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matters may be lightly touched upon, so as to there any confusion between this and the second extract and lay up for use such natural knowledge or third parts, although we have spoken of air, as may lurk in their dregs, but till then they are water, and earth in each. For in the second and to be put aside. In like manner, the experiments third they are spoken of as integral parts of the of natural magic are to be diligently and rigidly world, and in relation to the creation and consifted before their adoption, especially those which figuration of the universe; but in the fourth is are wont to be derived from vulgar sympathies and contained the history of their own substance and antipathies, owing to the indolence and credulity nature, as displayed in the homogeneous parts of of both believers and inventors.

each, and not referred to the whole. Lastiy, the It is no slight matter to have thus relieved na- fifth part of natural bistory contains the lesser tural history of these three vanities, which might colleges or species, upon which alone natural otherwise have hereafter filled volumes. Nor is history has hitherto been chiefly occupied. this all: for it is as essential to a great work, that As to the history of pretergeneration, we have that which is admitted be briefly described, as already observed that it may, with the greatest that the superfluous should be rejected, although convenience, be combined with that of generation, it must be obvious that this chastened and precise including that which is prodigious only, not nastyle must afford less pleasure, both to the reader tural. For we reserve the superstitious history and to the author. But it is ever to be repeated, of miracles (such as it may be) for a separate that the object is to prepare a mere granary and treatise, nor is it to be undertaken immediately, ware house, in which no one is to loiter or dwell but rather later, when more way shall have been for amusement, but only to visit as occasion may made in the investigation of nature. require, when any thing is wanted for the work We divide the history of the arts, and of naof the interpreter, which follows next in order. ture's course diverted and changed by man, or

IV. One thing, above all others, is requisite experimental history, into three parts. For it is for the history we design; namely, that it be derived either, 1. From the mechanical arts; or, most extensive, and adapted to the extent of the 2. From the practical part of the liberal sciences; universe. For the world is not to be narrowed or, 3. From various practical applications and exe down to the measure of the understanding, (as periments, which have not yet been classed as a has hitherto been done,) but the understanding is peculiar art, nay, sometimes occur in every day's to be expanded, and opened for the admission of experience and require no such art. If, then, a the actual representation of the world as it is. history be completed of all these which we have The maxim of examining little and pronouncing mentioned, namely, generation, pretergeneraon that little has ruined every thing. Resuming tion, the arts and experiments, nothing appears then our late partition of natural history, into that omitted for preparing the senses to inform the of generation, pretergeneration, and the arts, we understanding, and we shall no longer dance, as it divide the first into five parts: 1. The history of were, within the narrow circles of the enchanter, the sky and heavenly bodies. 2. Of meteors and but extend our march round the confines of the the regions (as they are termed) of the air, that world itself. is to say, its division from the moon to the earth's V. Of those parts into which we have divided surface, to which division we assign every kind natural history, that of the arts is the most useful, of comet, either superior or inferior, (however the since it exhibits bodies in motion, and leads more actual fact may be,) for the sake of method. directly to practice. Besides this, it lifts the 3. The history of the earth and sea. 4. Of the mask and veil, as it were, from natural objects, clements, as they are called, flame or fire, air, which are generally concealed or obscured under water, and earth; considering them, however, a diversity of forms and external appearance. under that name, not as the first principles of Again, the attacks of art are assuredly the very things, but as forming the larger masses of na- fetters and miracles of Proteus, which betray the tural bodies. For natural objects are so distri- last struggle and efforts of nature. For bodies buted, that the quantity or mass of certain bodies resist destruction or annihilation, and rather trans throughout the universe is very great, owing to form themselves into various shapes. The greatthe easy and obvious material texture required est diligence, therefore, is to be bestowed upon for their conformation, whilst the quantity of this history, however mechanical and illiberal it others is but small and sparingly supplied, the may appear, laying aside all fastidious arrogance. material, being of a diversified and subtile nature, Again, amongst the arts those are preferable having many specific qualities, and being of an which control, alter, and prepare natural bodies, organized construction, such as the different and the materials of objects, such as agriculture, species of natural objects, namely, metals, plants, cookery, chymistry, dyeing, manufactures of and animals. We are wont, therefore, to call the glass, enamel, sugar, gunpowder, fireworks, former greater colleges, and the latter lesser col- paper, and the like. There is less use to be de leges. The fourth part of our history, then, is of rived from those which chiefly consist in a deli. the former, under the name of elements. Nor is Icate motion of the hands, or of tools, such as

