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of the calcareous genus, comprise all the lities of hardness and compactness, and various inarbles and limestones. These in its properties of durability, as may be are generally inore free from almixture observed in many of the public edifices with other earths, than stones of the si- in London, which are built of this stone. licious, or argiliaceous kind; and their In the construction of St. Paul's, some relative degrees of excellence for pur- attention appears to have been paid to poses of architecture are more easily the selection of the stones for the exascertained by their external character. terior; which are more pertect than those Besides pure lime, they contain from 45 in many buildings of a recent date; but to 50 per cent. of carbonic acid and they are evidently perisbing in the upper water, Lime when pure is soluble in five part of this magnificent structure, hundred times its weight of water; and, Portland-stone contains carbonate of even when united with carbonic acid, it lime, uniled with a sinall portion of siles is in a less certain degree soluble in river and clay. Its solution in diluted muwalers, owing to the minute portion of riatic acid gives a dark-blue precipitate, ditierent acids, which is generally con
with the Prussian alkali, indicating the tained in them. On this account they presence of oxyd of iron, to which icowes are ill suited to form the foundations and its brownish rint; but the quantity of iron piers of bridges, or to be employed in the is too small to affect its qualily for the use construction of works exposed to the of the architect. I burns to a while action of the water. The durability of lime, losing more than eight parts in marbles and lime-stones might, I be. twenty of its weight, during calcination, lieve, with some certainty he determined According to Professor Jaineso, roe. by their relative degrees of hardness, and stone is never used for architecture, on by observing the time required to dissolve account of its specdy disintegration; an equal cube of each kind of stune in but his observations appear to have been marine acid, of the same strength, diluted confined to the varieties of this stone in with five times the quantity of water at Germany, and inapplicable to those in the same temperature. The sediment our own island. Two stones called by remaining will also determine the quan- the same naine, from diffcrent situations, tity of silex or clay with which the lime are seldom exactly similar in all their is combined. Magnesia enters into the properties; which indeed rarely happens composition of some lime-stones in the with stones from different layers of the proportion of two-filths, and renders the same bed, And where strala of calcasoftest stones of this kind less soluble in
are separated by other acids than the hardest marbles, on which kinds of stone, the upper anu lower account it will be necessary to ascertain strata, almost invariably differ in hardby.cheinical experiments, whether the ness and specific gravity; on which slowness with which lime-stone is soluble, account it would be very desirable, that proceeds from the presence of magnesia; a mineralogical examination of stones but I believe it will also be found that a siouki be made in their native quarries, mixture of this earth, where it occurs in and that those which are intended for lime-stone, not only renders it less soluble the external part of buildings, should be in acids, but communicates to it a degree judiciously selected from the others. of durability which is not to be found in Of all stones of the calcareous genus, other lime-stones of the same degree of there cannot be a doubt that compact hardness. The high comparative degree marbles, which can receive the highest of preservation observable in the exterior degree of polish, would be the most of York Minster, and other public edifices beautiful and durable for the exterior of which are built of this stone, may serve buildings; but their scarcity in this coun. to prove its excellence for purposes of try prevents their application to this architecture.
purpose. Alabaster, which is composed Poruland Stone is a peculiar kind of ot lime, united with sulphuric acid, froin lime-stone, which some mineralogists its beauty and the facility with which it call roe-stone. When examined with a can be worked, is used for ornamental magnifying lens, it will be found to con- architecture and ulpture; but the sotain a number of small round globules, Jubility of this stone renders it ill-suited resembling in appearance the roes of to resist the agency of water. fishes, imbedded in a calcareous basis, Dr. Walson relates, that he suspended from whence it derives its name. It also two ounces of this stone in a paid of contains fragments of shells, and minute water for forty-eight hours, changing the calcarcous crystals. Il varies in its qua, water several wines, and found that it
had lost one-thirtieth part of its weight. the process of decomposition goes on till
