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yellowness, weight, ductility, stability, deliquesrence, solution, and the like, and their degrees and modes, will consider and contrive how to unite them in any body, so as to transform it into gold. And this method of operating belongs to primary action. For it is the same thing to produce one or many simple natures, except that man is more confined and restricted in his operations, if many be required, on account of the difficulty of uniting many natures together. It must, however, be observed, that this method of operating (which considers natures as simple, though in a concrete body) sets out from what is constant, eternal, and universal in nature, and opens such broad paths to human power, as the thoughts of man can in the present state of things scarcely comprehend or figure to itself. The second kind of axiom (which depends on the discovery of the latent process) does not proceed by simple natures, but by concrete bodies, as they are found in nature, and in its usual course. For instance; suppose the inquiry to be, from what beginnings, in what manner, and by what process gold or any metal or stone is generated from the original menstruum, or its elements, up to the perfect mineral: or, in like manner, by what process plants are generated, from the first concretion of juices in the earth, or from seeds, up to the perfect plant, with the whole successive motion, and varied and uninterrupted efforts of nature; and the same inquiry be made as to a regularly deduced system of the generation of animals from coition to birth, and so on of other bodies.

cbserved in nature, to other subjects immediately connected with it, or not very remote from such immediate connexion. But the higher and radical operations upon nature, depend entirely on the primary axioms. Besides, even where man has not the means of acting, but only of acquiring knowledge, as in astronomy, (for man cannot act upon, change, or transform the heavenly bodies,) the investigation of facts or truth, as well as the knowledge of causes and coincidences, must be referred to those primary and universal axioms that regard simple natures; such as the nature of spontaneous rotation, attraction, or the magnetic force, and many others which are more common than the heavenly bodies themselves. For, let no one hope to determine the question, whether the earth or heaven revolve in the diurnal motion, unless he have first comprehended the nature of spontaneous rotation.

6. But the latent process, of which we speak, is far from being obvious to men's minds, beset as they now are. For, we mean not the measures, symptoms, or degrees of any process which can be exhibited in the bodies themselves, but simply a continued process, which, for the most part, escapes the observation of the senses.

For instance; in all generations and transformations of bodies, we must inquire, what is in the act of being lost and escaping, what remains, what is being added, what is being diluted, what is being contracted, what is being united, what is being separated, what is continuous, what is broken off, what is urging forward, what impedes, what predominates, what is subservient, and many other circumstances.

Nor is this species of inquiry confined to the mere generation of bodies, but it is applicable to other changes and labours of nature. For instance; where an inquiry is made into the whole Nor are these inquiries again to be made in the series, and continued operation of the nutritive mere generation and transformation of bodies process, from the first reception of the food, to its only, but in all other alterations and fluctuations, complete assimilation to the recipient: or into the we must in like manner inquire; what precedes, voluntary motion of animals, from the first im- what succeeds, what is quick, what is slow, pression of the imagination, and the continuous what produces and what governs motion, and the effects of the spirits, up to the bending and mo- like. All which matters are unknown and unattion of the joints; or into the free motion of the tempted by the sciences, in their present heavy tongue and lips, and other accessories which give and inactive state. For, since every natural act is utterance to articulate sounds. For all these in-brought about by the smallest efforts, or at least vestigations relate to concrete or associated na-such as are too small to strike our senses, let no tures, artificially brought together, and take into consideration certain particular and special habits of nature, and not those fundamental and general laws which constitute forms. It must, however, be plainly owned, that this method appears more prompt and easy, and of greater promise than the primary one.

In like manner the operative branch, which answers to this contemplative branch, extends and advances its operation from that which is usually

one hope that he will be able to direct or change nature, unless he have properly comprehended and observed these efforts.

