Imágenes de páginas

the same is it that compasseth the whole land of the air; and P brought them unto 9 Adam to ol' - Ethiopia.

see what he would call them: and whatsoever 14 And the nanie of the third river is 6 Hid- Adam called every living creature, that was the dekel: that is it which goeth' toward the east name thereof. of Assyria. And the fourth river is "Euphrates. 20 And Adam ' gave names to all cattle, and

15 T And the LORD God took the man, and to the fowl of the air, and to every beast of the 'put him into the garden of Eden to dress it field; but for Adam there was not found an help and to keep it.

meet for him. 16 And the LORD, God commanded the man, 21 | And the LORD God caused a deep sleep saying, Of every tree of the garden & thou mayest to fall

' upon Adam, and he slept: and he took freely eat:

one of his ribs, and closed up the flesh instead 17' But of the tree of the knowledge of good thereof; and evil, i thou shalt not eat of it: for in the day 22 And the rib, which the LORD God had taken that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die from man, 'made he a woman, and brought

18 | And the LORD God said, It is not good her unto the man. that the man should be alone; m I will make an 23 And Adam said, This is now bone of my help "meet for him.

bones, and flesh of my flesh: she shall be called 19 . And out of the ground the LORD God w Woman, because she was ’ taken out of y man. formed every beast of the field, and every fowl 24 - Therefore shall a man leave his father

a Heb. Cush-b Dan. 10. 4.-c Or, eastioard, to Assyria. Ch. 10. 22- Deut. 1.7. & 11. 21. Rev. 9. 14.-e Or, Adam - Ver. 3.- Heb. eating thou shall eal. h Ver. 9.-i Ch. 3. 1, 3, 11, 17.-k C) 3.3, 19. Rom. 6. 23. I Cor. 15. 56. James 1. 15. 1 John 5. 16.-1 Heb. dying thou shalt die. -m Ch 3. 12 1 Cor. 11. 9. 1 Tim. 2 13.-. Heb. as before him.- Ch. 1. 20, 21. - Ps 8. 6. See Ch. 6. 20.–4 Or,

the man.- Heb. calledl. - Ch. 15. 12. 1 Sam. 26. 12.-- Heb. bacilded. Prov. 18. 22. Hetor. 13. 4.-- Ch. 29. 14. Jnde 9.2. 2 Sam. 5. 1. & 19. 13. Eph. 5. 30w Heb. Isha.- 1 Cor. 11. 8.-y Heb. Ish. Ch. 31. 15. Ps. 45. 10 Matl 19 5 Mark 10. 7. I Cor. 6. 16. Eph. 5. 31.

his conduct, is an absurdity; this would destroy, at once, fore, he must continue in the state that was not good, or the idea of his dependency and accountableness. Man be a farther debtor to the bounty of his Maker ; for, among must ever feel God as his sovereign, and act under his all the animals which he had named, there was not found authority, which he cannot do, unless he have a rule of a help meet for him. Hence we read, conduct. This rule God gives; and it is no matter of what Verse 21. The Lord caused a deep sleep to fall upon kind it is, as long as obedience to it is not beyond the Adam, &c.] This was neither suoon nor ecstacy, but what powers of the creature who is to obey. God says, there is our translation very properly terms a deep sleep: a certain fruit-bearing tree; thou shalt not eat of its fruit; And he took one of his ribs] It is immaterial whether but of all the other fruits, and they are all that are neces we render oss tselâ a rib, or a part of his side : for it may sary for thee, thou mayest freely, liberally eat. Had he mean either : some part of man was to be used on the not an absolute right to say so? And was not man bound occasion, whether bone or flesh, it matters not, though it to obey ?

is likely, from verse 23, that a part of both was taken; Thou shall surely dic.] nion nio moth tamuth, literally for Adam, knowing how the woman was formed, said, a death thou shall die ; or, dying thou shalt die. From This is flesh of my flesh, and bone of my boncs. God that moment thou shalt become mortal, and shalt continue could have formed the woman out of the dust of the earth, in a dying state till thou die. This we find literally as he had formed the man; but had he done so, she must accomplished : every moment of his life, man may be have appeared in his eyes as a distinct being, to whom he considered as dying, till soul and body are separated. had no natural relation. But as God formed her out of a Other meanings have been given of this passage, but they part of himself, he saw she was of the same nature, the are in general either fanciful or incorrect.