weaving, carpentry, architecture, mill and clock. tice. The exact return and distances of the work, and the like; although the latter are by no planets, therefore, in the history of the heavens, means to be neglected, both on account of their the circumference of the earth, and the extent of frequently presenting circumstances tending to its surface compared with that of water, in the the alteration of natural bodies, and also on ac- history of the earth and sea, the quantity of comcount of the accurate information they afford of pression which the air will suffer without any translatitious motion, a point of the greatest im- powerful resistance, in the history of air, the portance in many inquiries.

quantity by which one metal exceeds another in One thing, however, is to be observed and well weight, in that of metals, and a number of like remembered in this whole collection of arts, points are to be thoroughly investigated and denamely, to admit not only those experiments tailed. When, however, the exact proportions which conduce to the direct object of the art, but cannot be obtained, recourse must be had to those also those which indirectly occur. For instance, which are estimated or comparative. Thus, if we the changing of the lobster or a crab when cooked distrust the calculations of astronomers as to disfrom a dark to a red colour has nothing to do with tances, it may be stated that the moon is within cookery, yet this instance is not a bad one in in the shadow of the earth, and Mercury above the vestigating the nature of redness, since the same moon, &c. If mean proportions cannot be had, thing occurs in baked bricks. So, again, the let extremes be taken, as that the feeblest magnet circumstance of meat requiring less time for salt- can raise iron of such a weight compared with ing in winter than in summer, is not only useful its own, and the most powerful sixty times as information to the cook for preparing his meat, much as its own weight, which I have myself but is also a good instance to point out the nature observed in a very small armed magnet. For we and effect of cold. He therefore will be wonder- know very well that determinate instances do not fully mistaken, who shall think that he has satis- readily or often occur, but must be sought after fied our object when he has collected these expe- as auxiliary, when chiefly wanted, in the very riments of the arts for the sole purpose of im- course of interpretation. If, however, they casuproving each art in particular. For, although we ally occur, they should be inserted in natural hisdo not by any means despise even this, yet our tory, provided they do not too much retard its firm intention is to cause the streams of every progress. species of mechanical experiment to flow from all VIII. With regard to the credit due to the quarters into the ocean of philosophy. The choice matters admitted into our history, they must of the most important instances in each (such as either be certain, doubtful, or absolutely false. should be most abundantly and diligently search- The first are to be simply stated, the second to be ed and, as it were, hunted out) must be governed noted with “a report states," or, " they say," or, by the prerogative instances.

" I have heard from a person worthy of credit," VI. We must here allude to that which we have and the like. For it would be too laborious to treated more at length in the ninety-ninth, one enter into the arguments on both sides, and would hundred and nineteenth, and one hundred and too much retard the author, nor is it of much contwentieth aphorisms of the first book, and need sequence towards our present object, since (as now only briefly urge as a precept, namely, that we have observed in the hundred and eighteenth there be admitted into this history, 1. The most aphorism of the first book) the correctness of the common matters, such as one might think it super- axioms will soon discover the errors of experifluous to insert from their being so well known; ment, unless they be very general. If, however, 2. Base, illiberal, and filthy matters, (for to the there be any instance of greater importance than pure every thing is pure, and if money derived the rest, either from its use, or the consequences from urine be of good odour, much more so is dependent upon it, then the author should cerknowledge and information from any quarter,) tainly be named, and not barely named, but some and also those which are trilling and puerile; notice should be taken as to whether he merely lastly, such matters as appear too minute, as heard or copied it, (as is generally the case with being of themselves of no use. For (as has been Pliny,) or rather affirmed it of his own knowobserved) the subjects to be treated of in this ledge, and, also, whether it were a matter within history are not compiled on their own account, his own time or before it, or whether such as, if nor ought their worth, therefore, to be measured true, must necessarily have been witnessed by by their intrinsic value, but by their application many; or, lastly, whether the author were vain to other points, and their influence on philosophy. and trifling, or steady and accurate and the like

