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ARTICLES OF INQUISITION CONCERNING THE WINDS.
The names of winds.
DESCRIBE or set down the winds according to the seaman's industry; and give them names either new or old, so that you keep yourself constant to them.
Winds are either general or precise, either peculiar or free. I call them general which always blow; precise, those which blow at certain times; attendants or peculiar, those which blow most commonly; free winds, those which blow indifferently or at any time.
2. Whether there be any general winds, which are the very self-motion of the air; and if there be any such, in order to what motion, and in what places they blow?
Precise or fixed winds.
3. What winds are anniversary or yearly winds, returning by turns; and in what countries? Whether there be any wind so precisely fixed, that it returns regularly at certain days and hours, like unto the flowing of the sea?
Attending or peculiar winds.
4. What winds are peculiar and ordinary in countries, which observe a certain time in the same countries; which are spring winds, and which are summer winds; which autumnal, which brumal, which equinoctial, which solstitial; which are belonging to the morning, which to noon, which to the evening, and which to the night.
5. What winds are sea winds, and what winds blow from the continent? and mark and set down the differences of the sea and land winds carefully, as well of those which blow at land and sea, as of those which blow from land and sea.
and peradventure stormy; some disperse the clouds, and are clear.
Divers qualities of winds.
7. Inquire, and give account, which are the winds of all the forenamed sorts or kinds, and how they vary, according to the regions and places.
There are three local beginnings of winds: either they are thrown and cast down from above, or they spring out of the earth, or they are made up of the very body of the air.
Local beginnings of winds.
8. According to these three beginnings inquire concerning winds; namely, which are thrown down, out of that which they call the middle region of the air; which breathe out of the concavities of the earth, whether they break out together; or whether they breathe out of the earth imperceivably, and scattering, and afterwards gather together, like rivulets into a river. Finally, which are scatteringly engendered from the swellings and dilatations of the neighbouring air?
Neither are the generations of the winds original only, for some there are also accidental, namely, by the compression or restraints of the air, and by the percussions and repercussions of it.
Accidental generations and productions of winds.
9. Inquire concerning these accidental generations of winds; they are not properly generations of winds; for they rather increase and strengthen winds, than produce and excite them.
Hitherto of the community of winds. There are also certain rare and prodigious winds, such as are called tempests, whirlwinds, and storms. These are above ground. There are likewise some that are subterraneal and under ground, whereof some are vaporous and mercurial, they are perceivable in mines; some are sulphurous, they
3. Whether winds do not blow from all parts are sent out, getting an issue by earthquakes, or of heaven?
Winds do not vary much more in the parts of heaven from which they blow, than in their own qualities. Some are vehement, some mild, some constant, some mutable; some hot, some cold, some moistening and dissolving; some drying and astringent; some gather clouds and are rainy,
do flame out of fiery mountains.
Extraordinary winds and sudden blasts.
10. Inquire concerning such rare and prodigious winds, and of all miraculous and wonderful things done by winds.
From the several sorts of winds, let the inqui
sition pass to those things which contribute south wind blew in such a place, whether it be towards the winds, (for we will so express it, known certainly, that at the same time the north because the word efficient signifies more, and the wind blew ten miles off? And, contrariwise, word concomitant, less than we mean,) and to into how narrow and straight bounds the winds those things which seem to raise, or to appease may be reduced, so that winds may pass, as it the winds. were, through channels, which seems to be done in some whirlwinds.
Things contributing or making for the winds, and raising and appeasing them.
11. Inquire sparingly concerning astrological considerations of winds, neither care thou for the over-curious schemes of the heaven, only do not neglect the more manifest observations of winds rising, about the rising of some stars, or about the eclipses of the luminaries, or conjunctions of planets; nor much less on those which depend on the courses of the sun and moon.
12. What meteors of several sorts do contribute or make for winds, what the earthquakes, what rain, what the skirmishing of winds, one with another? for these things are linked together, and one draws on the other.
13. What the diversity of vapours and exhalations contributes towards the winds? and which of them do most engender winds? and how far the nature of winds doth follow these its materials?
11. What those things which are here upon the earth, or are there done do contribute towards the winds; what the hills and the dissolutions of snow upon them; what those masses of ice which swim upon the sea, and are carried to some place; what the differences of soil and land; (so it be of some large extent;) what ponds, sands, woods, and champion ground; what those things which we men do here, as burning of heath, and the like, doth contribute to the manuring of land, the firing of towns in time of war, the drying up of ponds and lakes; the continual shooting off of guns, the ringing of many bells together in great cities, and the like? These things and acts of ours are but as small straws, yet something they may do.
