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portion of the islands. From the limited returns that have been collected, we infer that the population does not exceed 70,000 souls on all the islands—a diminution of 10,000 since the census of January, 1849.

Statistics of the population of the Kona district, from the official returns :-Natives, 10,186 ; foreigners, 1,169—total, 11,355. In 1850 the number was 14,484, showing a decrease of 3,123 in three years.

DRUNKENNESS. There are nearly 100,000 houses for the sale of intoxicating drinks in England, that is, one to every thirty-two families, or about 160 individuals. These are chiefly frequented and upheld by the labouring classes. In these nurseries of vice and crime upwards of 8,000 friendly societies hold their meetings, and there the members make their payments, and transact all the business of the associations. The temptations which are presented to them are insidious and strong. According to the best authority, there is annually an average of 30,000 individuals taken into custody by the police in London, on account of being found To dead drunk" on the streets, but who are not guilty of any other offence. In addition to these, there are 60,000 more who are seen drunk, but who are not taken into custody. In Glasgow there are annually 9,000 persons brought before the police-office magistrates charged with drunkenness. In Edinburgh, the number brought annually to the policeoffice in a state of drunkenness averages 4,550. It is calculated that there are 600,000 drunkards in our land; and that of these 60,000 die annually, leaving their places to be filled up by those who formerly drank “moderately;' It is calculated that the produce of upwards of 2,000,000 acres land is annually consumed in the manufacture of strong drink. It is calculated that there are above 50,000 brewers and distillers in Great Britain, carrying on the business in nearly 100,000 places; that these manufacture annually upwards of 500,000,000 of gallons of strong drink ; and that there are nearly 250,000 persons licensed to dispose of it by retail. Of course, each of these makers and sellers employs some assistants, and some of them have large numbers in their establishments. It is calculated that fully seventy millions of pounds sterling are annually expended in cash directly on strong drink, by the people of our country. To this must be added nearly, if not quite as much more, for loss of time, health, strength, life, and character, through drinking. These are general facts, yet they tell a startling tale. Reader, ponder them well. Think what must be the moral influence of these things.-First Prize Essay on Drunkenness.

is given at nearly 29 per cent. This being the average ratio throughout the whole of the slave States, it is very instructive to observe how some States rise above, and how miserably others fall below this average. In North Carolina the increase is only 12 per cent., in Maryland it is only 7 in ten thousand, in Delaware there is a decrease of 17.38. The loss of natural increase in some of the States is made up in some measure by the enormous increase in others. Thus in Georgia that increase is 35•85; in Missouri, 50·10, in Florida, 52.85; in Mississippi, 58-74; and in Arkansas, 136.26. These figures tell their_tale very plainly, and show how the Uncle Toms have changed hands, and passed from the St. Clairs, where they were treated kindly, to the brutal Legrees, who tyrannized over them with brutal fury.

It is calculated that the internal slave-trade of the United States, during the last ten years, has resulted in a profit of about seventeen millions and a half sterling-a fact which will readily account for the tenacity with which the dealers in these chattels cleave to their craft, and the zeal and principle with which their well-paid ministers defend it.

The benighting influence of slavery on the minds of its patrons is also shown by the census,

in the fact that in the Southern States, where the gross number of native whites is 3,240,056, the number above 20 who can neither read nor write is 292,873, or 10 per cent. of the population. In the North, the proportion is only one and a half per cent., the number being only 79,970 out of 5,935,216. STATE AND PROSPECTS OF GREECE.

Notwithstanding the ancient glory of Greece it was well-nigh trampled out by the hoof of a cruel barbarism. It has nevertheless experienced a sort of resurrection.. Its statistics are curious. The population amounted in 1832 to 612,600 souls ; in 1843, to 853,000; and in 1853, to 1,042,527. Athens had 31,100; Hermopholis (Syra), 20,000; Patras, 19,500 ; Argos, 10,560; Sparta, 6,700;