7. In like manner, the investigation and diseovery of the latent confirmation in bodies is no less new, than the discovery of the latent process and form. For, we as yet are doubtless only admitted to the antechamber of nature, and do not prepare an entrance into her presence-room. But nobody can endue a given body with a new nature, or transform it successfully and appropriately into a new body, without possessing a complete knowwires, or, indeed, wires of any metal may be transformed ledge of the body so to be changed or transformed. For he will run into vain, or, at least, into difficult

By the recent discoveries in electric magnetism, copper

into magnets; the magnetic law or form having been to that extent discovered.

and perverse methods, ill adapted to the nature of the body upon which he operates. A clear path, therefore, towards this object, also must be thrown open, and well supported.

Labour is well and usefully bestowed upon the anatomy of organized bodies, such as those of men and animals, which appears to be a subtile matter, and a useful examination of nature. This species of anatomy, however, is that of first sight, open to the senses, and takes place only in organized bodies. It is obvious, and of ready access, when compared with the real anatomy of latent conformation in bodies which are considered similar, particularly in specific objects and their parts as those of iron, stone, and the similar parts of plants and animals, as the root, the leaf, the flower, the flesh, the blood, and bones, &c. Yet human industry has not completely neglected this species of anatomy: for we have an instance of it in the separation of similar bodies by distillation, and other solutions, which shows the dissimilarity of the compound, by the union of the homogeneous parts. These methods are useful, and of importance to our inquiry, although attended generally with fallacy for many natures are assigned and attributed to the separate bodies, as if they had previously existed in the compound, which, in reality, are recently bestowed and superinduced by fire and heat, and the other modes of separation. Besides, it is, after all, but a small part of the labour of discovering the real conformation in the compound, which is so subtile and nice, that it is rather confused and lost by the operation of the fire, than discovered and brought to light.

A separation and solution of bodies, therefore, is to be effected, not by fire indeed, but rather by reasoning and true induction, with the assistance of experiment, and by a comparison with other bodies, and a reduction to those simple natures and their forms, which meet and are combined in the compound; and we must assuredly pass from Vulcan to Minerva, if we wish to bring to light the real texture and conformation of bodies, upon which every occult and (as it is sometimes called) specific property and virtue of things depends, and whence, also, every rule of powerful change and transformation is deduced.

For instance, we must examine what spirit is in every body, what tangible essence; whether that spirit is copious and exuberant, or meagre and scarce, fine or coarse, aeriform or igniform, active or sluggish, weak or robust, progressive or retrograde, abrupt or continuous, agreeing with external and surrounding objects, or differing from them, &c. In like manner must we treat tangible essence, (which admits of as many distinctions as the spirit,) and its hairs, fibres, and varied texture. Again, the situation of the spirit in the corporeal mass, its pores, passages, veins, and cells, and the rudiments or first essays of the

organic body are subject to the same examination. In these, however, as in our former inquiries, and therefore in the whole investigation of latent conformation, the only genuine and clear light which completely dispels all darkness and subtile difficulties, is admitted by means of the primary axioms.

8. This method will not bring us to atoms,* which takes for granted the vacuum, and the immutability of matter, (neither of which hypotheses is correct;) but to the real particles, such as we discover them to be. Nor is there any ground for alarm at this refinement, as if it were inexplicable, for, on the contrary, the more inquiry is directed to simple natures, the more will every thing be placed in a plain and perspicuous light; since we transfer our attention from the compli cated to the simple, from the incommensurable to the commensurable, from surds to rational quantities, from the indefinite and vague to the definite and certain: as when we arrive at the elements of letters, and the simple tones of concords. The investigation of nature is best conducted when mathematics are applied to physics. Again, let none be alarmed at vast numbers and fractions; for, in calculation, it is as easy to set down or to reflect upon a thousand as a unit, or the thou sandth part of an integer as an integer itself.

9. From the two kinds of axioms above specified arise the two divisions of philosophy and the sciences, and we will use the commonly adopted terms, which approach the nearest to our meaning, in our own sense. Let the investigation of forms, which (in reasoning at least, and after their own laws) are eternal and immutable, constitute metaphysics, and let the investigation of the efficient cause of matter, latent process, and latent conformation (which all relate merely to the ordinary course of nature, and not to her fundamental and eternal laws) constitute physics. Parallel to these let there be two practical divisions; to physics that of mechanics, and to metaphysics that of magic, in the purest sense of the term, as applied to its ample means and its command over nature.