15. Inquire concerning all manner of raisings, or allaying of winds, but be sparing in fabulous and superstitious causes.
From those things which make for the winds, let the inquisition proceed to inquire of the bounds of the winds, of their height, extension, and continuance.
The bounds of winds.
16. Inquire carefully of the height or elevation of winds, and whether there be any tops of mountains to which the winds do not reach; or whether clouds may be seen sometimes to stand still, and not move, when the winds at the same time blow strongly upon the earth.
17. Inquire diligently of the spaces or rooms which the winds take up at once, and within what bounds they blew. As, for example, if the
18. Inquire for how long a time, very much, ordinary, or little time, winds use to continue, and then slack, and, as it were, expire and die. Likewise, how the rising and beginning of winds useth to be; what their languishing or cessation is, whether suddenly, or by degrees, or how?
From the bounds of the winds let your inquisition pass over to the succession of winds, either amongst themselves, or in respect of rain and showers; for when they lead their rings, it were pretty to know the order of their dancing.
Successions of winds.
19. Whether there be any more certain rule or observation concerning the successions of winds one to another, or whether it have any relation to the motion of the sun, or otherwise; if it have any, what manner of one it is?
20. Inquire concerning the succession and the alteration, or taking turns of the winds and rain, seeing it is ordinarily and often seen, that rain lays the wind, and the wind doth disperse the rain.
21. Whether, after a certain term and period of years, the succession of winds begin anew; and if it be so, what that period is, and how long?
From the succession of the winds, let the inquisition pass to their motions; and the motions of the winds are comprehended in seven inquisitions; whereof three are contained in the former articles, four remain as yet untouched. For, we have inquired of the motion of winds divided into the several regions of the heaven; also, of the motion upon three lines, upward, downward, and laterally. Likewise, of the accidental motion of compressions or restraints. There remain the fourth, of progressions or going forward; the fifth, of undulation, or waving; the sixth, of conflict or skirmish; the seventh, in human instruments and engines.
Divers motions of the winds.
22. Seeing progression is always from some certain place or bound, inquire diligently, or as well as thou canst, concerning the place of the first beginning, and, as it were, the spring of any wind. For winds seem to be like unto fame, for, though they make a noise and run up and down, yet they hide their heads amongst the clouds; so is their progress; as, for example, if the vehement northern wind which blew at York such a day, de blow at London two days after.
23. Omit not the inquisition of undulation of
30. What they effect concerning purging or clearing, and infecting of the air, in plagues, sickness, and diseases of beasts.
31. What they effect concerning the conveying to us things (which we call) spiritual, as sounds, rays, and the like.
We call undulation of winds that motion by which the wind, in or for a little space of time, rises and abates, as the waves of the water; which turns may easily be apprehended by the hearing of them in houses; and you must so much the rather mark the differences of undulation, or of furrowing between the water and the From the powers of winds let the inquisition air, because in the air and winds there wants the pass to the prognostics of winds, not only for the motion of gravity or weight, which is a great part use of predictions, but because they lead us on of the cause of the waves rising in the water. to the causes for prognostics do either show us 24. Inquire carefully concerning the conflict the preparations of things, before they be brought and meeting of winds, which blow at one and into action; or the beginnings before they appear the same time: first, whether at the same time to the sense. there blow several original winds, (for we do not speak of reverberated winds.) which, if it comes to pass, what windings they engender and bring forth in their motion, and also what condensations, and alterations they produce in the body
of the air?
25. Whether one wind blow above at the same time as another blows here below with us? For it hath been observed by some, that sometimes the clouds are carried one way, when the weathercock upon a steeple stands another. Also, that the clouds have been driven by a strong gale, when we, here below, have had a great calm.
26. Make an exact particular description of the motion of the winds in driving on ships with their sails.
27. Let there be a description made of the motion of the winds in the sails of ships, and the sails of windmills, in the flight of hawks and birds; also, in things that are ordinary, and for sport, as of displayed colours, flying dragons, duels with winds, &c.
From the motions of winds, let the inquisition pass to the force and power of them.
Of the power of winds.
Prognostics of winds.
32. Let all manner of good prognostics of winds be carefully gathered together, (besides astrological ones, of which we set down formerly how far they are to be inquired after,) and let them either be taken out of meteors, or waters, or instincts of beasts, or any other way.
Lastly, close up the inquisition, with inquiring after the imitations of winds, either in natural or artificial things.
Imitations of winds.