Thebes, 4,200 Corinth, 3,200 inhabitants. There were, in 1853, 30 bishops and archbishops, 5,114 priests and monks, 12,549 officials, 252 lawyers, 274 medical men, and 1,300 midwives, 674 teachers, 39,881 school-boys and 5,455 school-girls, 229,259 field labourers, 6,280 shopkeepers, 26,312 mariners, 25,546 operatives, 11,149 common workmen. The military power had, in 1853, 4,021 men for taking the field and 2,418 for garrison duty, 325 horsemen, 570 technical troops, 1,451 mounted police, 744 seamen, &c. The merchant shipping amounted, in 1853, to 4,230 vessels of 247,000 tons, and these were manned by crews numbering 27,312 seamen. In 1851, the imports amounted to 26; in 1852, to 25 ; in 1853, to 20; in 1854, 214 millions of drachmas; 93 millions of which were from France, 43 millions from Austria and Germany, 4} millions from England, 13 millions from Italy, 1 million from Russia, &c. The exports amounted in 1852 to 10 millions; in 1853, to 9 millions; and in 1854, to 6,800,000 drachmas,

AMERICAN SLAVERY. Philanthropists are waiting with much anxiety the appearance of the next American census, which, it is believed, will tell a dreadful tale. The ratio of the increase of the whole slave population during the decade ending 1850,

331

Literary Notices.

Lessons from Jesus ; or, the Teaching of

Divine Love. By W. P. BALFERN. Lon

don: Shaw. The title of this precious volume, though briefly yet emphatically indicates its character. It exhibits the Lord of glory in a great variety of situations, many of which bear some resemblance to those in which the people of God are here placed. It is throughout much fitted to instruct, encourage, and strengthen. The chapters on Apostolic Preaching and Positive Theology are specially excellent. Titles of Our Lord, adopted by Himself in the

New Testament. By J. M. RANDALL, Vicar of Langham, Norfolk. London: Religious

Tract Society. We have a number of books on this all-important subject already, but we believe we have none so eminently adapted to universal circulation. The subjects, as far as they go, are well selected, and worked out in a manner highly satisfactory. The Beginnings of Divine Grace. By H. R.

REYNOLDS, B.A. London: Hamilton and

Co. We are truly glad to find Mr. Reynolds once more restored to his people, his pulpit, and his pen. The present very pretty volume has no preface from which an account might be derived of its origin and object; but we presume that it is intended for the direct instruction of his flock, and the public, in great lessons of religion. The discourses are very brief, but remarkable for solidity, elegance, and elaboration, while pervaded by a fine current of Evangelical sentiment. The Heavens and the Earth ; or, Familiar

Illustrations of Astronomy. By the Rev. T. MILNER, M.A. London : Religious Tract

Society, We have here another of the exquisite performances of Mr. Milner, who has popularised, in a manner the most masterly, the sublimest subject within the whole cyclopædia of material knowledge. The work is by far the most complete and comprehensive publication of its class, with which we are acquainted. It is astronomy made easy. The book cannot fail of commanding an immense circulation. It deserves a place, not only in every school, but in every family in the British Empire. Hid Treasures, and the Search for them.

Being the substance of Lectures delivered to
Bible-classes. By J. HARTLEY. London :

Mason. The author tells us " that many of the following pages have been read to different Bible-classes which it has been the happiness of the writer to conduct.” We do not like " read" instruction anywhere, and least of all in the Bibleclass. "It is just possible, however, that Mr. Hartley has so managed matters as to render the exercise comparatively unexceptionable, for be adds, “they do not afford specimens of

the modes of instruction which he has adopted
in those classes.” We are happy to hear it.
The volume bespeaks a highly cultivated and
well-informed mind; and the essays, as here
presented, do great credit to their author, since
they are much fitted to promote Christian
edification.
Blind Bartimeus, and his Great Physician.

