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Organization of the Army.


character to execute the duties of this important 1 surgeon, office.

2 surgeon's mates, 7. A provision for an Hospital department for 10 captains, the Army.

10 first lieutenants, 8. A power to procure from abroad one distin- 10 second lieutenants,

2 cadets, guished engineer, and also an officer of artillery, and suitable appointments for the same.

2 sergeant majors, 9. To provide for the appointment of an Inspec- 2 quartermaster sergeants, tor of Fortifications.

2 senior musicians, 10. That the choice of an Inspector of Artillery 20 musicians, be left at large.

40 sergeants, 11. A provision for altering and fitting the cloih- 40 corporals, ing issued to the soldiers.

920 privates. 12. An alteration in the ration to be issued to


Present Establishment. 13. A provision for the reasonable expenses of

1 lieutenant colonel commandant, officers and soldiers in returning to their homes,

2 majors, when disbanded, or incapacitated by age or sick

1 adjutant, ness for further service.

1 paymaster, to be taken from the line. 14. A revival and extension of the power to raise

1 quartermaster, a provisional army. 15. A specific provision for the appointment of No surgeon or mate provided by law.

8 captains, appropriate officers for the volunteer companies

16 lieutenants, that are or may be accepted, when formed into

8 cornets, regiments, brigades, or divisions; and for pay and

1 sergeant major, rations to such volunteers, for those days in every

1 quartermaster sergeant, year that it may be necessary to assemble them in

32 sergeants, bodies, for the purpose of discipline and training.

32 corporals, 16. A further provision for the extra services

8 farriers, and expenses of the Inspector General, and to allow

8 saddlers, him, besides his aids, one secretary.

8 trumpeters, 17. The employment of a Purveyor of Public

416 dragoons. Supplies, exclusively for the War Department. All which the Secretary has the honor most re

Proposed Establishment. spectfully to submit.

1 colonel, JAMES McHENRY. 2 majors, WAR DEPARTMENT, Dec. 24, 1798.

1 adjutant, to be lieutenants, and in ad1 paymaster, dition to the lieutenants

1 quartermaster, hereinafter mentioned. A.


2 surgeon's mates,

10 captains, Present Establishment.

10 first lieutenants, 1 lieutenant colonel commandant,

10 second lieutenants, 2 majors,

5 cadets, 1 adjutant,

2 sergeant majors, 1 paymaster, to be taken from the line.

2 quartermaster sergeants, 1 quartermaster,

2 chief musicians, 1 surgeon,

40 sergeants, 2 surgeon's mates,

40 corporals, 10 captains,

10 musicians, 10 lieutenants,

10 saddlers, 10 ensigos,

10 blacksmiths, 1 sergeant major,

10 boot-makers, 1 quartermaster sergeant,

890 privates. 2 senior musicians, 40 sergeants,


Present Establishment. 20 musicians,


1 lieutenant colonel commandant, Proposed Establishment.

4 majors, 1 colonel,

1 adjutant,

to be taken from 2 majors,

4 adjutants and paymasters,

the line. 1 adjutant, to be lieutenants, and in ad

1 surgeon, 1 paymaster, dition to the lieutenants

4 surgeon's mates, 1 quartermaster, hereinafter mentioned. 16 captains,


600 privates.


Organization of the Army.

32 lieutenants,

recommendations had found a favorable access to 32 cadets,

the ear of Congress. 64 sergeants,

“ If the present moment does not admit of car64 corporals,

rying into effect all that is desirable, and ought, 32 musicians,

under different circumstances, to be done, to create 160 artificers

a body of quartered and scientific engineers, it 672 privates.

may, notwithstanding, be advisable to advance Proposed Establishment.

towards this point by such measures as are com1 colonel,

patible with our present situation, 4 majors,

“ The knowledge of certain arts and sciences is 1 adjutant, to be lieutenants, and in ad- absolutely necessary to the artillerist and engi1 quartermaster,

dition to the lieutenants neer; such are arithmetic, geometry, mechanics, 1 paymaster, hereinafter mentioned. hydraulics, and designing. 1 surgeon,