the surface of stones, and, by insinuating The decomposing and disintegrating the minute fibres of their roots, tend to agency of water, air, and change of tem- accelerate their decay and prepare a veperature, on stones employed in archi- getable mould for plants of a larger tecture, is the same by which Nature is growth. The decomposition of many constantly operating to convert solid argillaceous stones, which are most nerocks into soil. The fiat of Omnipotence cessary for the support of vegetable life, “ commands the hardest stones to be is most speedily effected by natural made bread," or to becoine the means of capses; hence, more caution and skill are supporting vegetable and animal life, but necessary in their selection for architecthe processes by which this effect is pro- ture. No' stones of this genus should duced, are slow and gradual. The earthserer be employed, which have not had of which all stones are composed, are the test of time, without a careful mine. either to a certain degree soluble in ralogical and chemical examination of water, or are capable of being mecha. their nature and contents. This examinically suspended in it when minutely nation would always precede the applica. divided. A drop of water, constantly ruilo tion of stones for public works or edifices, ning across the hardest stone, soon inarks intended to endure for ages, were engi: its path, by cutting a furrow in the sur. neers and architects as attentive to their face; hence, the well known adage “Non future fanie, and the interests of pos vised sæpe cadendo.". This effect, how. teriry, as to present emolunient. Besides ever, is slow, compared with that of other the chemical examination of stones, it is causes, which are constantly operating necessary to try the effect of various de Water insinuates itself into the pores and grees of beat, and of builing water, upon sninute crevices of stones, and being ex- them, applied for a considerable time, panded by increase of temperature, se- and to note carefully their encrease or parates the parts from each other, but loss of weight and other changes. In this it produces this effect in a inuch greater manner we may sometimes anticipate degree when expanded by freezing. Frost with certainty, in a few days, what will is the niost potent agent by which Nature be the effecis of less powerful, but long. operates en unasse,' frequently splitting continued natural operations in a series the hardest rocks, and levelling iminense of years. For purposes of durabic archiportions of nmountains in a single night. lecture, no stones but those of the silic In building-stones which have a ten. cious genus should be employed in the dency to a slaty structure, the destroying exterior parts of buildings. In our moist cffects of frost are inost likely to be soon and variable climate, all kinds of stone perceprible, from the facility with whiich but the silicious will perish sooner than water ca. insinuate itself betw'cen the in countries where the rains are less frea Jamina. lo scones of the argiliaceous quent. The present state of our churches genue, the joint effects of water and air and public buildings proves that the se. frequently produce a speedy decompo. lection of building-stones has been left sitions, even of those of the hardest kind.
to ignorance or chance to determine, If a stone hare a strong earthy smell, The antients, in their public works, ap. when breathed upon, its durability inay pear to have had a just regard to perpebe suspectedl. Tron frequently enters in ruate the glory of the era in which they Jarge proportions into aryillaceous stones, lived, and to leave to posterity durable in a state not perfectly oxydated, and and useful monuments of their skill, aiterwards combines with a further por. which should secure their gratitude and tion of oxygen, forming a brown incrus. veneration. The public architeciure in tation to a certain depth, which becoines this country appears constructed on calsufi and falls off, or is washed away, and culations of false economy and present
convenience, with little regard to the be- the Syriac version, that the former bad Defit of future generations.
been altered froin the latter; but it apGranite and porphyry, on account of pears highly improbable, that the Syriac their extreme hardness, are difficult to version should have been used in the corwork; but they would well repay the ex. rection of a nanuscript written in a counpence for bridges and public buildings. try where the Syriac language was wholly It was of these stones that the Egyptians, unknown. The natural inference, cliereand other nations of antiquity, con- fore, is, that the readings of the Codex structed palaces and temples, which have Bezæ are for the inost part genuine, and endured the attack of cine and the deso. of course preferable to those of modern lating hand of superstitious barbarians. manuscripts. This manuscript was The origin of some of these structures is found by Beza, at Lyons, in the monas prior to the ollest records of man, and tery of St. Irenæus, in the year 1562, at they will exist when no vestige of the the commencement of the civil war in architecture of modern times shall re. France. Beza wrote, in the beginning main.
ROBERT BAKEWELL. of this manuscript, the following account Warwick Court, Gruy's Inn.