same identical flesh and blood, and of the same constitution Verse 18. It is not good that the man should be alone] in all respects, and consequently having equal powers, 1725 lebaddo, only himself. I will make him a HELP MEET faculties, and rights. This at once ensured his affection, for him ; 17223 niyêzer kenegedo, a help, a counterpart of and excited his esteem. himself, one formed from him, and a perfect resemblance Verse 23. Adam said, this is nou bone of my bones, of his person. If the word be rendered scrupulously &c.] There is a very delicate and expressive meaning in literal, it signifies one like, or as himself, standing opposite the original, which does not appear in our version. When to, or before him. And this implies, that the woman was the different genera of creatures were brought to Adam, to be a perfect resemblance of the man, possessing neither that he might assign them their proper names, it is probable inferiority nor superiority, but being in all things like and that they passed in pairs before him, and as they passed, equal to himself. As man was made a social creature, it received their names. To this circumstance the words in was not proper that he should be alone; for to be alone, this place seem to refer. Instead of this now is, DYDD ONI i. e. without a matrimonial companion, was not good zot happaâm, we should render more literally this turn, Hence we find, that celibacy is a thing that is not good, this creature which now passes, or appears before me, is whether it be on the side of the man or the woman. Men flesh of my flesh, &c. The creatures that had passed may, in opposition to the declaration of God, call this a already before him, were not suitable to him, and therefore staie of excellence, and a state of perfection; but let them it was said, For Adam there was not a help meet found, remember, that the word of God says the reverse.

verse 20; but when the woman came, formed out of himVerse 19. Out of the ground, &c.) Concerning the self, he felt all that attraction which consanguinity could formation of the different kinds of animals, see the pre- produce, and at the same time saw that she was, in her perceding chapter.

son and in her mind, every way suitable to be his companion. Verse 20. And Adam gave names to all cattle) Two She shall be called woman] A literal version of the things God appears to have in view by causing man to Hebrew would appear strange, and yet a literal version is name all the cattle, &c. 1. To show him with what com the only proper one. Ish, signifies man; and the prehensive powers of mind his Maker had endued him; word used to express what we term woman, is the same, and 2. To show him that no creature, yet formed, could with a feminine termination, nun ishah, and literally make him a suitable companion. And that this twofold means she-man. Most of the ancient versions have felt purpose was answered, we shall shortly see : for,

the force of the term, and have endeavoured to express it 1. Adam gave names, but how? From an intimate as literally as possible. The intelligent reader will not knowledge of the nature and properties of each creature. regret to see them here. The Vulgate Latin renders the Here we see the perfection of his knowledge; for it is Hebrew virago, which is a feminine form of vir, a man. well-known, that the names affixed to the different animals Symmachus uses ved poş, andris, a female form of avmp, in Scripture always express some prominent feature and aner, a man. The Arabic imrat, she-man, from imrec, essential characteristic of the creatures to which they are Our own term is equally proper, when understood. applied. Had he not possessed an intuitive knowledge of Woman has been defined by many as compounded of wo the grand and distinguishing properties of those animals, and man, as if called man's wo, because she tempted him he never could have given them such names. This one to eat the forbidden fruit: but this is no meaning of the circumstance is a strong proof of the original perfection original word, nor could it be intended, as the transgression and excellence of man, while in a state of innocence; nor was not then committed. T'he truth is, our term is a proper need we wonder at the account. Adam was the work of and literal translation of the original; and we may thank an infinitely wise and perfect Being, and the effect must the discernment of our Anglo-Saxon ancestors for giving resemble the cause that produced it.

it. Wombman, of which woman is a contraction, means 2. Adam was convinced, that none of these creatures the man with the womb. A very appropriate version of could be a suitable companion for him; and that, there- | the Hebrew nun ishah, rendered' by terms which signify


and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wise: I had made. And he said unto the woman, • Yea, and they shall be one flesh.

hath God said, Ye shall not eat of every tree 25 · And they were both naked, the man and of the Garden ? his wife, and were not ashamed.

2 And the woman said unto the serpent, We

may eat of the fruit of the trees of the garden: CHAPTER III.

3 But of the fruit of the tree which is in the Satan, by means of a creature here callet the Serpent, deceives Eve, 1–5. Both she ani Adam transgress the Divine command, and fall into sin and miery, 6, 7, midst of the garden, God hath said, Ye shall They are suamione beciure Gol, and judgri, 13. The crrature called the Serpent is deyra del and porushed. 14. The promise of redemption by the incar.

not eat of it, neither shall ye touch it, lest ye die. Bation of Christ, 15. Ere sentencel, 16. Adam sentence, 17. The ground 4 6 And the serpent said unto the woman, Ye cel, an! death threatened, 15, 19. Why the woman was called Eve, 20. Alam anl Ese clothes with the skins of beasts, 21. The wretched state of our

shall not surely die: first parents af.ex thea fall, and their expulsion from the garden of paradise, 22–2. 5 For God doth know that in the day ye eat

(the serpent was more subtil than thereof, then your eyes shall be opened, and ye


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a Ch. 3. 7, 10, 11.- Exol. 32. 25. Isai. 47.3.- Rev. 12. 9. & 20.2- Matt. 10. 16.

2 Cor. 11. 3.

e Heb. Yea, because, &c.— { Ch. 2 17.- Ver. 13. 2 Cor. 11. 3. 1 Tim. 2 14.- Ver.