10. The object of our philosophy being thus laid down, we proceed to precepts, in the most clear and regular order. The signs for the interpretation of nature comprehend two divisions: the first regards the eliciting or creating of axioms from experiment, the second the deducing or deriving of new experiments from axioms. The first admits of three subdivisions into ministrations. 1. To the senses. 2. To the memory.

The theory of the Epicureans and others. The atoms are supposed to be indivisible, unalterable particles, endued with all the properties of the given body, and forming that body by takes a vacuum for granted, or introduces a tertium quid into their union. They must be separated of course, which either the composition of the body.

+ Compare the three following aphorisms with the three last chapters of the third book of the De Augmentis Scientia


3. To the mind or reason. For we must first pre pare as a foundation for the whole a complete and accurate natural and experimental history. We must not imagine or invent, but discover the acts and properties of nature.

But natural and experimental history is so varied and diffuse, that it confounds and distracts the understanding unless it be fixed and exhibited in due order. We must, therefore, form tables and co-ordinations of instances, upon such a plan, and in such order, that the understanding may be enabled to act upon them.

Even when this is done, the understanding, left to itself and its own operation, is incompetent and unfit to construct its axioms without direction and support. Our third ministration, therefore, must be true and legitimate induction, the very key of interpretation. We must begin, however, at the end, and go back again to the others.

11. The investigation of Forms proceeds thus: A nature being given, we must first present to the understanding all the known instances which agree in the same nature, although the subject-matter be considerably diversified. And this collection must be made as a mere history, and without any premature reflection, or too great degree of refinement. For instance: take the investigation of the form of heat.

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| cloth, &c., so that rudders, and axles of wheels, sometimes catch fire, and the West Indians obtain fire by attrition.

17. Green and moist vegetable matter confined and rubbed together; as roses, peas in baskets; so hay, if it be damp when stacked, often catches fire.

18. Quicklime sprinkled with water.

19. Iron, when first dissolved by acids in a glass, and without any application to fire; the same of tin, but not so intensely.

20. Animals, particularly internally; although the heat is not perceivable by the touch in insects, on account of their small size.

21. Horse dung, and the like excrement from other animals, when fresh.

22. Strong oil of sulphur and of vitriol exhibit the operation of heat in burning linen.

23. As does the oil of marjoram, and like substances, in burning the bony substance of the teeth.

24. Strong and well rectified spirits of wine exhibit the same effects; so that white of eggs when thrown into it, grows hard and white, almost in the same manner as when boiled, and bread becomes burnt and brown as if toasted.

25. Aromatic substances and warm plants, as the dracunculus [arum,] old nasturtium, &c.; which, though they be not warm to the touch, (whether whole or pulverized,) yet are discovered by the tongue and palate to be warm and almost burning when slightly masticated.

26. Strong vinegar and all acids, or any part of the body not clothed with the epidermis, as the eye, tongue, or any wounded part, or where the skin is removed, excite a pain differing but little from that produced by heat.

27. Even a severe and intense cold produces a sensation of burning.*

"Nam Boreæ penetrabile frigus adurit."

28. Other instances.

We are wont to call this a table of existence and presence.

12. We must next present to the understanding instances which do not admit of the given nature; for form (as we have observed) ought no less to be absent where the given nature is absent, than to be present where it is present. If, however, we were to examine every instance, our labour would be infinite.

Negatives, therefore, must be classed under the affirmatives, and the want of the given nature must be inquired into more particularly in objects which have a very close connexion with others in which it is present and manifest. And this we are wont to term a table of deviation or of absence in proximity.

"Ne tenues pluviæ, rapidive potentia solis
Acrior, aut Boreæ penetrabile frigus adurat."
Virg. Georg. !. v. 92, 93


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of the sun appear to have but little power even
on the plain, and when reflected, unless they are
multiplied and condensed, which takes place
when the sun tends more to the perpendicular:
for then the incidence of the rays occurs at more
acute angles, so that the reflected rays are nearer
to each other, whilst, on the contrary, when the
sun is in a very oblique position, the angles of
incidence are very obtuse and the reflected rays
at a greater distance. In the mean time it must
be observed, that there may be many operations
of the solar rays, relating too to the nature of
heat, which are not proportioned to our touch, so
that, with regard to us, they do not tend to pro-
duce warmth, but, with regard to some other
bodies, have their due effect in producing it.