with his own hand: “ Est hoc exemplar
venerandæ vetustatis ex Græcia, ut For the Monthly Magasine. apparet ex barbaris quibusdam Græcis On the CODEX BEZ E, the CLERMONT MA- ' ad marginem notatis, olin exportatum,
NUSCRIPr, and the ORIGINALS of the et in S. Irenæi monasterio Lugdunensi,
CORRESPONDENT having, in a ibi in pulvere diu jacuisset, repertum,
former Number, requested some oriente ibi civili bello anno domini 1562." information respecting the Codex Bezæ, That the manuscript came originally trom the Clermont Manuscript, and the ori- Greece is only conjecture; but that it was ginals of the Scriptures of the New Testa- discovered in the monastery of St. ment; I beg leave to offer the following Irenæus in Lyons, in the year 1562, is observations, which probably comprehend the direct and positive evidence of a snail, the several subjects of his inquiries. whose veracity is unimpeachable. The
The Codex Bezæ is a Greek and Latin two following circumstances render it manuscript of the four Gospels, and of the highly probable, that the Codex Beza Acts of the Apostles. It is, however, de. was written in the west of Europe: 1. fective in some parts of the Gospels, and The Latin translation was added with no also wants some passages of the Acts. other design than to render the original The Gospels are arranged in the usual intelligible to those who were not skilled order of the Latin manuscripts: Mate in the Greek language, and it was not thew, John, Luke, Mark. The uncial added merely in consequence of the high letters, with the want of accents, of authority of the church, by which it was marks of aspiration, and of intervals be used. In that case the transcriber would tween the words, prove the high antiquity have adopted some established text, from of this manuscript, which, perhaps, is the which he would never bave deviated; but most ancient that is now extant. Some the Latin text of the Codex Bezæ is svriters have thought that the Greek text found in no Latin inanuscript,' either has been altered froin the Latin version, ancient or modern. This translation but this opinion seems to rest on no solid would have been wholly superfluous if the foundation. Though a very great num- manuscript had been writien for the use ber of readings, peculiar to the Codex of a Greek, to whom a Latin translation Bezæ, are found in the Volgate, yet this was undecessary: 2. The arrangement is no proof that those readings were actu- of the Gospels in the Codex Bezæ was ally borrowed from a Latin version, and never admitted by the Greek church, or translated into Greek. It is, at least, in any covutry subject to its authority, equally possible that they might have but was the common arrangement of the originated from the Greek, as from the ancient Latin manuscripts. Froun these Latin; and that this was really the case circumstances it seems reasonable to seerns highly probable, if it be consi. conclude, that the Codex Bezæ was write dered, that, wien Jerom revised the Latin ten in the west of Europe, in a country version, by order of Pope Damasus, he in which Latin was better understood corrected it from Greek manuscripts. than Greek, and which was subject to Soole hare thought, from the coincidence discoverable in a very great number of Michaelis's latroduction to the New readings between the Codex Bezæ and Testament. 1
the authority of the church of Rome. It ters, yet it has accents and marks of aspi. was probably wiitten either at Constan- ralion, which, Monttaucon says, appear tinople, or in some city of the Greek to have been added by another hand, at empire in Europe, for the use of sume no great distance of time after the ma. person or community belonging to the nuscripe itselt had been written. This Latin church, between the time of Con. manuscript was probably written in the stantine and the final separation of the west of Europe, not only because it has Greek and Larin churches. That the Co. a Latin translation, but because the dex Bezæ was written before the eighth Epistle to the Hebrews is found at the century is certain, as appears from the end; and in the catalogue of the hooks shape of the letters, the want of intervals of the New Testament, which is placed between the words, and of accents, and afier the Epistle to Philemon, the Epistle marks of aspiration: for in the eighth cen
to the Hebrews is not mentioned. This tury the Greek uncial characters degene, Epistle is also written even by a later rated from the square and round form, band, and was therefore wholly excluded which is seen in the Codex Bezæ, to an obó from the canon by the original writer of long shape; marks of aspiration and accent the manuscript. Now, as the Epistle to were added, and the elegance of writing the Hebrews was, during a considerable considerably decreased. From coinpa- time, rejected by the church of Rome, ring the letiers of the Codex Buza wich but not by the Greek church, it follows the Greek inscriptions given by Mont- that the Clermont manuscript must have faucon, it appears not only that it must been originally written in
a country be more ancient than the eighih century, under the dominion of the former.* but that it may be as ancient as the sixth, The original manuscripts of the New the fifth, or even the fourth, century. Testament, which were written either by
The probability however is, that, froin the Apostles themselves, or by amathe Euthalian sections being observed in nuonses under their inimediate inspecthe Codex Bezæ, it was not written be- tion, are all lost. Their preservation, fore the fifth century.*
This manuscript during the space of seventeen centuries, was sent by Beza to the University of could not be expected without the interCambridge, and published by that learned position of a miracle. “But what beliebody in 1793, in letters of the same form fits," says Michaelis, “should we derive and magnitude as the original band- from the possession of these manuscripts, writing.
