall be said hereafter,) but of the matrixes of winds in general. Some fetch them from above, some search for them in the deep: but, in the middle, (where they are for the most part engendered,) nobody hardly looks for them: such is the custom of men to inquire after things which are obscure, and omit those
things which lie, as it were, in their way. This is certain, that winds are either inbred or strangers; for winds are, as it were, merchants of vapours, which being by them gathered into clouds, they carry out and bring in again into countries, from whence winds are again returned, as it were, by exchange. But let us now inquire concerning native winds, for those which, coming from another place, are strangers, are in another place natives. There are three local beginnings of them: they either breathe, or spring out of the ground, or are cast down from above, or are here made up in the body of the air. Those which are cast down from above, are of a double generation; for they are either cast down before they be formed into clouds, or afterwards composed of rarefied and dispersed clouds. Let us now see what is the history of these things.
1. The poets feigned Eolus his kingdom to be placed under ground in dens and caves, where the winds' prison was, out of which they were at times let forth.
2. Some philosophical divines, moved by those words of Scripture, "He brings forth the winds out of his treasures," think that the winds come out of some treasuries; namely, places under ground, amongst the mines of minerals. But this is nothing; for the Scripture speaketh likewise of the treasures of snow and hail, which, doubtless, are engendered above.
3. Questionless, in subterraneal places there is great store of air, which it is very likely sometimes breathes out by little and little, and sometimes, again, upon urgent causes, must needs come rushing forth together.
An indirect experiment.
In great droughts, and in the middle of summer, when the ground is cleft and chopped, there breaks out water many times in dry and sandy places; which, if waters (being a gross body) do, though it be but seldom, it is probable that the air (which is a subtile and tenuous body) may
often do it.
4. If the air breathes out of the earth by little and little, and scatteringly, it is little perceived at the first; but when many of those small emanations, or comings out, are come together, there is a wind produced, as a river out of several springs. And this seems to be so, because it hath been observed by the ancients, that many winds, in those places where they begin, do at first blow but softly, which afterward grow stronger and increase in their progress like unto rivers.
5. There are some places in the sea, and some lakes also, which swell extremely when there is no wind stirring, which apparently proceeds from some subterraneal wind.
6. There is great quantity of subterraneal spirit required to shake or cleave the earth; less will
earthquakes come but seldom, risings and swellings of waters are more frequent.
7. Likewise it is everywhere taken notice of that waters do somewhat swell and rise before tempests.
8. The weak subterraneal spirit which is breathed out scatteringly is not perceived upon the earth until it be gathered into wind, by reason the earth is full of pores; but when it issues from under the water, it is presently perceived (by reason of the water's continuity) by some manner of swelling.
9. We resolved before that in cavernous and denny places there were attendant winds; insomuch that those winds seem to have their local beginnings out of the earth.
10. In great and rocky hills winds are found to breathe sooner, (namely, before they be perceived in the valleys,) and more frequently, (namely, when it is calm weather in the valleys,) but all mountains and rocks are cavernous and hollow.
11. In Wales, in the county of Denbigh, a mountainous and rocky country, out of certain caves (as Gilbertus relateth) are such vehement eruptions of wind, that clothes or linen laid out there upon any occasion, are blown up, and carried a great way up into the air.
12. In Aber Barry, near Severn in Wales, in a rocky cliff, are certain holes, to which if you lay your ear, you shall hear divers sounds and murmurs of winds under ground.
An indirect experiment.
Acosta hath observed that the towns of Plata and Potosi, in Peru, are not far distant one from the other, and both situated upon a high and hilly ground, so that they differ not in that; and yet Potosi hath a cold and winter-like air, and Plata hath a mild and spring-like temperature, which difference it seems may be attributed to the silver mines which are near Potosi; which showeth that there are breathing-places of the earth, as in relation to hot and cold.
13. If the earth be the first cold thing, according to Parmenides, (whose opinion is not contemptible, seeing cold and density are knit together by a strict knot,) it is no less probable that there are hotter breaths sent out from the central cold of the earth than are cast down from the cold of the higher air.
14. There are certain wells in Dalmatia, and the country of Cyrene, (as some of the ancients record,) into which if you cast a stone, there will presently arise tempests, as if the stone had broken some covering of a place, in which the force of the winds was enclosed.
An indirect experiment.
Etna and divers other mountains cast out serve turn for the raising of water. Wherefore fire; therefore it is likely that air may likewise