“Without a knowledge of arithmetic, an officer 2 surgeon's mates,

cannot calculate the expense incurred, or to be 16 captains,

incurred, on any work, or any subject whatever. 16 first lieutenants,

“Without that of geometry, he cannot form a 16 second lieutenants,

just plan or chart, regulate the design of a forti32 cadets,

fication, with its lines and angles, trace it upon 4 sergeant majors,

the ground it is to occupy, nor estimate and mea4 quartermaster sergeants,

sure the solidity and surface of its several parts. 64 sergeants,

“Without that of mechanics, he will not be 64 corporals, 1 senior musician,

able to appreciate the proportion of the machines

used in war, the dimensions of carriages for artil10 musicians, 128 artificers,

lery, nor to augment or diminish the force of the

several kinds of machines when it may be neces768 privates.


" Without that of designing, he will not have it B.

in his power to give plans and profiles of works, Extract of a letter from the Secretary of War to the nor to exhibit the topography of the environs of a Hon. Samuel Sewall, Chairman of the Committee work, or any part of a country. of Defence, &c., dated

“ Without that of hydraulics, he will not be

qualified to conduct water from one place to an“War DEPARTMENT, June 28, 1798.

other, or to sustain and elevate it when there may "3d. The act providing for raising and organ- be a necessity in sieges, or other military operaizing a corps of artillerists and engineers, and the lions, for so doing. act to provide an additional regiment of the same, “It is therefore submitted, whether provision both enjoin the procurement, at the public ex

ought not to be made for the employment of three pense, of all necessary books, instruments, and ap- or four teachers of the enumerated sciences, to be paratus, for the benefit of the said respective regi- attached generally to the two corps of artillerists

and engineers, and obligated to give instructions · The Secretary, without designing to derogate and lessons, at such times, places, and under such from the merits of the officers appointed to the regulations, as the President may direct. corps established by the acts cited, feels it his duty to suggest that other and supplementary means of

“The employment of teachers would give the instruction, to the books and instruments to be intended effect to the provision of the laws, for provided, appear to be absolutely indispensable to the appointment of two cadets to each company. enable them to acquire a due degree of knowledge It was supposed that these cadets would forma in the objects of their corps. It is certain that the nursery, from which qualified officers might be best faculties and inclinations for the arts and drawn to fill vacancies, &c.; but it must occur, sciences cannot be unfolded and applied to useful that without proper masters to teach them the purposes, when proper encouragement and assist- sciences, necessary to the engineer and artillerist, ance have been denied or neglected.

this nursery can produce no valuable plants. • The art of fortification is connected with so “It is also submitted, whether it might not be many others, is of such extent, and its operations proper to augment the pay of cadets to nine doldependent on, and affected by, circumstances so lars per month, with two rations. This would infinitely varied, that it is impossible any man can excite their emulation, give them a consideration be rendered master of it by experience alone. above sergeants, and enable them to appear in a Besides, the knowledge acquired by experience is more respectable dress. often the result of our own faults, and acquired “It is with infinite regret the Secretary is by a heavy, and, it may be, in this art, disastrous obliged to mention that the ordnance of our counexpense to the public.

try is by no means in a situation to command reIt is certainly to be wished, that more atten- spect. "That part of it was collected during a tion had been paid to this subject, and that past season of difficulty and necessity, from different


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Brevet Rank.

countries, and consequently, the guns are, many

BREVET RANK. of them, essentially defective, and those of the same class differ in length, weight, and caliber. The variance in these particulars occasions much

[Communicated to the House of Representatives, trouble and inconvenience, in providing appro

February 4, 1799.] priate aminunition, stores, apparatus, and carriages, besides subjecting the military service to Mr. Dwight Foster, from the Committee of Claims, to injurious delays, and the fatal consequences which whom was referred the petition of Moses White, might result from ammunition and implements

with the report of the former Secretary of the Treabeing supplied, which, in time of need, will be found not adapted to the piece.

sury thereon, made the following report: 6 As there is no established standard, it has also That the object of the petitioner was to obtain happened, from a defect of knowledge in our a settlement and allowance of his account against founders, or some other cause, that most of the the United States, for services and expenditures cannon that have been cast within, or on account on behalf of the public during the war. of the United States, are defective in very essential points, and exhibit varieties in those cast at Treasury Department are competent to adjust