7. Acts 2. 18.


she-man in the versions already specified. Hence we see and ending in selfishness and earthly affections, not in the propriety of Adam's observation : This creature is Spiritual ends, are the grand producing causes of the flesh of my flesh, and bone of my bone; therefore shall great majority of matrimonial alliances. How then can she be called WOMBMAN, or female-man, because she was such turbid and bitter fountains send forth puré and sweet taken out of man.-VERSTEGAN.

waters? See the ancient allegory of Cupid and Psyche, Verse 24. Therefore shall a man leave his father and by which marriage is so happily illustrated, explained in mother) There shall be, by the order of God, a more the notes on Matt. xix. 4-6. intimate connexion formed between the man and woman, Verse 25. They were both naked, &c.] The weather than can subsist even between parents and children. was perfectly temperate, and therefore they had no need

And they shall be one flesh] These words may be of clothing, the circumambient air being of the same understood in a twofold sense. 1. These two shall be one temperature with their bodies. And as sin had not yet flesh, shall be considered as one body, having no separate entered into the world, and no part of the human body or independent rights, privileges, cares, concerns, &c. had been put to any improper use, therefore there was no each being equally interested in all things that concern the shame, for shame can only arise from a consciousness of marriage state. 2. These two shall be for the production sinful or irregular conduct. of one flesh; from their union a posterity shall spring, as Even in a state of innocence, when all was perfection exactly resembling themselves as they do each other. Our and excellence, when God was clearly discovered in all his Lord quotes these words, Matt. xix. 5. with some varia- works, every place being his temple, every moment a time tion from the text: they TWAIN shall be one flesh. So in of worship, and every object an incitement to religious Mark x. 8. St. Paul quotes it in the same way, 1 Cor. vi. reverence and adoration-even then, God chose to conse16. and in Eph. v. 31. The Vulgate Latin, the Septuagint, crate a seventh part of time to his more especial worship, the Syriac, the Arabic, and the Samaritan, all read the word and to hallow it unto his own service by a perpetual

That this is the genuine reading, I have no doubt. decree. Who then shall dare to reverse this order of God? The word Onyu sheneyhem, they tuo, or both of them, Had the religious observance of the sabbath been never was, I suppose, omitted at first from the Hebrew text, by proclaimed ull the proclamation of the law on Mount mistake, because it occurs three words after in the follow- Sinai, then, it might have been conjectured, this, like ing verse; or more probably it originally occurred in the several other ordinances, was a shadow which must pass 24ih verse, and not in the 25th; and a copyist having away with that dispensation; neither extending to future found that he had written it twice, in correcting his copy, ages, nor binding on any other people. But this was not struck out the word in the 24th verse instead of the 25th. so. God gave the sabbath his first ordinance to man, But of what consequence is it? In the controversy con (see the first precept, v. 17.) while all the nations of the cerning polygamy, it has been made of very great con world were seminally included in him, and while he stood sequence. Without the word, some have contended, a the father and representative of the whole human race: man may have as many wires as he chooses, as the terms therefore the sabbath is not for one nation, for one time, or are indefinite, THEY shall be, &c. but with the word, for one place. It is the fair type of heaven's eternal daymarriage is restricted. A man can have in legal wedlock of the state of endless blessedness and glory, where human but ONE wife at the same time.

souls, having fully regained the divine image, and become We have here the first institution of marriage, and we united to the Centre and Source of all perfection and see in it several particulars worthy of our most serious excellence, shall rest in God unutterably happy through regard. 1. God pronounces the state of celibacy to be a the immeasurable progress of duration of this conbad state ; or, if the reader please, not a good one ; and summation, every returning sabbath should at once be a the Lord God said, It is not good for man to be alone, type, a remembrancer, and a foretastoto every pious mind ; This is God's judgment. Councils, and fathers, and and these it must be to all who are taught of God. doctors, and synods, have given a different judgment; but Of this rest, the garden of Eden, that Paradise of God, on such a subject they are worthy of no attention. The formed for man, appears also to have been a type and word of God abideth for ever. 2. God made the woman pledge; and the institution of marriage, the cause, bond, for the man; and thus he has shown us that every son of and cement of the social state, was probably designed to Adam should be united to a daughter of Eve to the end prefigure that harmony, order, and blessedness, which of the world. See on 1 Cor. vii. 3. God made the must reign in the kingdom of God, of which the condition woman out of the man, to intimate, that the closest union, of our first parents in the garden of paradise is justly supand the most affectionate attachment, should subsist in the posed to have been an expressive emblem. What a pity, matrimonial connexion, so that the man should ever con- that this heavenly institution should have ever been persider and treat the woman as a part of himself; and as verted ! tha, instead of becoming a sovereign help to all, no one ever hated his own flesh, but nourishes and supports it is now, through its prostitution to animal and secular it, so should a man deal with his wife : and, on the other purposes, become the destroyer of millions !-Reader, hand, the woman should consider, that the man was not every connexion thou formest in life, will have a strong made for her, but that she was made for the man, and and sovereign influence on thy future destiny. Beware! derived, under God, her being from him ; therefore the an unholy cause, which from its peculiar nature must be wife should see that she reverence her husband. Eph. v. ceaselessly active in every muscle, nerve, and passion, 33. The 23 and 24th verses contain the very words of cannot fail to produce incessant effects of sin, misery, death, the marriage ceremony- This is flesh of my flesh- and perdition. Remember that thy earthly connexions, therefore shall a man leave father and mother. How no matter of what kind, are not formed merely for time, happy must such a state be, where God's institution is whatsoever thou mayest intend, but also for eternity. properly regarded ; where the parties are married, as the With what caution, therefore, shouldest thou take every apostle expresses it, in the Lord; where each, by acts of step in the path of life! On this ground, the observations the tenderest kindness, lives only to prevent the wishes, made in the preceding notes are seriously recommended and contribute in every possible way to the comfort and to thy consideration. happiness of the other! 'Marriage might still be what it

