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persons, or 1258 annually, and the military establishment in. cludes only 1500 soldiers. In 1791 the Duke of Wirtemberg, (at present his Majesty the King of Wirtemberg,) let out to the Dutch some of his troops, amounting to 270 men, with six officers; and in the following year 150 privates and five officers fell victims to the climate. The mortality, no doubt, is increased by the intemperance of the resident Europeans, since of 115,000 inhabitants the annual loss is about 4000 : but then the Dutch, in proportion to their numbers, contri. bute most largely to this list of death ; and Mr. B. presents, in a short table, the relative proportions of the several people of Batavia : thus;
9 per cent.
73 The mortality among European females is not nearly so great as among the males; and this fact, joined with the plain inference from the preceding table, proves that intemperance is a principal cause of the evil; or, to speak more correctly, that temperance would be a great preservative against contagion and disease : but temperance is a mere name in Batavia. Of the virtue they have indeed heard, and some of their books have ventured to praise it: but of its existence they afford no example. Addison, in one of his papers, indulges his fancy in conceiving the tribe of diseases to be concealed within the highly seasoned viands of a sumptuous table : whether the Batavian Deputy Governor, Van Weiger man, unbent to the playfulness of a similar allegory when he said that • Batavia was an accursed country, in which he ate poison and drank pestilence at every meal,' we cannot positively determine; but Mr. B.'s account of his profuse dinner seems to decide. the question in the affirmative. If it be urged that the cha, racter of a people is not to be appreciated from their occasional feasts of hospitality, and that in order to form a right judgment on this subject we ought to view them in the usual routine of a day's occupation, still the author's delineation confirms the former opinion. We cannot find room for the passages which we had here designed to quote.
Among the most useful inhabitants in Batavia, are the Chinese, who are carpenters, gardeners, &c. but they are very heavily taxed by the Dutch, and in the year 1740, on unjust and foul pretences, they were inhumanly massacred.-Mr. B.'s description pays just tribute to the peaceable virtues and
industrious habits of the Chinese, and it shews that a government, which does not aim at conquest, and is not endangered by invasion, cannot have better subjects. He also describes the Javanese and Malaya, and refers the former to a Hindoo, and the latter to a Tartar origin. We must, however, leave Dutchmen, Javanese, and Malays, to pursue our voyage to Cochin China, at which place the reader does not arrive till be has passed over 240 pages of the volume.
The kingdom of Cochin China is laid down on ordinary maps : it is situated berween the 18th and 10th degrees of latitude, with its eastern side bounded by the sea, and its western by a ridge of high mountains, which separare it from the kingdom of Cambodia; and two or three degrees to the north, the empire of China begins. Very little is known concerning Cochin China and the adjacent countries; and Mr. Barrow, in a tone of reproach, observes that, in the best arranged modern systems of geography, a considerable portion of modern Asia, containing twenty millions of inhabitants, is passed over with a mere dash of the pen. Its history is here commenced in the year 1774; when an insurrection, headed by three Brothers, a Merchant (Yin-yac), a Priest, and a General Officer (Long-niang), deprived Caung-shung of the throne of Cochin China. It was divided between the three, and Long-niang soon made war on the king of 'Tungquin, a vassal of China, and obliged him to fly to Pekin for the purpose of demanding assistance. Kien-lung, the emperor, ordered his Invincible army, under the viceroy of Cantop, to march and reinstate the king of Tung-quin : but the politic Long-niang (who had assumed the title of Quange sang,) laid waste the country, and soon obliged them to retreat, from want of provisions, the army having lost by famine and the sword nearly 50cco men. The viceroy Foo-chang-tong was obliged to negociate : but his antagonist Tefused to yield the title to the kingdom of Tung-quin, Foochang tong, more fitted for the cabinet than the field, was reduced to employ finesse ; and he represented to the eniperor that his invincible army had performed most wonderful feats, but that the supposed usurper was much beloved by the Tung quinese, had a fair title to the abilicated throne, and that it would be politic to invite him to the court of Pekin to perform the accustomed ceremonies and duries of vassalage. Instead of making his personal appearance, however, the wary Long niang imposed on the court of ľkin, as his representative, one of his Generals. The mock king was favourably received and sent back but Long-niang, puzzled by this unexpected issue, rewarded the faithful service of the 3
General by putting him and the whole of his suite to death, in order to prevent a discovery of the trick.
At the time of the insurrection, a French missionary, Adran, resided at the court as tutor to the son of the kingi and from the general wreck aud slaughter, he rescued the queen, the prince, his wife, and their infant son: their first concealment was in a wood, under the branches of a royal banyan tree; and after the ardor of search had subsided, the fugitives proceeded to Sai-gong, where the prince was crowned as king under the name of Caung-shung. A large army, however, sent by Yin yac the merchant king, compelled the royal party again to flee; and they embarked on the river of Sai-gong, and landed on a small uninhabited island in the gulph of Siam. Here the king was joined by about 1200 of his adherents : but, the usurper preparing an expedition against him, Caung-shung resolved to throw himself on the protection of the king of Siam. This monarch granted an asylum to the exiled prince; and, being at war with the Birmans, he accepted of his profered assistance : which, by the aid of the European tactics, taught to Caung.shung by Adran, was so effectual that, in a short time, the Birmans were compelled to sue for peace. Jealousy of his talents, however, and suspicion of ambitious views, raised in Siam a party against poor Caung-shung; and he was obliged, at the head of his faithful followers in arms, to force his way out of the capital of Siam, to reimbark on some Siamese vessels and Malay proas seized in the harbour, and again to occupy his old island; which, with the guns taken from the vessels, he fortified so as to be secure equally against the king of Sianz and his own subjects.
