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thoughts freely, but in drawing out by en- | thing that may be useful to me in my studies; couragement the thoughts of others. You will and that if I miss of my game, I may at least never be liked for long talking by anybody ; bring home some of my thoughts with me, but you are sure to be liked if, by your talking, and not have the mortification of having you encourage and stimulate others to think caught nothing." and talk in response to your thoughts. The art is a natural gift in the main. It is not

EFFECTUAL CALLING. only a gift of mind, but also of temper. It requires condescension, indulgence, patience,

Effectual calling is the middle link in the and many other accomplishments, refinement

undividable chain of salvation; he that hath as well as power.

it is sure of both the ends (i.e., of his past

predestination to life, and of his future glorifiSHALL I BE ONE OF THEM? cation.) Our calling is the manifestation of

our secret election, and a sure forerunner of How divinely full of glory and pleasure

glory; being, in effect, the voice of God telling shall that hour be, when all the millions of

us beforehand that He will glorify us. mankind that have been redeemed by the

Cowper. blood of the Lamb of God shall meet together and stand around Him, with every tongue and

LEADING MEN. every heart full of joy and praise! How

It is customary to speak of sundry men in astonishing will be the glory and the joy of that day, when all the saints shall join to

the church of Christ, as “leading men;" i.e., gether in one common song of gratitude and

they go before others, and make and second love, and of everlasting thankfulness to their

the motions which others vote for. It should Redeemer! With what unknown delight and

not be forgotten, however, that a man in a inexpressible satisfaction shall all that are

Christian church who really deserves the name saved from the ruins of sin and hell address

of a “leading man,” serves the church. He the Lamb that was slain, and rejoice in His

moves and goes the right direction, and depresence!-Dr. Watts.

termines others in that direction. As Baxter

well remarks" Church greatness consists in OUTSIDE AND INSIDE.

being greatly serviceable." “Two things a master commits to his ser

KIND WORDS. vant's care,” saith one-"the child and the child's clothes.” It will be a poor excuse for

Kind words are looked upon like jewels on the servant to say at his master's return : the breast, never to be forgotten, and perhaps

* Sir, here are all the child's clothes, neat to cheer by their memory, a long, sad life; and clean, but the child is lost !"

while words of cruelty or of carelessness, are Much so with the account that many will like swords in the bosom, wounding and leavgive to God of their souls and bodies at the ing scars which will be borne to the grave by great day.

their victim. Do you think there is any Lord, here is my body; I was very grateful bruised heart which bears the mark of such a for it. I neglected nothing that belonged to wound from you? If there is a living one its content and welfare ; but for my soul, that which you have wounded, hasten to heal it; is lost and cast away for ever, I took little for life is short-to-morrow may be too late. care and thought about it. Flavel.

GREATNESS.
THE NEW BIRTH.
The Rev. Dr. Tyng, in a recent sermon in

A great, a good, and a right mind is a kind

of divinity lodged in flesh, and may be the Philadelphia, illustrated the subject of the blessing of a slave as well as of a prince; new birth by the following anecdote:

it came from heaven, and to heaven it must Shortly after the celebrated Summerfield

return; and it is a kind of heavenly felicity, came to that country, the young and beautiful which a pure and virtuous mind enjoys in some preacher on some public occasion met a dis

degree, even upon earth.-Seneca. tinguished doctor of theology, who said to " Mr. Summerfield, where were you born,

REASON OF INFIDELITY. Sir?”

In the course of my experience in society, “I was born,” said he, “in Dublin and I have never met with an instance where a in Liverpool.”

man took up the argument as an unbeliever in “Ah! how can that be?" inquired the the truth of Christianity, but it might be doctor.

traced to an irregularity in his moral conduct; The boy-preacher paused a moment, and

thus confirming a frequent remark of mineanswered, “Art thou a master in Israel, and “When a man is opposed to Christianity, it is understandest not those things ?"

because Christianity is opposed to him."