Fourth negative to the second affirmative.
Let the following experiment be made. Take

it between the hand and the solar rays, and observe whether it diminish the heat of the sun, as a burning glass increases it. For it is clear, with regard to the visual rays, that, in proportion as the lens is made of unequal thickness in the middle and at its sides, the images appear either more diffused or contracted. It should be seen, therefore, if the same be true with regard to heat.

Fifth negative to the second affirmative.

The rays of the sun in what is called the middle region of the air give no heat, to account for which the commonly assigned reason is satisfactory; namely, that that region is neither sufficiently near to the body of the sun, whence the rays emanate, nor to the earth, whence they are reflected. And the fact is manifested by snow being perpe-a lens the reverse of a burning glass, and place tual on the tops of mountains, unless extremely lofty. But it is observed on the other hand by some, that at the Peak of Teneriffe, and also among the Andes of Peru, the tops of the mountains are free from snow, which only lies in the lower part, as you ascend. Besides, the air on the summit of these mountains is found to be by no means cold, but only thin and sharp; so much so, that in the Andes, it pricks and hurts the eyes from its extreme sharpness, and even excites the orifice of the stomach and produces vomiting. The ancients also observed, that the rarity of the air on the summit of Olympus, was such, that those who ascended it, were obliged to carry sponges moistened with vinegar and water, and to apply them now and then to their nostrils, as the air was not dense enough for their respiration; on the summit of which mountain it is also related, there reigned so great a serenity and calm, free from rain, snow, or wind, that the letters traced upon the ashes of the sacrifices on the altar of Jupiter, by the fingers of those who had offered them, would remain undisturbed till the next year. Those even, who, at this day, go to the top of the Peak of Teneriffe, walk by night and not in the daytime, and are advised and pressed by their guides, as soon as the sun rises, to make haste in their descent, on account of the danger, (apparently arising from the rarity of the atmosphere,) lest their breathing should be relaxed and suffocated.

Third negative to the second affirmative.

Let the experiment be well tried, whether the lunar rays can be received and collected by the strongest and best burning-glasses, so as to produce even the least degree of heat. But if that degree be, perhaps, so subtile and weak, as not to be perceived or ascertained by the touch, we must have recourse to those glasses which indicate the warm or cold state of the atmosphere, and let the lunar rays fall through the burning glass on the top of this thermometer, and then notice if the water be depressed by the heat.*

Sixth negative to the second affirmative.

Let the burning-glass be tried on warm objects which emit no luminous rays, as heated, but not ignited iron or stone, or hot water, or the like; and observe whether the heat become increased and condensed, as happens with the solar rays. Seventh negative to the second affirmative. Let it be tried on common flame.

Eighth negative to the third affirmative. The reflection of the solar rays in the polar The effect of comets, (if we can reckon them regions is found to be weak and inefficient in amongst meteors,) in augmenting the heat of the producing heat; so that the Dutch, who winter-season, is not found to be constant or clear, aled in Nova Zembla, and expected that their ves- though droughts have generally been observed to sels would be freed about the beginning of July follow them. However, luminous lines, and pil from the obstruction of the mass of ice which had blocked it up, were disappointed and obliged to embark in their boat. Hence the direct rays

For the construction of Bacon's thermometer see No. E in the table of the degrees of heat. It serves also as a br rometer, but is inaccurate in both caparities.

lars, and openings, and the like, appear more often in winter than in summer, and especially with the most intense cold, but joined with drought. Lightning, and coruscations, and thunder, however, rarely happen in winter, and generally at the time of the greatest heats. The appearances we term falling stars, are generally supposed to consist of some shining and enflamed viscous substance, rather than of violently hot natter. But let this be further investigated.