In the mean time, Adran had been visiting the southern provinces of Cochin China ; and finding the sentiments of the people hostile to the usurper, he resolved to sail for France, and to apply to its court for effectual assistance, in re-instating the king on his throne. He took with him from Pondicherry the son of Caung-shung, and arrived at Paris in 1787. His project was presented, and adopted ; and in the course of a few months a treaty was signed at Versailles between Louis XVI. and the king of Cochin China. The prin. cipal articles of this extraordinary Compact are :
• I. There shall be an offensive and defensive alliance between the Kings of France and Cochinchina : they do hereby agree mutually to afford assistance to each other against all those who may make war upon either of the two contracting parties.
• II. To accomplish this purpose, there shall be put under the orders of the King of Cochinchina a squadron of twenty French ships of war, of such size and force as shall be deemed sufficient for the demands of his service.
III. Five complete European regiments, and two regiments of native colonial troops, shall be embarked without delay for Cochin. china.
• IV. His Majesty Louis XVI. shall engage to furnish, within four months, the sum of one million dollars ; five hundred thousand of which shall be in specie, the remainder in salt petre, cannon, musquets, and other military stores.
• V. From the moment the French troops shall have entered the dominions of the King of Cochinchipa, they and their generals, both by sea and land, shall receive their orders from the King of Cochin. china. To this effect the commanding officers shall be furnished with instructions from his Catholic Majesty to obey in all things, and in all places, the will of his new aily.
« On the other hand, • I. The King of Cochinchina, as soon as tranquillity shall be reestablished in his dominions, shall engage to furnish, for fourteen ships of the line, such a quantity of stores and provisions as will enable them to put to sea without delay, on the requisition of the am. bassador from the King of France ; and for the better effecting this purpose, there shall be sent out from Europe a corps of officers and petty officers of the marine, to be put upon a permanent establishment in Cochinchina.
• II. His Majesty Louis XVI. shall have resident consuls on every part of the coast of Cochinchina, wherever he may think fit to place them. These consuls shall be allowed the privilege of building, or causing to be built, ships, frigates, and other vessels, without molestation, under any pretence, from the Cochin-chinese government.
* III. The ambassador of his Majesty Louis XVI. to the Court of Chinchina shall be allowed to fell such timber, in any of the forests, as may be found convenient and suitable for building ships, fri. gates, or other vessels.
• IV. The King of Cochinchina and the Council of State shall cede in perpetuity to his most Christian Majesty, his heirs, and successors, the port and territory of Han-san (bay of Turon and the peninsula), and the adjacent islands from Faifo on the south to Hai-wen on the north.
: V. The King of Cochinchina engages to furnish men and ma. terials necessary for the construction of forts, bridges, high-roads, tanks, &c. as far as may be judged necessary for the protection and defence of the cessions made to his faithful álly the King of France.
• VI. In case that the natives shall at any time be unwilling to remain in the ceded territory, they will be at liberty to leave it, and will be reimbursed the value of the property they may leave upon it. The civil and criminal jurisprudence shall remain unaltered; all religious opinions shall be free ; the taxes shall be collected by the French in the usual mode of the country, and the collectors shall be appointed jointly by the ambassador of France and the King of Cochinchina; but the latter shall not claim any part of those tases, which
will belong properly to his most Christian Majesty for the support of his territories.
• VII. In the event of his most Christian Majesty being resolved to wage war in any part of India, it shall be allowed to the Come mander in Chief of the French forces to raise a levy of 14,000 men, whom he shall cause to be trained in the same manner as they are ia France, and to be put under French discipline.
• VIII. In the event of any power whatsoever attacking the French in their Cochinchinese territory, the King of Cochinchiaz shall furnish 60,000 men or more in land forces, whom he shall clothe, victual, &c. &c.'
It is unnecessary to stop here, to point out the policy of the court of France in framing this treaty; which, luckily for the interests of the East India Company, was frustrated, partly by the influence of the mistress of Conway, the Governor of Pondicherry, but principally by the event of the Revolution. Adran, by the court of France created Bishop and appointed Plenipotentiary, proceeded to Pondicherry; and although there crossed in his purposes, as it has been said, by the intrigues of Madame de Vienne, yet he did not desist from his grand design of re-instating Caung.şhung on the throne. With the young prince, he proceeded to the coast of Cochin China : where he learned that the king, after a miserable subsistence for two years on the island, had been induced by the circumstance of the two usurpers contending with each other, to land in his kingdom : that the people rose in his sup. port; and that the royal party proceeded to Sai-gong, the works of which were immediately put into good defence. Here they were joined in 1790 by bishop Adran, and measures were taken during the year for equipping a fleet and army.
In 1791 the rebel Long-niang or Quang-tung died; and Caungshung immediately commenced his operations by surprising, attacking, and destroying the fleet of Yin-yac the merchant king. It was in the spring of the following year 1793 that the British squadron anchored in the bay of Turon, on the east coast of Cochin China; and at that time, the southern part had submitted to the lawful sovereign. Mr. Barrow, however, is enabled to continue the narrative by the aid of the same information from which most of the preceding part is derived: that is, from a manuscript memoir of a Mons. Barissy, a French naval officer, commanding a frigate in the service of Caung-shung.
Yin yac did not long survive the destruction of his feet, but died in 1793. His son succeeded, who was dispossessed of his capital Quin-nong in 1796 by Caung-shung. Against the son of the other usurper, who kept possession of the kingdom of Tung-quin, the Gustavus of Cochin China was preparing an