Green's Reminiscences of Rev. Robert Hall. IMPROVEMENT OF TIME. Pliny, in one of his letters, where he gives

RE-UNION IN HEAVEN. an account of the various methods he used to “I am fully persuaded,” says Baxter, " that fill up every vacancy of time, after several I shall love my friends in heaven, and thereemployments which he enumerates, “Some fore know them; and this principally binds times,' says he, “I hunt; but even then, I me to them on earth. If I thought I should carry with me a pocket-book, that whilst my never know them more, nor love them after servants are busied in disposing the nets and death, I should love them comparatively little other matters, I may be emploved in some now, as I do all other transitory things."

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DEBTS IN CHINA.

self and to admire him; as if the gilding of Every man in China must pay his debts at

the key made it open the door the better.the beginning of the year, and also at the time

Gurnall. of a religious festival about the middle of the

THE FOREST TREES. year. If unable to settle at these times, his

Build your nest on no tree here; for you business stops until his debts are paid.

see God hath sold the forest to death, and REFINING FIRE.

every tree upon which we would rest is ready

to be cut down, to the end that we may flee Christ is a refiner's fire. We would like and mount up and build upon the rock.well enough to come and warm ourselves at Rutherford. this fire; but the business depends upon being thrown into it.-Adam.

HERE AND HEREAFTER.
It is strange that the experience of so many

ages should not make us judge more solidly of THE KEY TO HEAVEN.

the present and of the future, so as to take Sometimes, perhaps, thou hearest another proper measures in the one for the other. We Christian pray with much freedom and fluency, dote upon this world as if it were never to whilst thou canst hardly get out a few broken have an end, and we neglect the next as if it words. Hence, thou art ready to accuse thy- I were never to have a beginning.--Fénélon.

Household Hints.

LIFE INSURANCE. Last month we called the attention of appeals are being made on behalf of the readers of the Penny Magazine to cases of a most heart-rending chathe subject of Life Insurance as one of racter. great practical importance, and urged it To these views we have rarely heard as a duty upon men who live by their any objection other than the want of daily labour, and with families wholly money; doubtless a very strong one, and dependent upon their constant exertions one which gathers strength with every new for support, and who may at any day. The only general method of meeting inoment be cut off, and leave them in this is to commence at the earliest posutter destitution. Again we return to sible period. Occasionally, pious men the subject in the Christian Witness, have seemed to think that it was almost from an overpowering sense of its im doubting the care of Providence; while portance, and would urge it upon every others, with a feeling half superstitious, reader, but more especially upon minis have feared that if once their lives were ters of the Gospel, who are almost insured, they would immediately die. always dependent upon a small salary, Life Insurance is not only perfectly which renders it impossible for them to justifiable on moral grounds, but is one lay anything by in store. We would of the readiest, safest, easiest, and most press on these, therefore, the sacred duty legitimate methods of making provision of providing in time against so dreadful for a wife and family, who may be at a contingency as that of leaving a wife any moment deprived by death of their and children entirely destitute.

natural provider. It is, perhaps, unMany ministers have thus provided necessary to say a word as to the moral for their households, and there are to propriety of such an investment. Yet day hundreds of poor widows, with a it has been questioned by men who group of little childreu around them, would not hesitate to lay aside a porwho are living on the little thus pru tion of their earnings in a Savings' dently secured against the day of Bank, or invest them in å dividendcalamity. Many others, who have neg. paying stock, for the same purpose. lected this provision, have left behind There is no difference between the inthem objects of their tenderest affection vestments, except in favour of Life Inplunged in the deepest distress.

surance, which is preferable, if judiWe have seen, from time to time, ciously made, because it is better secu. cases which struck us to the heart, and rity. Another advantage is, the payments never without feeling solemnly bound are so gradual, that they are made with to urge anew our brethren, who are still less difficulty. Suppose a policy of in life and health, not to be guilty of the £1,000 taken for life, beginning when same fatal neglect. At this moment I the assured party is twenty-one years of

age. The annual premium would be but a trifle, less than is often spent on a questionable indulgence. Almost any mechanic could spare it without inconvenience, to insure the payment of £1,000 to his wife, when he dies. But he would probably never see the time when he could command £1,000 to invest for her in the bank. How many families are now in poverty, which would have been in circumstances of comfort, if not of affluence, if the deceased father had possessed the foresight to insure bis life for any sum, the premium of which he could have spared!