NOTES ON CHAPTER III. was in its original institution, pure and suitable; and in Verse 1. Now the serpent was more subtle] We have its first exercise, affectionate and happy : but how few here one of the most difficult, as well as the most importsuch marriages are there to be found ? 'Passion, turbulent ant narratives in the whole book of God. The last and irregular, not_Religion ; Custom, founded by these chapter ended with a short but striking account of the irregularities, not Reason ; Worldly prospects, originating perfection and felicity of the first human beings; and this

6 | And when the woman saw that the tree, wise, she took of the fruit thereof, band did eat, was good for food, and that it was pleasant to and gave also unto her husband with her; cand the eyes, and a tree to be desired to make one he did eat.

a Heb. a desire.

b Eccles. 25. 24. 1 Tim. 2 14. 1 John 2 16.-c Ver. 12, 17. Hos 6. 7. Rom. 5. 12--19.

opens with an account of their transgression, degradation, as frequently used by them, as serpent, its supposed literal and ruin. That man is in a fallen state, certainly needs meaning, is used in our version. And the New Testament no arguments to prove it: the history of the world, with writers, who scarcely ever quote the Old Testament, but that of the life and miseries of every human being, estab- from the Septuagini translation, and scarcely ever change lish this point beyond successful contradiction. But how, a word in their quotations, copy this version in the use of and by what agency was this brought about ? Here is a this word. From the Septuagint therefore, we can expect great mistery; and I may appeal to all persons who have no light, nor indeed from any other of the ancient versions, read the various comments that have been written on the which are all subsequent to the Septuagint, and some of Mosaic account, whether they have ever yet been satisfied them actually made from it. In all this uncertainty, it is on this part of the subject, though convinced of the fact natural for a serious inquirer after truth, to look every itself. Who was the serpent? Of what kind, in what where for information. And in such an inquiry, the Arabic way did he seduce the first happy pair? These are ques may be expected to afford some help from its great similarity tions which remain yet to be answered. The whole to the Hebrew. A root in this language, very nearly simiaccount is either a simple narration of facts, or it is an lar to that in the text, seems to cast considerable light on allegory. If it be a historical relation, its literal meaning the subject. Canisi chanas, or khanasa, signifies he deshould be sought out: if it be an allegory, no attempt parted, drew off, lay hid, seduced, slunk away: from this should be made to explain it, as it would require a direct root come luis Jakhnas, luisi khanasa, and cugis revelation to ascertain the sense in which it should be khanoos, which all signify an ape, or satyrus, or any understood; for fanciful illustrations are endless. Believ creature of the simia or ape genus. It is very remarkable ing it to be a simple relation of facts, capable of a also that from the same root comes Lwlis khanâs, the satisfactory explanation, I shall take it up on this ground, DEVIL, which appellative he bears from that meaning of and by a careful examination of the original text, endeav Luiä khanasa, he drew off, seduced, &c. because he our to fix the meaning, and show the propriety and draws men off from righteousness, seduces them from their consistency of the Mosaic account of the Fall of Man. obedience to God, &c. &c. Is it not strange that the devil The chief difficulty in the account is found in the question, and the ape should have the same name, derived from the Who was the agent employed in the seduction of our first same root, and that root so very similar to the word in the parents ?