Ninth negative to the fourth affirmative. Some coruscations emit light without burning; but are never accompanied by thunder.

Tenth negative to the fifth affirmative.

Eructations and eruptions of flame are to be found in cold climates as well as in hot, as in Iceland and Greenland; just as the trees of cold countries are sometimes inflammable, and more pitchy and resinous than in warm; as the fir, pine, and the like. But the position and nature of the soil, where such eruptions are wont to happen, is not yet sufficiently investigated to enable us to subjoin a negative instance to the affirmative.

Eleventh negative to the sixth affirmative.

Twelfth negative to the seventh affirmative. Every ignited body that is red-hot is always warm, although without flame, nor is any nega tive instance subjoined to this affirmative. Rotten wood, however, approaches nearly to it, for it shines at night, and yet is not found to be warm; and the putrefying scales of fish, which shine in the same manner, are not warm to the touch, nor the body of the glow-worm, or of the fly called lucciola.*

Thirteenth negative to the eighth affirmative.

The situation and nature of the soil of natural warm baths has not been sufficiently investigated, and, therefore, a negative instance is not subjoined.

Fourteenth negative to the ninth affirmative.

Fifteenth negative to the tenth affirmative.

To the instances of warm liquids we may subjoin the negative one of the peculiar nature of liquids in general. For no tangible liquid is known that is at once warm in its nature and constantly continues warm; but their heat is only superinduced as an adventitious nature for a limited time; so that those which are extremely warm in their power and effect, as spirits of wine, chymical aromatic oils, the oils of vitriol and sulphur, and the like, and which speedily burn, are yet cold at All flame is constantly more or less warm, and first to the touch, and the water of natural baths, this instance is not altogether negative. Yet, it poured into any vessel and separated from its is said, that the ignis fatuus, (as it is called,) and source, cools down like water heated by the fire. which sometimes is driven against walls, has but│It is, however, true, that oily substances are ralittle heat; perhaps it resembles that of spirits of ther less cold to the touch than those that are wine, which is mild and gentle. That flame, aqueous, oil for instance than water, silk than however, appears yet milder, which, in some well linen; but this belongs to the table of degrees of authenticated and serious histories, is said to have cold. appeared round the head and hair of boys and virgins, and instead of burning their hair, merely to have played about it. And it is most certain that a sort of flash, without any evident heat, has sometimes been seen about a horse when sweating at night, or in damp weather. It is also a well known fact,* and it was almost considered as a miracle, that, a few years since, a girl's apron sparkled when a little shaken or rubbed; which was, perhaps, occasioned by the alum or salts with which the apron was imbued, and which, after having been stuck together and incrusted rather strongly, were broken by the friction. It is well known that all sugar, whether candied or plain, if it be hard, will sparkle when broken or scraped in the dark. In like manner sea and salt water is sometimes found to shine at night when struck violently by the oar. The foam of the sea, when agitated by tempests, also sparkles at night, and the Spaniards call this appearance the sea's lungs. It has not been sufficiently ascertained what degree of heat attends the flame which the ancient sailors called Castor and Pollux, and the moderns call St. Ermus's fire.

* Was it a silk apron, which will exhibit electric sparks? but silk was then scarce.

Vol. III.-48

In like manner we may subjoin a negative instance to that of warm vapour, derived from the nature of vapour itself; as far as we are acquainted with it. For exhalations from oily substances, though easily inflammable, are yet never warm unless recently inhaled from some warm substance.

Sixteenth negative to the tenth affirmative.

The same may be said of the instance of air. For we never perceive that air is warm, unless confined or pressed, or manifestly heated by the sun, by fire, or some other warm body.

Seventeenth negative to the eleventh affirmative.

A negative instance is exhibited in weather by its coldness with an east or north wind, beyond what the season would lead us to expect; just as the contrary takes place with the south or west winds. An inclination to rain (especially in winter) attends warm weather, and to frost cold weather.

Eighteenth negative to the twelfth affirmative.

A negative instance as to air confined in caverns

The Italian fire-fly.

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