33. Inquire of the imitations of winds in natural things; such as breaths enclosed within the bodies of living creatures, and breaths within the receptacles of distilling vessels.
Inquire concerning made gales, and artificial winds, as bellows, refrigeratories, or coolers in parlours, or dining-rooms, &c.
it unknown to me that it will be impossible to Let the heads or articles be such. Neither is answer to some of these according to the small quantity of experience that we have. But, as in civil causes, a good lawyer knows what interrogatories the cause requires to have witnesses examined upon; but what the witnesses can answer 29. What they do concerning plants and in- he knows not. The same thing is incident to us sects, bringing in of locusts, blastings and mil-in natural history. Let those who came after us dews. endeavour for the rest.
28. What winds do or can do concerning currents or tides of waters, in their keeping back, putting forth, or inlets or overflowings.
The Names of Winds.
To the first article.
We give names to winds rather as they are numbered in their order and degrees than by their own antiquity; this we do for memory's and perspicuity's sake. But we add the old words also,
because of the assenting voices or opinions of old authors; of which having taken (though with somewhat a doubtful judgment) many things, they will hardly be known, but under such names as themselves have used. Let the general divi sion be this: let cardinal winds be those which blow from corners or angles of the world; semi
cardinal, those which blow in the half-wards of those; and inedian winds, those which blow between these half-wards: likewise of those which blow betwixt these half-wards; let those be called major medians which blow in a quadrant or fourth part of these divisions: the lesser medians are all the rest. Now the particular division is that
North and by east.
Med. Maj. North-north-east, or aquilo.
North-east and by east.
Med. Maj. East-north-east, or cæcias. East and by north.
Cardinal. East, or subsolanus.
East by south.
Med. Maj. East-south-east,or vulturnus. South-east and by east.
South-east and by south.
Med. Maj. South-south-east, or phænicias. South and by east.
South and by west.
Med. Maj. South-south-west, or libonotus. South-west and by south.
Semicard. South-west, or libs.
South-west and by west.
Med. Maj. West-south-west, or africus.
Cardinal. West, or favonius.
West and by north.
Med. Maj. West-north-west, or corus.
North-west and by north, or thrascias. Med. Maj. North-north-west, or circius. North and by west.
There are also other names of winds. Apeliotes, the east wind, argestes, the south-west, olympias, the north-west, scyron, the south-east, hellespontius, the east-north-east, for these we care not. Let it suffice that we have given constant and fixed names of winds, according to the order and disposition of the regions of the heavens: we do not set much by the comments of authors, since the authors themselves have little in them.
To the sixth article.
1. There is not a region of the heaven from whence the winds doth not blow. Yea, if you divide the heaven into as many regions as there be degrees in the horizon, you shall find winds sometimes blowing from every one of them.
2. There are some whole countries where it never rains, or, at least, very seldom; but there is no country where the wind doth not blow, and that frequently.
To the second article.
1. Concerning general winds, experiments are plain; and it is no marvel, seeing that (especially VOL. III.-56
within the tropics) we may find places condemned among the ancients.
It is certain, that to those who sail between the tropics in a free and open sea, there blows a constant and settled wind (which the seamen call a breeze) from east to west. This wind is not of so little force, but that, partly by its own blowing, and partly by its guiding the current of the sea, it hindereth seamen from coming back again the same way they went to Peru.
2. In our seas in Europe, when it is fair dry weather, and no particular winds stirring, there blows a soft kind of gale from the east, which followeth the sun.
3. Our common observations do admit that the higher clouds are for the most part carried from) east to west; and that it is so likewise when here below upon the earth, either there is a great calm, or a contrary wind; and if they do not so always, it is because sometimes particular winds blow aloft which overwhelm this general wind.
A Caution. If there be any such general wind, in order to the motion of the heaven, it is not so firm nor strong but that it gives way to particular winds. But it appears most plainly amongst the tropics, by reason of the larger circles which it makes. And, likewise, it is so when it blows on high, for the same cause, and by reason of its free course. Wherefore, if you will take it without the tropics, and near the earth, (where it blows most gently and slowly,) make trial of it in an open and free air, in an extreme calm, and in high places, and in a body which is very movable, and in the afternoon, for at that time the particular eastern wind blows more sparingly.
Injunction. Observe diligently the vanes and weathercocks upon the tops and towers of churches, whether, in extreme calms, they stand continually towards the west or not.
An indirect experiment.
