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queathed his proceedings to God, his body to turmoyling paines, his hand to the burthen, and his feete to the hard bruising way.” He gives no description of the occurrences of his journey, until his arrival at Rome, on the ground, that the intervening countries were so well known. Concerning Rome, however, and its antiquities, he disserts at considerable length; and, if he had stayed longer, he would, probably, have written more. But, for some reason, he attracts the notice of the Inquisition, and has some difficulty in getting clear off.

“ The period of time, after eight-and-twenty dayes abode, wishing my departure, I hardly escaped from the hunting of these blood-sucking inquisitors, of which the most part were mine owne country-men, the chiefest of whom, was Robert Mophet, a Jesuit, born in St. Andrewes, David Chambers, and of our colledge there, one Gordon, and one Cuningham, borne in the Cannon-gate of Edenborough ; and to speake truth, if it had not beene for Robert Meggat, borne neere to Newbattle, then resident in Burgo di Roma with the old Earle of Tyrone, who hid mee secretly for three dayes in the top of his lord's pallace, when all the streetes and ports of Rome were laid for me, who conveighing me away at the fourth mid-night, and leapt the walles of Rome with mee, I had doubtlesse dyed as hot a death as a Lady Prioresse of Naples did afterward, in my second travells: and for better record, Patricke Baxster, now dwelling in Dundy, and then followed the Earle of Tyron, can justifie the same, my custody and mine escape being both within his knowledge. Yet I may justly affirme it, in these parts a man can find no worser enemie then his nationall supposed friend, religion being the cause of it, and, at home, none more false nor deceitfull than a bosome friend.”

He is exceedingly particular in his geographical accounts of all the countries he passes through; he travelled on foot, and appears to have been a shrewd and industrious observer, these descriptions must have had a value in his own time. We shall pass them over, and dwell alone upon his personal adventures.

As he travelled towards Loretta, he appears to have been tempted by a carriage and good company. Captain Cochrane would have basely yielded.

“Before I came neare to Loretta, by tenne miles, I overtooke a caroch, wherein were two gentlemen of Rome, and their two concubines; who, when they espied mee, saluted me kindly, enquiring of what nation I was? whither I was bound ? and what pleasure I had to travell alone? After I had to these demands given satisfaction, they intreated mee to come up in the caroch, but I thankfully refused, and would not, replying, the way was faire, the weather seasonable, and my body unwearied. At last, they perceiving my absolute refusall, presently dismounted on the ground, to recreate themselves in my company; and, incontinently, the two young unmarried dames came forth also, and would, by no perswasion of me, nor their familiars, mount againe ; saying, they were all pilgrimes, and bound to Loretta, for devotion sake, in pilgrimage, and for the pennance enjoyed to them by their father confessour. Truely, so farre as I could judge, their pennance was small, being carried with horses, and the apearance of their devotion much lesse: for, lodging at Riginati, after supper, each youth led captive his dearest darling to an unsanctified bed, and left me to my accustomed repose.

“When the morning starre appeared, wee imbraced the way, marching towards Loretta, and these virmillion nymphs, to let mee understand they travelled with a cheerefull stomacke, would oft runne races, skipping like wanton lambes on grassie mountaines, and quenching their follies in a sea of unquenchable fantasies. Approaching neare the gate of the village, they pulled off their shoes and stockings, walking barefooted through the streetes, to this tenne thousand times polluted chappell, mumbling Pater nosters, and ave Mariaes on their beads. When they entred the church, wherein the chappell standeth, I stood at the entry, beholding many hundreds of bare-footed blinded bodies, creeping on their knees and hands, thinking themselves not worthy to goe on foote to this idely supposed Nazaretan house."

From Ancona, he embarked for Venice, in what he calls a fregato, in company with one James Arthur. They arrive at Venice, and are immediately regaled with a very edifying spectacle.

“Mine associate and I were no sooner landed, and perceiving a great throng of people, and, in the midst of them, a great smoake, but we begun to demand a Venetian, what the matter was? who replyed, there was a gray frier burning quicke, at St. Markes Pillar, of the reformed order of St. Francis, for begetting fifteene young noble nunnes with child, and all within one yeare; he being also their father confessour. Whereat, I sprung forward through the throng, and

my friend followed me, and came just to the pillar, as the halfe of his body and right arme fell flathings in the fire. The frier was fortysix yeares old, and had bin confessor of that nunnery of Sancta Lucia five yeares. Most of these young nunnes were senators daughters, and two of them were onely come in to learne vertue, and yet fell in the midst of vice.