or what inconvenience do we suffer from The Clermont manuscript is a Greek. their loss! No critic in classical litera. Latin manuscript of the Epistles of Sr. ture enquires after the original of a proPaul, the antiquity of which was esti- fane author, or disputes the authenticity mated by Sabbatier at 1200 years. Beza, of Cicero's Offices, because we have noc who had this manuscript in his pos. the copy which Cicero wrote with his session, gave it the name of Claromon- own hand. An antiquarian, or collector tanus, from Clermont, in Bauvaisis, of ancient records, will scarcely maintain where it is said to have been preserved. that the probability of these books being From the hands of Beza it came into the genuine, is interior to the probability Putean library,' and was bequeathed by that a record in his possession of the the proprietor, Jacques du Puy, with all twelfth century, is av authentic docuhis other. manuscripts, to the royal lic ment of that period; for though his record ibrary in Paris, where it is at present kept is only six hundred years old, and the Mill contended that the Clermont manu- works of Cicero are thrice as ancient, script was the second part, or a conti- we are more exposed to imposition in the nuation, of the Codex Bezæ; but were former costance, as the forgery of antistein has sufficiently confused this opi- quities is often practised by those whose pion, and shewn that the former is by no
business and profit are to lead the curious means connected with the latter, as
But, supposing that the orie appears from the difference of their form, ginal inanuscripts of Cicero, Cæsar, Paul, their orthography, and the nature of the and Peter, were now extant, it would be vellum on which they are written. It impossible tu decide whether they were is supposed by Monttaucon, that the spurious, or whether they were actually Clermont manuscript was written in the written by the hands of these authors." seventh century. Though in uncial let. In fact there is no reason to doubt that
the Gospels, Acts, and Epistles, of the Marsh on Michaelis, † Michaelis,
Apostles, were written by those whose abroad through all nations. We are well names they bear. Nor is there any cause assured that the four gospels were colo to doubt of the authors of all the rest. Jected during thie life of St. John, and This may be proved by the testimony of that the three first received the approthose who wrote soon after them, and bation of this divine Apostle. And why who have frequently quoted their wrio may we not suppose that the other books tings, by the festimony of the Christian of the New Testament were gathered 10churches in all parts of the earth, which gether at the same time? What renders at all times unanimously allowed those this highly probable is, that the most writings to be genuine and authentic, and urgent necessity required its being done. by an inspection of the books themselves, For; not long after Christ's ascension which bear no marks of corruption or de- into heaven, several histories of his life ceit. That the books of the New Testa. and doctrines, full of pious frauds and ment were in general use among Chris- fabulous wonders, were composed by per. tians, at a very early period, is a uni- sons, whose intentions, perhaps, were not versal opinion." The book, called the bad, but whose writings discovered the New Testament,” observes the bishop of greatest superstition und ignorance. Landaff, “consists of twenty-seven dif- Nor was this all, productions appeared, ferent parts; concerning seven of these, which were imposed on the world by viz. the Epistle to the Hebrews, that of fraudulent men as the writings of the James, the second of Peter, the second holy Apostles. These apocryphal and of John, the third of John, that of Jude, spurious writings must have produced a and the Revelation, there were at first sad confusion, and rendered born the some doubts; and the question whether bistory and the doctrine of Christ uncer. they should be received into the canon, tain, bad not the rulers of the church might be decided, as all questions con- used all possible care and diligence in cerning opinions must be, by vote. With separating the books that were truly respect to the other twenty parts, those apostolical and divine, from all that spus who are most acquainted with ecclesias. rious trash, and conveying them down to tical history will tell you, as Du Pin does posterity in one volume." after Eusebius, that they were owned as It is therefore evident, that the aucanonical, at all times, and by all Chris, thenticity of the books of the New Tes. tians. Whether the council of Laodicea tament does not depend on the Codex was held before or after that of Nice, is Bezæ, the Clermoire manuscript, or any not a settled point; but it is a great mis- other single copy whatever. On the take to suppose that the greatest part of contrary, it is highly probable that all our the books of the New Testament were manuscripts of the New Testament pronot in general use amongst Chistians, ceered from the collection of those books long before the council of Laodicea was made after the death of all, or the held." His lordship then quotes the fol- greatest part of the Apostles. lowing passage from Mosheim's Eccle. Rudenstonedale,
J. ROBINSON. siastical History: “ The opinions, or April 11, 1811. rather the conjectures of the learned, concerning the time when the books of the To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. • New Testament were collected into one
SIR, Volume, as also about the authors of that Aries instituted for the benefit of the collection, are extremely different. This important question is attended with great people, I never heard of one for the and almost insuperable difficulties to us protection of indigence and misfortune in these latter times. It is, however, against the tricks, chicanery, and oppres. sufficient for us to know, that, before the sion of the law and of legal petiifoggers. middle of the second century, the greatest
The mischiess perpetrated by swinde part of the books of the New Testament lers, and sharpers, against whom there were read in every Christian society exist two or three active associations in throughout the world, and received as à London, and one in almost every coundivine rule of faith and manners. Hence ty, are to those inflicted by the vipers it appears, that these sacred writings and sharks of the legal profession, in were carefully separated from several the proportion of not more than one human compositions on the same sub. to ten thousand! Those take baubles ; ject, either by some of the Apostles but the latter are wholesale dealers, and Themselves, who lived so long, or by their carry of house, land, skin, carcase, and disciples and successors, who were spread all ! MONTHLY Mag, No. 213,