By Professor W. J. HOGE. Edinburgh :
Strahan and Co. London: Hamilton

and Co. This volume presents a very masterly exposition of one of the most captivating portions of the New Testament. A fine and a pure fancy has been successfully employed to illustrate abstract truth. The doctrinal is beautifully sustained by the pictorial; and the whole constitute a most valuable lesson of Christian life and labour. The Congregational Pulpit. Vol. VII. Lon

don: Judd and Glass. This is another volume of very excellent sermons, on a great variety of subjects, mainly written by a number of efficient men. While the discourses are good, the original outlines are also valuable, furnishing excellent material for Christian meditation. Frank Elliott ; or, Wells in the Desert. By

JAMES CHALLEN. Philadelphia: Challen

and Son. We are not sure that we can very rapturously hail the appearance of a work of this description. Parables are good, but very few possess the genius requisite to render them efficient in exhibiting Divine truth. The writer tells us, that “love and murder, immorality and rationalism, are all deemed quite proper in works which make appeal to the imagination; but those subjects which belong to the highest purposes of life should be ignored and proscribed, and nothing but what is as dry as summer's dust should be given for the soul to feed on!” We have our doubts about this, and do not quite admire the style of expression. We concur in what the author says about the prophets of the Old Testament, and the prodigal son; nor would we speak lightly of him in relation to this performance; but the work is by no means one entirely to our taste. It will, nevertheless, be read with interest by young people, who will find in it a considerable amount of thoughtfulness. Lectures, Expository and Practical, on the

Book of Esther. By A. D. DAVIDSON,

D.D. Edinburgh: T. and T. Clark. This book is thoroughly Scotch, full of solid matter, ably put together, considerably reminding us of the celebrated Dr. A. Thompson's Expository Discourses. We have already several publications on the same subject ; but, we believe, there are none which admit of advantageous comparison with the .present. The subject is one of the most interesting, touching, and beautiful to be found, even in the inspired volume; and the author has so thoroughly penetrated and digested its essence and its attributes, as to have fully prepared himself for its effectual development. Closet Devotional Exercises for the Young; from Ten Years old and upwards. By the Rev. ALEXANDER FLETCHER, D.D, Lon

don: Hall, Virtue and Co. DR. FLETCHER is, in diverse respects, a peculiar and an extraordinary man. For nearly fifty years he has been the most popular preacher to juvenile assemblies in England, perhaps in the world. Not satisfied with his supremacy in teaching the young, and his success in discoursing to the old, he aspired to render liturgical service to families; and to this end he prepared a book of enormous magnitude, and of a necessarily great price, comprising an apparatus which comprises the year, which has sold in thousands upon thousands. That Dr. Fletcher, a Scotchman, and a Presbyterian pastor, should have so far travelled in the direction of Rome, as his fathers would probably have said, as to perform such a service, and perform it with such success, is not a little remarkable. Our famous preacher, however, has not been satisfied even with that, but has prepared a similar work for young people, from ten years old and upwards. The present volume, however, unlike its ponderous predecessor, which çovered the year, spans only three months ; but if it shall be favoured with acceptance, the author promises three more volumes, which will complete the fifty-two weeks. Although we are not exceedingly partial to crutches for any but those who are absolutely lame, we feel something like a wish that the contingency may be realised, and that the work may be completed. The volume is a remarkably workman-like affair, Every page is complete in itself, comprising, first, in double columns, a few verses of Scripture and on the opposite page a hymn, to which is subjoined a brief but comprehensive prayer, in large type, across the page. We must in all candour say, that the book, in our judgment, is decidedly the best thing of the kind we have ever seen. It is fitted to be eminently, useful, not only to the class for whom it is designed, but to plain, simple people generally, Properly used, it would enable them, in due course, to do without it. Memoir of Elizabeth George. By the Rev. H.

J. PIGGOTT, B.A. London: Mason. All Christians, but especially the female sex, will read with delight this most touching, instructive, and edifying narrative. It abounds in Gospel truths and religious expe‘rience. Modern Anglican Theology. Chapters on

Coleridge, Hare, Maurice, Kingsley, and Jowett; and on the Doctrine of the Sacrifice and Atonement. By J. H. Rigg. Second

Edition. London : Heylin. It reflects credit on the public that they have so appreciated this masterly volume as to call for a new edition. The work, on its original appearance, made a very considerable sensation amongst thinking men; and, we believe, the numbers are increasing of those who are

capable of estimating its sound sentiment and
masterly reasoning. It is, in all respects, a
most valuable contribution to the cause of
Scripture truth. It is one of those books
which will live, and, for ages to come, do credit
to its author,
The Poetical Works of Spenser. With Me-

moir and Critical Dissertation. By the
Rev. G. GILFILLAN. In Five Vols. Vol.
III.
Edinburgh: J. Nichol.