“ These fifteene with child were all recald home to their fathers pallaces; the lady

prioresse, and the rest of her voluptuous crew, were banished for ever from the precincts of Venice. The monastery was razed to the ground, their rents were allowed to bestowed upon poore families, and distressed age, and their church to bee converted to an hospitall. Most part of all which M. Arthur and I saw, before ever we either eate, dranke, or tooke our lodging in Venice; and I cannot forget, how, after all this, wee being inhungered, and also overjoyed, tumbled in by chance, Alla capello Ruosso, the greatest ordinary in all Venice, neare to which the friars bones were yet a burning; and calling

for a chamber, wee were nobly and richly served. After dinner they laid up our budgets and our burthens, and abroad went we to see the city. Night come, we sup'd, and sup'd alone; the next morne I begun to remarke the grandeur of the inne, and saw it was time that we were gone. I demanded our dependant, what was to pay? he answered, Vn scudo all huomo par ciascun ripasto, a crowne the dyet for each of us, being ten Iulets, or five shillings sterling. Mr. Arthur looked upon me, and I laugh'd upon him. In a word, our dinner and supper cost us forty Iulets, twenty shillings English, being foure crownes; whereat my companion, being discontented, bad the divell be in the friar ********, for wee had paid soundly for his leachery. Many like deaths, for like causes, and worser, have I seene in all my

three voyages, if time could permit me to particularize them.”

Lithgow is very wroth against the manners of Italy, at the time he visited that country. His indignation, however, breaks out in terms of such unmeasured invective, that the decency of modern times will not permit us to quote his language against practices, which, however, are probably as common now as they were then.

In our traveller's voyage from Venice to Dalmatia, he meets with a very sympathetic

Captain of a Carmosalo, who attempts to induce him to desist from his perilous mode of life. This sets him upon vapouring about the necessary spirit of an adventurer, in which he certainly was not deficient.

“ By the

way, I recall the great kindnesse of that Dalmatian master, for offering my condition, I found him more then courteous, and would have no more but a halfe of that which was his bargaine at Venice. Besides this, hee also entertained me three dayes, with a most bountifull and kind acceptance.' My solitary travelling he oft bewailed, wishing me to desist, and never attempt such a voyage; but I, giving him absolute and constant answers, appeased his imagined sorrow.

“True it is, that ignorance and sloth make every thing terrible unto us, and we will not, because we dare not; and dare not, because we will not. This makes us submit ourselves to any thing, that doth either flatter or threaten us; and some, like sottish weakelings, that give the reines of their government into the hands of their wives or servants, thinking then they buy their peace when they sell it. Thus doe they grow upon us ; I meane ignorance and sloth, and by composition, not force, become masters of the place, being just so strong as we are weake. And, as contrary newes delivered at one time, maketh one to heare with joy, and remember with sorrow, even so an unresolved man, in high and heroicke designes, though seeming forward, is distracted heere, set one feare there, and rent asunder every where with the flashing frights of desperation. But a constant resolution can couragiously support all things. Vbicunque homo est, ibi beneficio locus est. And congratulating this skippers courtesie, I bad farewell to his counsell.”

In the island of Lesina, he sees a monstrous child, which affords him a fine opportunity for description. It is precisely one of those sights which travellers of his time most loved to describe, and the vulgar of all ages are especially delighted to read. For the gratification of the vulgar part of our readers, (for even we cannot be supposed to be entirely exempt from them,) we extract it.