text? But let us return and consider what is said of the The word in the text, which we, following the Septua- creature in question. Now the nachash was more subtle, gint, translate serpent, is en nachash, and according to Dny árum, more wise or prudent than all the beasts of the Buxtorf and others, has three meanings in Scripture. 1. field which the Lord God hnd made. In this account we It signifies, to view, or observe attentively, to divine or use find, 1. That whatever this nachash was, he stood at the enchantments, because in them the augurs viewed atten- head of all inferior animals for wisdom and understanding. tively the flight of birds, the entrails of bcasts, the 2. That he walked erect, for this is necessarily implied in course of the clouds, &c. and under this head it signifies his punishment, on thy belly (i. e. on all fours) shalt thou to acquire knowledge by experience. 2. It signifies brass, go. 3. That he was endued with the gift of speech, for a brazen, and is translated in our Bible not only brass, but conversation is here related between him and the woman. chains, fetters, fetters of brass, and in several places 4. That he was also endued with the gift of reaso, for we steel: see 2 Sam. xxii. 35. Job xx. 24. Psal. xvii. 34. find him reasoning and disputing with Eve. 5. That these and in one place, at least, filthiness or fornication, Ezek. things were common to this creature, the woman no doubt xvi. 36. 3. It signifies a serpent, but of what kind is not having often seen him walk erect, talk, and reason, and determined. In Job xxvi. 13. it seems to mean the whale therefore she testifies no kind of surprise when he accosts or hippopotamus. By his spirit he hath garnished the her in the language related in the text; and indeed from heavens his hand hath formed the crooked serpent, the manner in which this is introduced, it appears to be mina und nachash bariach; as ana barach, signifies to only a part of a conversation that had passed between them pass on, or pass through, and 1992 beriach, is used for a on the occasion. Yea, hath God said, &c. bar of a gate or door that passed through rings, &c. the Had this creature never been known to speak before his idea of straightness, rather than crookedness, should be addressing the woman at this time, and on this subject, it attached to it here; and it is likely that the sea-horse is could not have failed to excite her surprise, and to have intended by it.

filled her with caution, though from the purity and innoIn Eccles. x. 2. the creature called nachash, of whatsoever cence of her nature, she might have been incapable of being sort, is compared to the babbler ; surely the serpent ons affected with fcar. Now I apprehend that none of these rachash, will bite without enchantment, and a babbler is things can be spoken of a serpent of any species. 1. None no better. Let the reader keep this in mind.

of them ever did or ever can walk ereci. The tales we In Isai. xxvii. 1. the crocodile or alligator seems particu- have had of two-footed and four-footed serpents, are justly larly meant by the original. In that day the Lord shall exploded by every judicious naturalist, and are utterly punish Leviathan, the piercing serpent, &c. And in Isai. unworthy of credit. The very name serpent comes from Ixv. 25. the same creature is meant as in Gen. ii. 1. for in serpo, to creep, and therefore, to such it could be neither the words, And dust shall be the serpent's meat, there is an cursc nor punishment to go on their bellies, i. e. to creep evident allusion to the text of Moses. In Amos ix. 3. the on, as they had done from their creation, and must do while crocodile is evidently intended. Though they be hid in their racé endures. 2. They have no organs for speech, the bottom of the sea, thence will I command the serpent or any kind of articulate sound; they can only hiss. It is enn ha-nachash, and he shall bite them. No person can true, that an ass, by miraculous influence, may speak; but suppose that any of the snake or serpent kind can be in- it is not to be supposed that there was aný miraculous tended here; and we see from the various acceptations of interference here. God did not qualify this creature with the word, and the different senses which it bears in various speech for the occasion, and it ij not intimated that there places in the Sacred Writings, that it appears to be a sort was any other agent, that did it: on the contrary, the text of general term, confined to no one sense. Hence it will intimates, that speech and reason were natural to the be necessary to examine the root accurately, to see if its nachash; and is it not in reference to this, the inspired ideal meaning will enable us to ascertain the animal in penman says? The nachash was more wise or intelligent tended in the text. We have already seen, that uns ihan all the beasts of the field that the Lord God had nachash signifies to view attentively, to acquire knowledge made! Nor can I find, that the serpentine genus are or experience by attentive observation ; so'nvnu nachashli

, remarkable for intelligence. It is true, the wisdom of the Gen. xxx. 27. I have learnt by experience and this serpent, has passed into a proverb, but I cannot see on seems to be its most general meaning in the Bible. The what it is founded, except in reference to the passage in original word is, by the Septuagin, translated ecos, a ser question, where the nachash, which we translate serpent, pent, not because this was its determinate meaning following the Septuagint, shows so much intelligence and in the Sacred Writings, but because it was the best that cunning : and it is very probable, that our Lord alludes to occurred to the translators; and they do not seem to have this very place, when he exhorts his disciples to be wise, given themselves much trouble to understand the meaning prudent or intelligent, as serpents, epeve peso nos neces; and of the original; for they have rendered the word as vari it is worthy of remark, that he uses the same term ously as our translators have done; or rather our translators employed by the Septuagint, in the text in question, 2015 av have followed them, as they give nearly the same significa- poraustatos, the serpent was more prudent or intelligent tions found in the Septuagint: hence we find that oqos is I than all the beasts, &c. All these things considered, we

7 And the eyes of them both were opened, the presence of the LORD God amongst the trees and they knew that they were naked; and they of the garden. sewed fig-leaves together, and made themselves 9 T Ånd the LORD God called unto Adam, and caprons.

said unto him, Where art thou ? 8 And they heard d the voice of the LORD God 10 And he said, I heard thy voice in the garwalking in the garden in the cool of the day: den, and I was afraid, because I was naked; and Adam and his wife hid themselves from and I hid myself.

a Ver 5 - Ch.2 -- Or, things to gird about Job 38. 1.-e Heb wind.