VII. We moreover recommend that all natural points, which give weight to testimony. Lastly. bodies and qualities be, as far as possible, re- those matters which are false, and yet have been duced to nunber, weight, measure, and precise much repeated and discussed, such as have gaineel definition ; for we are planning actual results and ground by the lapse of ages, partly owing to not mere theory; and it is a proper combination neglect, partly to their being used as poetical of physics and mathematics that generates prac-l con parisons; for instance, that the amond overpowers the magnet, that garlic enervates, near the poles. Canons, also, (which are only that amber attracts every thing but the herb basil, general and universal observations,) are very pru&c. &c., all these ought not to be silently re- perly introduced ; as in the history of the heavens, jected, but expressly proscribed, that they may that Venus is never more than forty-six degrees never trouble science more.

distant from the sun, nor Mercury more than It will not, however, be improper to notice the twenty-three; and that the planets, which are origin of any fable or absurdity, if it should be placed above the sun, move most slowly when traced in the course of inquiry, such as the vene- farthest from the earth, those beneath the sun real qualities attributed to the herb satyrium, most quickly. Another kind of observation from its roots bearing some resemblance to the to be adopted, which has not hitherto been introtesticles. The real cause of this formation being duced, although of no small importance; namely, the growth of a fresh bulbous root every year, that to a list of things which exist, should be which adheres to that of the preceding year, and subjoined one of those which do not exist, as, in produces the twin roots, and is proved by the firm, the history of the heavens, that no oblong or juicy appearance which the new root always triangular star has been discovered, but all are presents,

whilst thi old one is withered and globular, either simply, as the moon, or angular spongy. This last circumstance renders it a matter to the sight, but globular in the centre, as the not worthy of much wonder, that the one root other stars; or bearded to the sight, and globular should always sink and the other swim, though in the centre, as the sun: or, that the stars are this, too, has been considered marvellous,and has not arranged in any order, that there is no quinadded weight to the reputed virtues of the plant. cunx, square, or other perfect figure, (notwith

IX. There now remain certain useful accesso- standing the names of the delta, crown, cross, ries to natural history, for the purpose of bending wain, &c.,) scarcely in a right line, excepting, and adapting it more readily to the labour of the perhaps, the belt and sword of Orion. interpreter which is to follow. They are five in Fifthly, it will, perhaps, assist the inquirer, nuinber.

though pernicious and destructive to the believer, In the first place, queries are to be subjoined, to review all received opinions, their varieties and (not of causes, but of facts,) in order to challenge sects, briefly and currently as he proceeds, just tu and court further inquiry. As, for instance, in waken the intellect, and nothing further. the history of the earth and sea, whether the X. These will form a sufficient store of general Caspian has any tide, and the period of it? precepts; and if they be diligently adhered to, whether there is any southern continent, or only the labour of this our history will both be directed islands? and the like.

immediately to its object and confined within proSecondly, in relating any new and delicats ex- per limits. But if, even thus circumscribed and periment, the method adopted in making it should limited, it may, perhaps, appear vast to the be added, in order to allow free scope to the feeble-minded, let him cast his eyes upon our reader's judgment upon the soundness or fallacy libraries, and observe the codes of civil and canon of the information derived from it, and also to law on the one hand, and the commentaries of spur on men's industry in searching for more doctors and practitioners on the other, and see accurate methods, if such there be.

what difference there is in the bulk and number Thirdly, if there be any particle of doubt or of volumes. For we, who as faithful scribes do hesitation as to the matter related, we would by but receive and copy the very laws of nature, not no means have it suppressed or passed over, but it only can, but must by necessity be brief; but opi. should be plainly and clearly set out, by way of nions, dogmatisms, and theory, are innumerable note or warning. For we would have our first his- and endless. tory written with the most religious particularity, In the distribution of our work we made menand as though upon oath as to the truth of every tion of the cardinal virtues of nature, and observed syllable, for it is a volume of God's works, and that a history of them must be completed before (as far as the majesty of things divine can brook we come to the work of interpretation. This wa comparison with the lowliness of earthly objects) have by no means forgotten, but we reserve it to is, as it were, a second Scripture.