4. It is certain, that here with us in Europe the eastern wind is drying and sharp; the west wind, contrariwise, moist and nourishing. May not this be by reason that (it being granted that the air moves from east to west) it must of necessity be that the east wind, whose blast goeth the same way, must needs disperse and attenuate the air, whereby the air is made biting and dry; but the western wind, which blows the contrary way, turns the airs back upon itself, and thickens it, whereby it becomes more dull, and, at length, moist.
An indirect experiment.
5. Consider the inquisition of the motion and flowing of waters, whether they move from east to west; for, if the two extremes, heaven and waters, delight in this motion, the air which is in the midst will go near to participate of the same.
Cation. We call the two last experiments indirect, because they do directly show the thing which we aim at but by consequence, which we also gladly admit of when we want direct experiments.
Injunction. That the breeze blows plentifully between the tropics, is most certain; the cause is very ambiguous. The cause may be, because the air moves according to the heaven; but without the tropics almost imperceivably, by reason of the smaller circles which it makes; within the tropics manifestly, because it makes bigger circles. Another cause may be, because all kind of heat dilates and extends the air, and doth not suffer it to be contained in its former place; and by the dilatation of the air, there must needs be an impulsion of the contiguous air which produceth this breeze as the sun goes forward; and that is more evident within the tropics, where the sun is more scorching; without it, is hardly perceived. And this seems to be an instance of the cross, or a decisory instance. To clear this doubt you may inquire, whether the breeze blow in the night or no for the wheeling of the air continues also in the night, but the heat of the sun does not. 6. But it is most certain that the breeze doth not blow in the night, but in the morning, and when the morning is pretty well spent; yet that instance doth not determine the question, whether the nightly condensation of the air (especially in those countries where the days and nights are not more equal in their length than they are differing in their heat and cold) may dull and confound that natural motion of the air, which is but weak.
If the air participates of the motion of the heaven, it does not only follow that the east wind concurs with the motion of the air, and the west wind strives against it; but also that the north wind blows, as it were, from above, and the south wind as from below here in our hemisphere, where the antarctic pole is under ground, and the arctic pole is elevated! which hath likewise been observed by the ancients, though staggeringly and obscurely but it agrees very well with our modern experience, because the breeze (which may be a motion of the air) is not a full east, but a north-east wind.
Stayed or Certain Winds.
To the third article. Connexion.
As, in the inquisition of general winds, men have suffered and been in darkness, so they have been troubled with a vertigo or giddiness concerning stayed and certain winds. Of the former, they say nothing; of the latter, they talk up and down at random. This is the more pardonable, the thing being various; for these stayed winds do change and alter according to the places where they be the same do not blow in Egypt, Greece, and Italy.
1. That there are stayed winds in some places, the very name that is given them doth declare it, as the other name of etesiaes means anniversary or yearly winds.
2. The ancients attributed the cause of the overflowing of Nilus to the blowing of the etesian (that is to say, northern) winds at that time of the year, which did hinder the river's running into the sea, and turned the stream of it back.
3. There are currents in the sea which can neither be attributed to the natural motion of the ocean, nor to the running down from higher places, nor the straitness of the opposite shores, nor to promontories running out into the sea, but are merely guided and governed by these stayed winds.
4. Those who will not have Columbus to have conceived such a strong opinion concerning the West Indies by the relation of a Spanish pilot, and much less believe that he might gather it out of some obscure footsteps of the ancients, have this refuge; that he might conjecture there was some continent in the west by the certain and stayed winds which blew from them towards the shores of Lusitania or Portugal. A doubtful, and not very probable thing, seeing that the voyage of winds will hardly reach so large a distance. In the mean time there is great honour due to this inquisition, if the finding of this new world be due to one of those axioms or observations, whereof it comprehends many.
5. Wheresoever are high and snowy mountains, from thence blow stayed winds, until that time as the snow be melted away.
6. I believe also that from great pools which are full of water in the winter, there blow stayed winds in those seasons, when as they begin to dry up with the heat of the sun. But of this I have no certainty.
7. Wheresoever vapours are engendered in abundance, and that at certain times, be sure that stayed winds will blow there at the same times.
8. If stayed and certain winds blow anywhere, and the cause cannot be found near at hand, assure yourself that those certain winds are strangers, and come from far.
9. It hath been observed, that stayed winds do not blow in the night-time, but do rise about three hours after sunrising. Surely such winds are tired, as it were, with a long journey, that they can scarcely break through the thickness of the night air, but being stirred up again by the rising of the sun, they go forward by little and little.
10. All stayed winds (unless they blow from some neighbouring places) are weak, and yield unto sudden winds.
11. There are many stayed winds which are not perceivable, and which we do not observe, by reason of their weakness, whereby they are over