Job 31 21, 22 Pra. 139. 1-12.- Job 31 33. Prov. 5. 3. Jer. 23. 24. Albos 9.3.

Jonah 1.3, 10. Heb. 1. 13. Ch. 1.9. Josh. 7. 17-19. Rev. 20. 12, 13. — Ch.2.5 Exod. 3.6.

Psa 119. 120. Isaí. 33. 14. & 57. 11. 1 John 3.20.

are obliged to seek for some other word to designate the Besides, the New Testament writers seem to lose sight nachash in the text, than the word serpent ; which on of the animal or instrument used on the occasion, and every view of the subject appears to me inefficient and speak only of Satan himself, as the cause of the transinapplicable. We have seen above that khanas, akhnas, gression, and the instrument of all evil. If, however, any anu khanoos, signify a creature of the ape or satyrus kind person should choose to differ from the opinion stated We have seen that the meaning of the root is, he lay hid, above, he is at perfect liberty so to do; I make it no article seduced, slunk aray, &c. and that khanās means the devil, of faith, nor of Christian communion; I crave the same as the inspirer of evil and seducer from God and truth; liberty to judge for myself, that I give to others, to which see Golius and Wilmet. It therefore appears to me, that every man has an indisputable right, and I hope no man a creature of the ape or vuran outang kind, is here in- will call me a heretic, for departing in this respect from tended; and that Satan made use of this creature as the the common opinion, which appears to me to be so embarmost proper instrument for the accomplishment of his rassed as to be altogether unintelligible. See farther on murderous purposes against the life and soul of man. ver. 7-14, &c. Under this creature he lay hid, and by this creature he Verse 1. Yea, hath God said] This seems to be the seduced our first parents, and drew off or slunk away from continuation of a discourse, of which the preceding part is every eye but the eye of God. Such a creature answers to not given, and a proof that the creature in question was every part of the description in the text: it is evident from endued with the gift of reason and speech, for no surprise the structure of its limbs and their muscles, that it might is testified on the part of Eve. have been originally designed to walk erect, and that Verse 3. Neither shall ye touch it.] Did not the woman nothing less than a sovereign controlling power could add this to what God had before spoken? Some of the induce them to put down hands in every respect formed Jewish writers, who are only serious on comparative like those of man, and walk like those creatures whose trifles, state, that as soon as the woman had asserted this, claw-armed paws prove them to have been designed to the serpent pushed her against the tree, and said, “See, walk on all fours. The subtlety, cunning, endlessly varied thou hast touched it, and art still alive; thou mayest pranks and tricks of these creatures, show them, even now, therefore safely eat of the fruit, for surely thou shalt not to be wiser and more intelligent than any other creature, die.” man alone excepted. Being obliged now to walk on all Verse 4. Ye shall not surely die.] Here the father of fours, and gather their food from the ground, they are lies at once appears; and appears too, in flatly contradictliterally obliged to cat the dust ; and though exceedingly | ing the assertion of God. The tempter, through the cunning and careful in a variety of instances to separate nachash, insinuates the impossibility of her dying, as if that part which is wholesome and proper for food, from he had said; God has created thee immortal; thy death, that which is not go, in the article of cleanliness, they are therefore, is impossible; and God knows this, for'as thou lost to all sense of propriety: and though they have every livest by the tree of life, so shalt thou get' increase of mean in their power, of cleansing the aliments they gather wisdom by the tree of knowledge. off the ground, and from among the dust, yet they never, in Verse 5. Your eyes shall be opened] Your understanding their savage state, make use of any. Add to this, their shall be greatly enlightened and improved, and ye shai utter aversion to walk upright; it requires the utmost be as gods, Disnes ke elohim, like God, so the word discipline to bring them to it, and scarcely any thing offends should be translated; for what idea could our first parents or irritates them more, than to be obliged to do it. Long have of gods, before idolatry could have had any being, observation on these animals enables me to state these because sin had not yet entered into the world? The Syriac facts.

has the word in the singular number, and is the only one Should any person who may read this note, object against of all the versions, which has liit on the true meaning. my conclusions, because apparently derived from an Arabic As the original word is the same which is used to point word, which is not exactly similar to the Hebrew, thoughout the Supreme Being, ch. i. 1. so it has here the same to those who understand both languages the similarity will signification: and the object of the tempter appears to be striking: yet, as I do not insist on the identity of the have been this; to persuade our first parents that they terms, though important consequences have been derived should, by eating of this fruit, become wise and powerful from less likely etymologies, he is welcome to throw the as God, (for knowledge is power,) and be able to exist for whole of this out of the account. He may then take up the cver, independently of him. Hebrew root only, which signifies to gaze, to view allen Verse 6. The tree was good for food] The fruit aptively, pry into, inquire narrowly, &c. and consider the peared to be wholesome and nutritive.