The powers vested by law in the officers of the the same furnace, and of the same class, with and settle most of the items mentioned in the acthose procured from abroad. " It is important that some arrangement should

count of the petitioner; and, since his petition was

originally referred to the Secretary of the Treabe immediately adopted, calculated to give efficacy sury, those items have been considered, and parto a proper system, and correct these evils. It is tially adjusted by the proper officers. The comnot enough that the President determine upon the mittee are therefore of opinion, that with respect size, weight, dimensions, and calibers of the dif- to that part of the petitioner's account, it would ferent kinds of cannon, either to be made, or im- not be expedient or proper for the Legislature to ported into the United States, for their use, unless interfere; but the item of the greatest magnitude, an inspector of artillery can be appointed, to see and of most importance to the petitioner, which that all regulations appertaining to the orduance is a claim for additional pay as Aid-de-camp to department be executed and observed with exacti- Brigadier General Moses Hazen, from the first of tude.

August, 1781, to November 3, 1783, not having * We cannot presume that contracts, however been expressly authorized by an act of Congress, carefully made, and conditioned, or even a na- has not been allowed in the settlement of the tional foundry, will produce cannon conformable to a given specific standard for each class, so long

With respect to this part of the petitioner's as the United States are without an officer of skill

claim, the committee report, that by the act of to inspect, and receive, or reject them.

Congress of the 21st of June, 1775, the Com"I cannot conceive any appointment more ne- mander-in-chief was allowed three, and each Macessary to our inilitary undertakings, and infant jor General iwo Aids-de-camp, whose pay and Navy, than an inspector of artillery, and I must rank were established by subsequent resolutions. flatter myself that the committee will feel as I do By a resolution of Congress on the 30th of March, upon this occasion.

1776, each Brigadier General, when on command, " They will not, I am persuaded, imagine that was empowered to appoint a Brigadier Major; it can be possible for a Secretary of War, to dis- and, by another resolution, on the first day of charge the duties of his appointment, and, at the July, in the same year, a Brigadier General, actsame time, to visit foundries, examine all kinds of ing in a separate department, was allowed an ordnance, direct the dimensions of gun carriages Aid-de-camp. and implements, order the proper moulds for cast- On the 27th day of May, 1778, it was provided, ing shot, shells, &c., review and decide upon the " that the Brigade Major should be appointed as qualities of every different production, and point heretofore by the Commander-in-chief or comout the means of remedying existing defects, and mander in a separate department, out of the Capgenerally perform all the other duties attached to tains in the brigade to which he should be apthe office of inspector of artillery.

pointed ;” and by a resolution of that date, the “The Secretary indulges the hope, that the additional pay of Aids-de-camp and of Brigade committee will recommend, and the wisdom of Majors was established. Upon the 28th of June, Congress think proper to create, in the Depart- 1782, so much of the act of the 27th day of May, ment of War, the office of inspector of artillery, as relates to the additional pay given to Captains with a salary adequate to its nature and import and subalterns, acting as Aids-de-camp and Brigance, and calculated to obtain a person qualified ade Majors, was repealed, and, on the same day, to fill it. On this important head he takes leave Congress resolved" that there should be such addifurther to mention, that other countries owe the tional pay and emoluments to the pay of Captains excellency of their ordnance to the establishment and subalterns, serving as Aids-de-camp to Major of such an officer, and that in England, particu- Generals or Brigadier Generals, and to Brigade larly, and at a late day, the appointment of a Majors, as should make their pay and emoluments scientific and experienced inspector has given a equal to the pay and emoluments of a Major in perfection to their ordnance never before known.” the line of the Army."


Vessels of War.

By a resolution of Congress, on the 29th day

VESSELS OF WAR. of June, 1781, General Hazen was “appointed a Brigadier in the Army of the United States, by Letter from the Secretary of the Navy to the Chairman brevet.” It appears by a certificate from General Hazen, that the petitioner acted as his Aid-de

of the Committee on the Naval Establishment, with camp during the time for which he prays com

sundry estimates relative to the expense of building pensation.

and equipping certain vessels of war for the service The only doubt which appears to have arisen

of the United States. respecting the propriety of allowing this claim, is understood to bave been because General Ha.