“ The governour, who was a Venetian, after he enquired of my intended voyage, most courteously invited me three times to his table, in the time of my five dayes staying there ; and, at the last meeting, hee reported the story of a marvellous mis-shapen creature, borne in the iland, asking if I would goe thither to see it, wherewith, when I perfectly understood the matter, I was contented. The gentleman honoured me also with his company, and a horse to ride on, where, when we came, the captaine called for the father of that monster, to bring him forth before us. Which unnaturall child being brought, I was amazed in that sight, to behold the deformity of nature; for below the middle part there was but one body, and above the middle, there was two living soules, each one separated from another with severall members. Their heads were both of one bignesse, but different in phisnomy; the belly of the one joyned with the posterior part of the other, and their faces looked both one way, as if the one had carried the other on his backe, and often before our eyes, hee that was behind would lay his hands about the necke of the foremost. Their eyes were exceeding bigge, and their hands greater than an infant of three times their

age. The excrements of both creatures issued forth at one place, and their thighes and legges of a great grouth, not semblable to their age, being but sixe-and-thirty dayes old; and their feet were proportionably made like to the foote of a cammell, round and cloven in the middest. They received their food with an insatiable desire, and continually mourned with a pittifull noise. That sorrowfull man told us, 'that when one slept the other awaked, which was a strange disagreement in nature. The mother of them bought dearely that birth, with the losse of her own life; as her husband reported, unspeakable was that torment she endured, in that woefull wrestling paine. I was also informed afterwards, that this one, or rather two-fold wretch, lived but a short while after we saw them.

“ Leaving this monstrous-shapen monster to the owne strange, and almost incredible nativity, we returned to Lesina. But by the way our back-comming, I remember that worthy gentleman, who shewed me the ruines of an old house, where the noble king Demetrius was borne; and after I had yielded my bounden and dutifull thankes unto his generous minde, I hired a fisher-boat to goe over to Clissa, being twelve miles distant.”

As he is passing Santa Maura, one of the Ionian Isles, he meets with his first regular adventure, in which he certainly behaved with becoming courage, if we may trust his own ac


count. It is certainly narrated in a style worthy of the most lofty exploits.

“ In the meane while of our navigable passage, the captaine of the vessel espyed a saile comming from sea, hee presently being moved therewith, sent a mariner to the toppe, who certified him she was a Turkish galley, of Biserta, prosecuting a straight course to invade our barke. Which suddaine affrighting newes. overwhelmed us almost in despaire. Resolution being by the amazed master demanded, of every man, what was best to doe, some replyed one way, and some another. Insomuch, that the most part of the passengers gave counsell rather to render than fight; being confident their friends would pay their ransome, and so relieve them. But I, the wandring pilgrime, pondering in my pensive breast, my solitary estate, the distance of my country and friends, could conceive no hope of deliverance. Upon the which troublesome and fearefull appearance of slavery, I absolutely arose,

and spoke to the master, saying :--The halfe of the carmosalo is your owne, and the most part also of the loading; (all which he had told me before;) wherefore, my counsaile is, that you prepare yourselfe to fight; and goe encourage your passengers, promise to your mariners double wages, make ready your two pieces of ordnance, your muskets, powder, lead and halfe-pikes; for who knoweth, but the Lord may deliver us from the thraldome of these infidels. My exhortation ended, hee was greatly animated therewith, and gave me thankes; wherupon assembling the passengers and mariners, he gave good comfort and large promises to them all; so that their affrighted hopes was converted to a couragious resolution, seeming rather to give the first assault, than to receive the second wrong.

“ To performe the plots of our defence, every man was busie in the worke, some below in the gunner-roome, others cleansing the musket, some preparing the powder and balls, some their swords and short weapons, some dressing the halfe-pikes, and others making fast the doores above; for so the master resolved to make combate below, both to save us from small shot, and besides, for boarding us on a suddaine. The dexterous courage, of all men was so forward to defend their lives and libertie, that truely, in mine opinion, we seemed thrice as many as wee were. All things below and above being cunningly perfected, and every one ranked in order with his harquebuse and pike, to stand on centinell of his own edefence, wee recommend ourselves in the hands of the Almighty, and, in the mean while, attended their fiery salutations.

“ In a furious spleene, the first hola of their courtesies, was the progresse of a martiall conflict, thundring forth a terrible noyse of gally-roaring peeces. And wee, in a sad reply, sent out a backsounding eccho of fiery flying shots, which made an Equinox to the clouds, rebounding backward in our perturbed breasts, the ambiguous sounds of feare and hope. After a long and doubtfull fight, both with great and small shot, night parting us, the Turkes retired till morning, and then were mindfull to give us the new rancounter of a second alarum. But, as it pleased him, who never faileth his, to send

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