ourselves, not daring to augur much from the Fourthly, it will be proper to intersperse some industry of others in the attempt, until men hare observations, as Pliny has done. Thus, in the begun to be a little more acquainted with nature. history of the earth and sea, we may observe, We next proceed, therefore, to the designation of that the figure of the earth, as far as it is known particular histories. to us, when compared with that of the sea, is Pressed, however, by business, we have only narrow and pointed towards the south, broad and leisure sufficient to subjoin a catalogue of parti expanded towards the north, the contrary to that cular histories, arranged under their proper heads of the sea : and that vast oceans divide the con- As soon as time permits, it is our intention to :inents, with channels extended from north to instruct, as it were, by interrogation in each, sout!, not from east to west, except, perhaps, namely, as to the points to be investigated and committed to writing in every history, on account by special favour and divine providence, and by of their conducing to the end in view, and form- which mankind are contending for the recovery ing particular topics; or rather, (to borrow a me- of their dominion over nature, let us examine taphor from the civilians,) in this great action or nature and the arts themselves upon interrogacause, which has been conceded and instituted I tives.





1. A History of the Heavenly bodies; or, an Figure and Outline, their Configuration relaAstronomical History.

tively to one another, the manner in which they 2. A History of the Configuration of Heaven and stretch into one another in broad Tracts or nar

its Parts as it lies towards the Earth and its row Indentations, the History of the Islands Parts; or, a Cosmographical History.

in the Sea, of the Bays of the Sea, of salt 3 A History of Comets.

inland Lakes, of Isthmuses, and Promontories. 4. A History of Igneous Meteors.

17. The History of the Motions, if there be such, 5. A History of Thunderbolts, Flashes of Light- of the Globe of Earth and Sea, and from what ning, Thunders, and Coruscations.

Experiments they may be inferred. 6. A History of Winds, Sudden Blasts, and 18. The History of the greater Motions and Undulations of the Air.

Agitations of the Earth and Sea, that is, of 7. A History of Rainbows.

Earthquakes, Tremblings of the Earth, and 8. A History of Clouds as they are seen in the Chasms; of new Islands, of floating Islands, Air above.

of Divulsions of the parts of the Land by in9. A History of the Azure Expanse, of Twilight, roads of the Sea, of its Encroachments and

of two or more Suns or Moons visible at once, Influxes, and, on the other hand, its Recessions; of Halos, of the different Colours of the Sun of the Eruption of Fires from the Earth, of and Moon, and of all that diversity of the Hea- sudden Eruptions of Water from the Earth, venly Bodies to the eye which results from the and the like. medium of vision.

19. A Geographical Natural History, of Moun10. A History of Rains, conimon, tempestuous, tains, Valleys, Woods, Plains, Sands, Marshes,

and extraordinary; also of Cataracts of Heaven, Lakes, Rivers, Torrents, Fountains, and all as they are called, and the like.

their diversities of irrigation, and the like; 11. A History of Hail, Snow, Ice, Hoar-frost, Leaving out of view Nations, Provinces, Fog, Dew, and the like.

Cities, and other parts of Civil Society. 12. A History of all other Substances which fall 20. A History of the Ebbs and Flows of the

or are precipitated from on high, and are gene- Sea, of Undulations, and other Motions of the rated in upper Air.

Sea. 13. A History of Noises heard on high, if there 21. A History of the other Accidents of the Sea, be any, besides Thunder.

its Saltness, diversity of Colours, Depth, of 14. A History of the Air as a whole, or relatively Submarine Rocks, Mountains, and Valleys, and to the Structure of the World.

the like. 15 A History of Weathers or of the State of Tem

perature thronghout the Year, with reference The following are Histories of the larger Masses to variety of clime, and the Accidents of parti

in Nature. cular Seasons and the periods of the Year; of 22. A History of Flame and Ignited Bodies.

Floods, Heats, Droughts, and the like. 23. A History of the Air in its Substance, not its 16. A History of the Earth and Sea, of their Configuration.



24. A History of Water in its Substance, not its tion of the Blood; the Assimilation of NouConfiguration.

rishment to the Frame, the Conversion of the 25. A History of the Earth, and its Varieties in Blood and the Flower of it into Spirits, &c. its Substance, not its Configuration.