And it was passage that appears to compare the nachash to the babbler, pleasant lo the eyes. The beauty of the fruit tended to whet Eccles. x. 11. and he will soon find, if he have any acquaint and increase appetite. And it icas to be desired to make ance with creatures of this genus, that for earnest, at one wise, which was an additional motive to please the tentire, watching, looking, &c. and for chattering or palate. From these three sources, all natural and moral. babbling, they have po fellows in the animal world. evil sprung; they are exactly what the apostle calls the Indeed, the ability and propensity to chatter is all they desire of the flesh! the tree was good for food; the desire have left of their original gist of speech, of which they of the eye, it was pleasant to the sight; and the pride of appear to have been deprived at the fall, as a part of their life, it was a tree to be desired to make one wise. God punishment.

bad undoubtedly created our first parents not only very I have spent the longer time on this subject, 1. Because wise and intelligent, but also with a vast capacity and it is exceedingly obscure; 2. Because no interpretation suitable propensity to increase in knowledge. Those who hitherto given of it has afforded me the smallest satisfac- think that Adam was created so perfect as to preclude the tion; 3. Because I think the above mode of accounting for possibility of his increase in knowledge, have taken a very every part of the whole transaction is consistent and satis- false view of the subject. We shall certainly be convinced factory; and in my opinion, removes all embarrassment, that our first parents were in a state of sufficient perfecand solves every difficulty. It can be no solid objection to tion, when we consider, 1. That they were endowed with the above mode of solution, that Satan in differeni parts of a vast capacity to obtain knowledge. 2. That all the the New Testament is called the serpent, the serpent that means of information were within their reach. 3. That deceived Ere by his subtlety, the old serpent, &c. for we there was no hinderance to the most direct conception of have already seen that the New Testament writers have occurring truth. 4. That all the objects of knowledge, borrowed the word from the Septuagint, and that the whether natural or moral, were ever at hand. 5. That Septuagint themselves use it in a vast rariety and latitude they had the strongest propensity to know, and, 6. The of meaning; and surely the ouran outang is as likely to greatest pleasure in knowing. To have God and nature be the animal in question,as wna nachash, and a sus ophis, are continually open to the view of the soul; and to have a likely to mean at once a snake, a crocodile, a hippopotamus, soul capable of viewing both, and fathoming endlessly their fornication, a chain, a pair of sellers, a piece of brass, a unbounded glories and excellencies, without hinderance or piece of steel, and a conjurer'; for we have seen above, difficulty, what a state of perfection! what a consummation that all these are acceptations of the original word of blisa! This was undcubiedly the state and condition VOL. I.-6


11 And he said, Who told thee that thou wast 13 And the LORD God said unto the woman, naked ? Hast thou eaten of the tree, whereof I| What is this that thou hast done? And the commanded thee that thou shouldst not eat ? woman said, “The serpent beguiled me, and I

12 And the man said, - The woman whom did eat. thou gavest to be with me, she gave me of the 14 | And the LORD God said unto the serpent, tree, and I did eat.

Because thou hast done this, thoų art cursed

a Ch. 2. 18, 2). Job 31. 33. Prov. 23. 13. Luke 10. 23. James 1. 13-15.

b Ver. 4. 2 Cor. 11. 3. 1 Tim. 2 14.- Exod. 21. 9, 32.

of our first parents—even the present ruins of the state and what was praiseworthy. It was dishonourable and are incontestable evidences of its primitive excellence. shameful to break the commandment of God; but it was We see at once how transgression came : it was natural neither to go naked, when clothing was not necessary. for them to desire to be increasingly wise. God had im- | 3. They seem in a moment not only to have lost sound planted this desire in their minds ; but he showed them judgment, but also reflection : a short time before, Adam that this desire should be gratified in a certain way: that was so wise that he could name all the creatures brought prudence and judgment should always regulate it: that before him, according to their respective natures and they should carefully examine what God opened to their qualities : now he does not know that first principle conview; and should not pry into what he chose to conceal. cerning the Divine Nature, that it knows all things; and He alone, who knows all things, knows how much that it is omnipresent; therefore he endeavours to hide knowledge the soul needs to its perfection and increasing himself among the trees, from the eye of the all-sccing happiness; in what subjects this may be legitimately God! How astonishing is this! When the creatures were sought, and where the mind may make excursions and brought to him, he could name them, because he could discoveries to its prejudice and ruin. There are doubtless discern their respective natures and properties : when Eve many subjects which angels are capable of knowing, and was brought to him he could immediately tell what she which God chooses to conceal even from them, because was, who she was, and for what end made, though he that knowledge would tend neither to their perfection nor was in a deep sleep when God formed her: and this seems happiness. Of every attainment and object of pursuit, it to be particularly noted, merely to show the depth of his may be said, in the words of an ancient poel, who conceived wisdom and the perfection of his discernment. "But alas ! correctly on the subject, and expressed his thoughts with how are the mighty fallen! Compare his present with his perspicuity and energy:

past state; his state before the transgression with his state

after it; and say, is this the same creature? The creature Est modus in rebus : sunt certi denique Aner,

of whom God said, as he said of all his works, He is very Quos ultra citraque nequit consistere rectum-Hor. Sat 1.

good—just what he should be, a living image of the "There is a rule for all things; there are, in fine, fixed and state limits, on either tside of which righteousness cannot be found."