Navy DEPARTMENT, Dec. 29, 1798. zen held the rank of Brigadier by brevet commis

Sir: I have given to the inquiries you have sion only.

done me the honor, as chairman of a committee Although brevet officers were not entitled 10 l of the House of Representatives, to make of me. any additional pay in consequence of their brevet

all the consideration my desire to comply promptly promotion, yet ií gave them conditional rank with the wishes of the committee would permit; When on command of mixed corps, or on courts

and now proceed, with great diffidence, to submit

the result. martial, they took rank with the youngest officer of the grade io which they were promoted; hence, The protection of our coast; the security of in the local command of his own regiment, Gene- our extensive country from invasion, in some of ral Hazen had no additional rank; but on com- its weaker parts; the safety of our important command, &c., he took rank as the youngest Briga- merce, and our future peace, when the maritime dier. With respect to the circumstance of his nations of Europe war with each other, all seem receiving no additional pay, in consequence of the to demand that our naval force should be augappointment, the committee conceive it will not mented—so much augmented, indeed, as to make apply to the question now under consideration. the most powerful nations desire our friendship, If a Brigadier held the rank and command, whe- the most un principled respect our neutrality. The ther he was a volunteer, or held it by courtesy, or peaceful character of America will afford to the received no pay, they apprehend, by established world sufficient security that we shall not be custom, he was entitled to bis staff officers, and easily provoked to carry war into the country of they to the customary allowance for their ser- an enemy; and it well becomes the wisdom of vices.

America 10 provide a cheap defence to keep it The Secretary of the Treasury, in his re- from our own. port on this part of the petitioner's claim, states Twelve ships of 74 guns, as many frigates, and that he had not been able " to discover any resolwenty or thirty smaller vessels, would probably lution of Congress by which the claim could be be found (our geographical situation and our decided; but ihat there were precedents in prac- means of annoying the trade of the maritime tice in favor of it as applied to Brigadiers by Powers considered) a force sufficient to insure our commission ; that if this practice were to govern, future peace with the nations of Europe. It would the circumstance of a brevet appointment would not, perhaps, be hazarding too much to say that, not, in the opinion of the Secretary, constitute a had we possessed this force a few years ago, we ground of difference to the prejudice of the peti- should not have lost, by depredations on our trade, tioner, inasınuch as the Brigadier is understood to four times the sum necessary to have created and have the actual command of a brigade at the maintained it during the whole time the war has time; in which case, the principles of service, existed in Europe. If we do not profit by expewith regard to an Aid-de-camp, would apply rience, and put ourselves in a situation to resent as fully to him as to the Brigadier by commis- insult, and punish aggression, nothing is more sion."

likely than ihat in less than balf a dozen years The committee concur with the Secretary of another occasion may be presented for a repetithe Treasury in the opinion above expressed, and tion of the same mortifying observation. In anthink that the petitioner ought to receive compen- other and still more interesting view of this subsation for his services as Aid-de-camp; they there- ject, mutual safety was a leading motive, and fore submit to the consideration of the House ibe inust ever remain a strong cement, of our Union. following resolution, viz:

Whether this security can be afforded, unless we Resolved, That in the adjustment of the account are able to command our own coast; and whether of Moses White, late a Captain in the Army of the Union of all the States can be long preserved the United States, the accounting officers of the without it, are questions which merit the most Treasury be, and they are hereby, directed to serious and attentive consideration of American credit and allow the account of the said Moses legislators... I forbear to dwell on this fruitful, White. for his additional pay and emoluments as perhaps delicate topic. an Aid-de-camp, during the time he acted in that However, to attend to our more pressing concapacity to Brigadier General Moses Hazen, upon cerns: We cannot feel entirely secure that we the same principles which have heretofore pre- are not to be exposed to great calamities from the vailed in the settlement of accounts of officers ambition or animosity of France, until a consiacting as Aids-de-camp to Brigadier Generals in derable addition be made to our naval force. If the line of the Army.