48. A History of Natural and Involuntary Mo

tions; as the motions of the heart, the motions The following are Histories of Species.

of the pulse, sneezing, the motions of the 26. A History of the perfect Metals, of Gold, Sil. lungs, priapism.

ver; of Mines, Veins, and Marcasites of the 49. A History of Motion of a mixed nature, same, also the chymical Actions of Minerals between natural and voluntary, respiration, in their natural state.

coughing, making water, stool, &c. 27. The History of Quicksilver.

50. A History of Voluntary Motions; as of the 28. A History of Fossils; as vitriol, sulphur, &c. organs of articulation or speaking, the motions 29. A History of Gems; as the diamond, ruby, of the eyes, tongue, jaws, hands, fingers, of &c.

swallowing, &c. 30. A History of Stones; as marble, gold-touch-51. A History of Sleep and Dreams. slone, flint, &c.

52. A History of different Habits of Body, of fat 31. A History of the Magnet.

and lean, of complexions, (as they are called,) 32. A History of Miscellaneous Substances, &c.

which are neither wholly fossil nor vegeta- | 53. A History of the Generation of Man. ble; as salts, amber, ambergris, &c.

54. A History of Conception, Quickening, Ges33. A Chymical History, regarding Metals and tation in Utero, Birth, &c. Minerals.

55. A History of the Nourishment of Man, of 34. A History of Plants, Trees, Fruits, Grapes, all Esculents and Potables, and of all Diet,

and their parts, the Roots, Stalks, Wood, and its Varieties, according to nations, or minor Leaves, Flowers, Fruits, Seeds, Tears, or Exu- differences. dations, &c.

56. A History of the Augmentation and Growth 35. A Chymical History, regarding Vegetables. of the Body, in the whole, or in its parts. 36. A History of Fishes, and their Parts and 57. A History of the Course of life: of Infancy, Generation.

Boyhood, Manhood, Old Age; of Longevity, 37. A History of Volant Creatures, their Parts Shortness of Life, and the like, according to and Generation.

nations, or minor differences. 38. A History of Quadrupeds, their Parts and 58. A History of Life and Death. Generation.

59. A Medical History of Diseases ; their symp39. A History of Reptiles, Worms, Flies, and toms and signs.

other Insects, and of their Parts and Genera- 60. A Medical History of the Cure, Remedies tion.

of, and Liberations from Diseases, 40. A Chymical History of those Substanees 61. A Medical History of those Things which which are extracted from Animals.

preserve the Body and Health.

62. A Medical History of those Things which beThe following are Histories of Man.

long to the Form and Beauty of the Body, &c. 41. A Histury of the Figure and external Mem- 63. A Medical History of those Things which

bers of Man; his Stature, the Knitting of his alter the Body, and belong to Alterative Regi. Frame, his Countenance and Features; and the varieties of these, according to nation and cli- 64. A History of Drugs. mate, or any minute diversities.

65. A Chirurgical History. 42. A Histury of Physiognomy, derived from the 66. A Chymical History, with Re erence to Me former.

dicines. 43. A History Anatomical, or of the Internal 67. A History of Light and Visible Objects, or

Members of Man, and their Variety, so far as optical. it is found in the Natural Cohesion and Struc- 68. A History of Painting, Sculpture, Casts, &c. ture of the Parts, and not merely with refer- 69. A History of Hearing and Sounds.

ence to Diseases and preternatural Accidents. 70. A History of Music. 44. A History of the Homogeneous Parts of 71. A History of Smell and Odours.

Man; as of flesh, bones, membranes, &c. 72. A History of Taste and Savours 15. A History of the Humours in Man; as blood, 73. A History of Touch, and its Objects. bile, semen, &c.

74. A History of Venery, as a Species of Touch. 46. A History of Excrements, Spittle, Urine, 75. A History of Bodily Pains, as a Species of

Sweats, Fæces, the Hair of the Head, and Touch.
Hair generally, Nails, and the like.

76. A History of Pleasure and Pain in general. 47. The History of the Faculties of Attraction, 77. A History of the Passions; as anger, love,

Digestion, Retention, Expulsion; the Forma- shame, &c.


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