There have been many cases of wives, who, from their own property, or from the allowance made them by their husbands, have kept policies running, which have been the only means, at length, of the support and education of their families. But this implies a degree of calculation which is not to be expected of an affectionate wife; and every husband should anticipate it, by himself making the provision

An additional motive is furnished to a considerate and honourable man, by the apprehension that his family may, after his death, become a burden to their friends, or to the community-a probability as repugnant to self-respect as it is distressing to affection.

Many instances, illustrative of the benefits of Life Insurance, are known to us. We have especially in mind the case of the widow of a gentleman, formerly well known and highly respected. He was a broker, and a man of wealth, --such a man as rarely insures his life, because he feels that his family will receive ample provision from his property. But this gentleman took out a policy of £2,500, and in the course of events losing his wealth, he died, and it became the only means of support for his widow and family.

As to the principle of insurance being the lottery principle, as it has been weakly urged, it seems to us, on the contrary, that it is exactly the opposite. The principle of a lottery is that of chance, whereas the design of Life Insurance is, so far as possible, to exclude chance. The whole object is to render certain what otherwise must be dependent on many contingencies. Thus, by saving money and lending it on interest, a man may lay up a given

sum, if he lives long enough. But a life insurance secures the same amount to his family, whether he lives or dies. What a relief to a father, toiling for his children, to know that in any event, he has a provision for them. Our friend objects that what is thus received by a few is lost by many more. Not so: such is the case with a lottery, where the prizes are few and the blanks a multitude. But here all are prizes ; there are no blanks; and the magnitude of the prize is regulated by the premium. It is simply, in effect, a union of a given number of individuals, for the compassionate purpose of aiding in turn each other's widows and orphans.

As to reliance upon Providence, we do not understand trust in God to exclude a proper regard to the ordinary rules of prudence and safety. That is not faith, but presumption. It is no want of trust for a man to prepare himself against the day of calamity. The same reasoning which would forbid life insurance, would forbid the insurance of houses against fire, or vessels against shipwreck. It would even hold back a man from putting a lightningrod upon his house. No, let a man do all that lies in his power to support and provide for his wife and children; and then, if he is taken away, he may commit them in faith to the care of Him who is the God of the widow and the fatherless.

Well, seeing that such is the principle, and such the importance of the device, is it pot exceedingly desirable that it should, to the utmost extent of practicability, be acted on? May we, then, be permitted to offer a suggestion ? The great point is to get a beginning: once started, it will go on. Now, what if one or more benevolent gentlemen in every congregation were to set it a-going, and continue to pay it during the whole period of the pastor's incumbency, that is, till death, or removal ? The deed would be generous and noble, and exercise a most salutary influence on the minister's own mind, and consequently on his labours. With such treatinent, removals would be far less frequent, for they mainly result from straitened circumstances.

We invite Correspondence upon the subject, which, to be successful, must be kept before the public mind.

Popery.

M. ABOUT'S EXPOSITION OF THE POPEDOM. THE ways of the Lord are a great deep. | upon the vulture of this national ProIt is instructive to observe, in the course metheus. It is brought to light-it flaps of an all-wise and wonder-working Pro its wings before us—it is the Papacy. vidence, how events, great and small, So impartial a judgment, pronounced by are made to harinonize in the accom- so good a Catholic and servant of the plishment of the Divine purposes. At Empire, must be eminently admired :the very moment that the armies of

THE PEOPLE OF ROME. France are engaged in uprooting the

If some day, seeking for the Convent of despotism of Austria in Italy, and pre

Neophytes, or the house of Lucrezia Borgia, paring for a new order of things, a you wander by accident among the strait Frenchman, a man of learning and of streets paved with filth, around the Quartier spirit, publishes a book which furnishes des Monts, you will elbow thousands of vaa more withering exposure of the Pope

gabonds, thieves, sharpers, guitar players,

models, beggars, cicerones, and ruffianos, with dom, and the destructive influence of

their wives and daughters. Have you any Popery than has been made by any Pro business with them? They will salute - your testant writer for generations. When Excellency," and steal your handkerchief. I the author visited Rome, for the pur know of no other place in Europe, even in pose of collecting materials with his own