twelve ships of 74 guns, are added to our navy, an Vessels of War. invasion of any part of our country would be of 74 guns, by purchase or otherwise. If it should rendered so difficult, that it would scarcely be be found necessary to procure them sooner than attempted; for it is not possible lo conceive that they can be built, the timber may be preserved, France could promise herself any advantage by by docking, until those purchased decay, or for a an invasion of this country, equal to the enormous century, if it should not be sooner wanted. expense, and suill more enormous risk, if we should The estimates herewith will show the expense be so prepared to resist her. She would be obliged of building and equipping twelve ships of 74 to employ more than double the number of ships guns, and six brigs or schooners to mount not exof equal force, to convoy her armies, provisions, ceeding eighteen guns. The latter would be and stores, and to keep the communication open highly useful in scouring the West Indies, and between her armies and her own country. France we have not a sufficient proportion of vessels of can calculate, and will calculate, the loss and this size. Three of the largest of the 24-gun probable gain of her enterprises. When she finds ships might be converted into frigates of 32 guns. that she cannot deceive us; that she cannot arm The whole annual expense of maintaining the our citizens to carry on her work of subjugation- Navy would then be

$5,383,510 06 (insolent and unfounded expectation !)--that we

The annual expense of the exare determined on manly resistance; and that we

isting navy is

2,431.261 10 take vigorous measures to put ourselves in a proper posture of defence-even France, with all her pride, and all her heroism, will consult her inter- The difference would be the est and avoid war with America; and, like other annual expense of the proposed nations, she will discover that it will not only be addition

2,949,278 96 just, but politic, to indulge us in our favorite wish of preserving peace with

all the world. Thus, then, in whatever view the subject is

In times of peace a small proportion of this considered, whether our object be to prevent in

sum would be sufficient to keep the ships in a vasion, to protect our commerce,

to obtain a

state of preservation. speedy and proper peace, to maintain peace here- Every material article for the building and after, or by affording security to every part of our equipment of ships of war, copper excepted, and country, io guard against the long train of ills probably copper also, may be procured the growth which must result from disunion; the wisest, or manufacture of our own country. It is true cheapest, and most peaceable means of obtaining that we have beretofore used cordige made of the end we aim at, will be prompt and vigorous hemp, of foreign growth, and imported canvass; measures for the creation of a navy, sufficient for and these articles constitute, if wear and tear bé defence, but not for conquest.

included, one-third of the expense of building, The United States are doubtless able to bear equipping, and refitting our vessels of war. But any expense necessary for their present safety and manufactories of canvass have been heretofore their future tranquillity. No country increases established in the Eastern States, and with proso fast in population and resources, and no coun- per public encouragement may be revived, and try can incur a debt with such an absolute cer- made to supply at least the public demand: and tainty of discharging it, without laying new bur- it is most certain that any, quantity of hemp can dens on the people. Our revenue, arising from be raised on the Ohio and Mississippi, the Susthe impost and other sources, must increase in quehanna, the Potomac, James river, and other proportion to the increase of population; and, as parts of the United States, if the growers of it are the increase of the latter is certain, no country assured of a ready market, and at a price less than ever had less to fear from the consequences of that given for imported hemp: though if the prices incurring any debt necessary for defence and of cordage and canvass, the entire growth and

manufacture of the country, should be found at On the subject of procuring ships of 74 guns, first a little dearer than the imported, the good we probably have it in our option to buy them policy of paying the difference io our own citior to build them. The former will be the most zens, to render ourselves independent of foreign expeditious mode of procuring them, but the latter, countries for articles so essential to our desence, if the pressure of our affairs will admit, will be cannot for a moment be doubted. the most honorable, and the most advantageous Timber can at present be had in almost every for our country. If we buy them from a foreign part of the United States; but in the greatest abunnation, it is not to be expected that we shall be dance, and of the best quality, on the Chesapeake able to obtain those of the best quality; and the bay, and the waters which empty into il—and in sum given for them will not be kept at home, and the Southern States. The live oak of Georgia is distributed among our own citizens. but will thought to be almost indispensable in the construcoperate against us, like an unfavorable balance of tion of our largest ships, io be used in those parts trade. My own idea is, that we certainly ought most subject to decay; but the white oak of the to build the vessels, in preference to purchasing Chesapeake is not greatly inferior. It is, however, them; that immediate measures should be taken highly desirable to use the live oak of Georgia as to secure all the necessary timber; but that the long as it can be obtained, more especially in the President should be authorized to obtain, as the ships built eastward of the Chesapeakeand by a exigency of our affairs may require, twelve ships 1 proper mixture of this timber with that of the


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