Living God; but now lower than the beasts of the field:

4. This account could never have been credited, had not Such limits God certainly assigned from the beginning the indisputable proofs and evidences of it been continued Thou shalt come up to this; thou shalt not pass it. And by uninterrupted succession to the present time. AN as he assigned the limits, so he assigned the means. It is the descendants of this first guilty pair resemble their lawful for thee to acquire knowledge in this way; it is degenerate ancestors, and copy their conduct. The original unlawful to seek it in that. And had he not a right to do mode of transgression is still continued, and the original 80? And would his creation have been perfect without it? sin in consequence. Here are the proofs. 1. Every human

Verge 7. The eyes of them both were opened] They now being is endeavouring to obtain knowledge by unlawful had a sufficient discovery of their sin and folly in disobeying means, even while the lawful means and every available the command of God; they could discern between good help are at hand. 2. They are endeavouring to be indeand evil: and what was the consequence ? Confusion and pendent, and to live without God in the world: bence shame were engendered, because innocence was lost and prayer, the language of dependence on God's providence guilt contracted.

and grace, is neglected, I might say detested, by the great Let us review the whole of this melancholy business, majority of men. Had I no other proof than this that the fall, and its effects.

man is a fallen creature, my soul would bow to this 1. From the New Testament we learn, that Satan evidence. 3. Being destitute of the true knowledge of associated himself with the creature which we term the God, they seek privacy for their crimes, not considering serpent, and the original, the nachash, in order to seduce that the eye of God is upon them, and being only solicitous and ruin mankind, 2 Cor. xi. 3. Rev. xii. 9. xx. 2. 2. to hide them from the eye of man. These are all proofs That this creature was the most suitable to his purpose, as in point; but we shall soon meet with additional ones. being the most subtle, the most intelligent of all the beasts See ver. 12. of the field, endued with the gift of speech and reason, Verse 8. The voice of the Lord] The voice is properly and consequently, one in which he could best conceal used here, for as God is an infinité spirit, and cannot be himself. 3. As he knew that while they depended on God, confined to any form, so he can have no personal appearthey could not be ruined, he therefore endeavoured to ance. It is very likely that God used to converse with seduce them from this dependence. 4. He does this by them in the garden, and that the usual time was the decline working on that propensity of the mind to desire an of the day, Omnna be ruach haiyom, in the evening increase of knowledge, with which God, for the most breeze; and probably this was the time that our first gracious purposes, had endued it. 5. In order to succeed, parents employed in the more solemo acts of their religious he insinuates, that God, through motives of envy, had worship, at which God was ever present. The time for given the prohibition-God doth know, that in the day ye this solemn worship is again come, and God is in his eat of it, ye shall be like himself, &c. 6. As their present place; but Adam and Eve have sinned, and therefore, state of blessedness must be inexpressibly dear to them, he instead of being found in the place of worship, are hidden endeavours to persuade them that they could not fall from among the trees! Reader, how often has this been thy case ? this state: ye shall not surely die; ye shall not only retain Verse 10. I was afraid, because I was naked) See the your present blessedness, but it shall be greatly increased ; immediate consequences of sin. 1. SHAME, because of a temptation by which he has ever since fatally succeeded the ingratitude marked in the rebellion; and because, that in the ruin of multitudes of souls, whom he persuaded, in aiming to be like God, they were now sunk into a that being once right they could never finally go wrong. state of the greatest wretchedness. 2. FEAR, because they 7. As he kept the unlawfulness of the means proposed out saw they had been deceived by Satan, and were exposed of sight, persuaded them that they could not fall from their to that death and punishment from which he had promised steadfastness, assured them that they should resemble God them an exemption. How worthy is it of remark, that himself, and consequently be self-sufficient, and totally this cause continues to produce the very same effects! independent of him: they listened, and fixing their eye shame and fear were the first fruits of sin, and fruits only on the promised good, neglecting the positive com- which it has invariably produced from the first transgresmand, and determining to become wise and independent sion to the present time. at all events, they took of the fruit and did cat.

Verse 12. And the man said, &c.] We have here some Let us now examine the effects.

farther proofs of the fallen state of man, and that the con1. Their eyes were opened, and they saw they were sequences of that state extend to his remotest posterity. naked. They saw what they never saw before, that they 1. On the question, Hast thou eaten of the tree? Adam were stripped of their excellence; that they had lost their is obliged to acknowledge his transgression; but he does innocence; and that they had fallen into a state of indigence this in such a way, as to shift off the blame from himself, and danger. 2. Though their eyes were opened to see and lay it upon God and upon the woman! This woman their nakedness, yet their mind was clouded, and their whom Thou didst give to be with me vypy immadi, to be judgment confused. They seem to have lost all just my companion, (for so the word is repeatedly used) she notions of honour and dishonour; of what was shameful gave me and I did eat. I have no farther blame in this

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