London, where one may meet with a more

atrocious brood. Then follow the middle hands, and examining everything with

classes. I brought away from Rome a somehis own eyes, he had no conception of

what mean idea of its middle class. A few the ends it was so quickly and so pow distinguished artists, a few courageous and erfully to serve.

clever advocates, a few learned medical men, M. About's work contains an account

a few wealthy and competent farmers hardly of the Roman Court and institutions.

suffice, in my opinion, to constitute a real

citizen class. Next, however, he deals with It is written freely, and pictures the pa

the nobility. Some Italian flatterer, or satirist, geant of regal Catholicism in colours of transmitted dignities, predicts, that at á the most barbaric. “ The Roman Ca future day distinguishing particles will be retholic Church, which I sincerely respect," |

cognised, through the microscope, in the blood begins M. About, " is composed of a

of the noble. Thirty-one princes or dukes ;

a vast number of marquises, counts, barons, hundred and thirty-nine millions of

and chevaliers; a multitude of untitled noble individuals, without counting the little families, among whom Benedict the FourMortara.” This swarming aggregate is teenth enrolled sixty at the Capitol; an imgoverned by seventy cardinals, or sacer mense extent of seignorial domains ; a thoudotal princes, of whom the Cardinal

sand palaces; a hundred galleries, small and Bishop of Rome is supreme, autocratic,

great; a sufficing revenue; an incredible pro

digality of horses, carriages, liveries, and and infallible. The first thing that

cabinets; regal fêtes every winter; a remnant strikes him is the Siamese union of a of small privileges and popular veneration. temporal with a spiritual power-the Such are the aspects distinguishing the RoCrown and Mitre in conjunction-the

man nobility, and holding it up to the admikingly sceptre and pastoral crook. The

ration of every booby in the universe.

Ignorance, laziness, vanity, servility, and, land thus ruled is among the richest on

above all, nullity, are the least contemptible the globe, the most favoured, the best characteristics that degrade them below all defended by nature, the most superbly the other aristocracies of Europe. adorned by art, the very nucleus of his

THE ROMAN NOBLE AT TWENTY-FIVE. tory. All this M. About dwells upon

At that age an American has practised ten with luxuriant emphasis for is it not

trades, made four fortunes, one failure, and his object to show what the heart of two campaigns — has conducted a lawsuit, Italy might be in comparison with what preached a religion, killed six men with a reit is? And then the Roman people are

volver, emancipated a negress and annexed an

island. An Englishman has written two still splendid, high-spirited, strong,

themes, followed an embassy, founded a bank, brave, intelligent, and industrious—they converted a Catholic, travelled round the stab, but they do not steal-there are world, and read the collected works of Walter more assassins than thieves amongst Scott. A Frenchman has written a tragedy, them. Some occult reason must be contributed to two newspapers, received three brought to light to explain why the

sword-cuts, made two attempts at suicide,

persecuted four husbands, and undergone ninePapal dominions are blighted. M. About

teen changes of political opinion. A German descends into the darkness, and seizes has wounded fourteen of his intimate friends,

has swallowed sixty casksfull of beer (beside the philosophy of Hegel), has sung eleven thousand songs, compromised one young lady, smoked a million of pipes, and dipped himself in two revolutions. But the Roman prince has done nothing, seen nothing, learned nothing, loved nothing, suffered nothing. Open the grated door of a cloister, and a young girl appears quite as experienced as he.

The lords are moths, the ladies butterflies. These pretty princesses of Rome rise, bathe, dress, breakfast, toy, promenade, entertain their friends (without music or conversation), and go to bed! From society to politics. The Pope is Master. He is the White Despot. But he may have a Red Despot at his side, as Pius the Ninth has Cardinal Antonelli. These two figures, indeed-Pius and his Familiarfill half the scene. The one, who wears a crown venerated by a hundred and thirtynine millions of people, has led an irreproachable private life, is sixty-seven years old, and is altogether a person of respectable antecedents. Small, fat, valetudinarian, and palevisa ced, he never had a chance of being a Wolsey in the purple. But he is a wellmeaning ruler, and this is more than M. About has to say of Cardinal Antonelli.

NOMINATION. The Cardinals are nominated by the Pope, the Pope is nominated by the Cardinals. From the day of his election he becomes infallible, at least in the opinion of M. de Maistre, and of other good Catholics of our time. Bossuet was not of this opinion, but the Popes have been so invariably. When the Sovereign Pontiff declares that the Virgin Mary was born without any taint of original sin, the one hundred and thirty-nine millions of Catholics are bound to take his word for it, and so they very recently have done.

Such a remarkable discipline of the intelligence of the nineteenth century does it infinite honour, and posterity will no doubt be gratefal for it.

THE PLEBEIANS. The subjects of the Pope are divided by birth and fortune into three very distinct elasses-nobility, bourgeoisie, and plebeian. The Gospel forgot to sanction the inequality of men, but the law of the State--that is, the will of the Pope-maintains it very carefully, Benoit XIV. declared it honourable and salutary in his Bull of the 4th of January, 1746; and Pius IX. has expressed himself in the same terms in the commencement of his Chirografo of the 2nd of May, 1853. If I omit to count the clergy among the classes of society, it is because they are strangers to the nation by their interests, by their privileges, and often by their origin. The cardinals and ne prelates are not, properly speaking. subjects of the Pope, but rather his [co-fathers] compères in God, and the associates of his supreme power. ... The value of each of these sections differs according to their relative distance from the seat of power. You may be quite sure that a Roman nobleman is less instructed, less affable, and less free than a gentleman of the Marshes, or Romagna. The middle-class, with some exceptions, of which I will speak presently, is infinitely more

numerous, richer, and more enlightened, east of the Appenines, than in the capital or its neighbourhood. The plebeians themselves are better behaved, far honester, and more moral, when they live at a respectful distance from the Vatican.

TEMPORAL POWER OF THE POPES. But is it true that, since 1846, this Government has ceased to be the worst in Europe? If any body can show me a worse, I will go and inform the Romans of it, and they will be not a little astonished !

Is the absolute authority of the Pope limited now by anything but the private virtues of the holy father 3 No. The constitution of 1848 that has been destroyed; the motu proprio of 1849, eluded in every one of its provisions-are these any limits? Not at all. Has the Pope renounced his title to the sole administration and irresponsible control of the whole patrimony of Catholicism? Never. Are public affairs still entirely reserved for the prelates ? Always. Are public employments denied by law to the laity? By law, no; in fact, yes. Are the different powers of the State still confounded in practice? More than ever; the governors of the towns still continue to judge, the bishops to administer. Has the Pope abandoned any part of his infallibility in public affairs ? Nothing. Has he relinquished his right of reversing the decisions of the Courts of Appeal? Not in the least. The Cardinal Secretary of State-has he ceased to be the reigning minister? He reigns, and the other ministers are more like servants than even clerks; you will find them every morning waiting in his antechamber. Is there ever a council of ministers? Yes, when the ministers go to take the orders of the Cardinal. The administration of affairsis that public? Certainly not. Does the nation vote its own taxes, or allow itself to be mulcted without its consent? As in past days so it is now. Are the municipal liberties extended? They are less than they were in 1816.

To-day, as in the golden days of the Pontifical despotism, the Pope is everything; he possesses everything, and can do everything; he exercises without control, and without a check, a perpetual dictatorship.

PIUS ix. I will not lose sight of the fact that he is sixty-seven years old-that he bears a crown venerated officially by 139,000,000 of Catholics—that his private life is exemplary, &c. .... But those who were killed by cannon shots fired by his command, and in order to replace him upon the throne, those whom the Austrians shot to fix him there more securely, and even those who work in unhealthy marshes to feed his budget, are much more unfortunate than he is.... He believes in God. He is not only a true Christian, but a devotee. In his enthusiasm for the Virgin Mary, he has invented a useless dogma, and erected a monument in very bad taste, which now disgraces the Place d'Espagne. His morals are pure, and have always been so, even from his youth; a merit not uncommon among us, but rare, nay, even miraculous, on the other side of the Alps.

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