London: Nisbet. In the present volume we have a splendid essay on the genius and poetry of Spenser, worthy alike of its author and its subject. Mr. Gilfillan seems to have felt that he would require to take his gold pen, and brace himself for a very arduous undertaking, and he has done so by giving the public a piece of exquisite criticism, The English Bible. History of the Transla

tion of the Holy Scriptures into the English tongue, with specimens of the old English Version. By Mrs. C. CONANT. Edited, and with an Introduction, by the Rev, C. H.

SPURGEON. London: Hall, Virtue and Co. We find it difficult to impart any idea of this rich and peculiar volume, in a few words. We may, nevertheless, say în general terms, that it is a book of extraordinary interest and special value. It could scarcely be a common performance that could bring Mr. Spurgeon down from his rostrum, to introduce it by the copious and enlightened preface with which we are here presented. The volume forms a species of cyclopædia on the subject of which it treats. Everything is here, Bible History, in connection with the General

History of the World. By the Rev. W. G.

BLACKIE, A.M. London: T. Nelson. This volume, without pretension, may correctly be designated a great work. It is not only great, but original, differing materially from everything of the kind with which we have hitherto met. Its most comprehensive outline is filled up in a very elaborate and highly informed manner. It is quite a treasure; and its value is greatly enhanced by the appended gazetteer of Bible localities, and the general index, Midnight Musings, and other Poems. By

G. ¥. GIDDINS. London: Judd and Glass. This is the production of a young man of sound principles and high promise. He need not trouble himself, for the next seven years or more, to publish anything. Let him in the meanwhile, to the utmost of his ability, cultivate his mind, replenish his memory, thoroughly digest the best of the English poets, and ceaselessly exercise his pen, and in due season he may give the world something which they will not be willing to lose. The Psalter'; or, Psalms of David. London:

Bagster and Sons. This is a very beautiful pocket edition, which will be much prized, especially by persons somewhat up in years, since the type is the largest size, and can be read with the utmost comfort even in a railway carriage. They are, moreover, set forth as they are to be sung or said in churches. The Book of Psalms, according to the Authorised

Version. London: Bagster and Sons. This beautiful edition, as the title-page bears, is according to the authorised version. The value of the publication is much enhanced by the fact, that there is a table of all the passages quoted, or alluded to, in the New Testament, which will, perhaps, surprise most readers by their number. The Book of Revelation. By S. P. TRE

GELLES, D.D. London: Bagster and Sons. We are right glad to see a new edition of this very valuable work. In the brief but beautifal preface, the views of the learned translator are set forth with great clearness, while the introduction embodies, within a moderate space, a very large portion of erudite matter, all tending to throw light on this sublime, but mysterious book. The publication, as a whole, possesses a peculiar value, and it cannot fail of being highly prized by the educated portion of the Church of Christ. But we have something more here than the Book of Revelation. A prospectus of a critical edition of the Greek New Testament, now in preparation, with an historical sketch of the printed text. This appendix is a considerable publication in itself, of a deeply learned and very instructive character. Bille Psalmody. London: Haddon. THOSË who have a preference for this species of worship will find the present to be a very helpful publication. We have so frequently expressed our opinion as to its comparative merits and adaptation to dissenting worship, that for the present we shall forbear. Bible Training. A Manual for Sabbath School

Teachers and Parents. By D. Stow. Edin

burgh : Constable and Co. The ninth edition of such a work alone suffices to demonstrate its acceptance, and that may be taken as presumptive proof of its excellence. It sets forth a beautiful outline of parental and Sabbath-school instruction; to which succeeds the local system of establishing Sabbath schools. We have then an account of classes for preparing Sabbath-school teachers-a section which comprises many points well worthy of consideration. The last chapter, exhibiting the leading features of the training system, and hints on the practical principle, is peculiarly valuable. The Life of John Steggal; a Suffolk Man.

Edited by the Author of " Margaret Catch

pole.” London: Simpkin and Co. We have already spoken in the most laudatory terms of this remarkable publication; and have, therefore, only to express our satisfaction at finding another edition so soon called for. It eclipses all romance for interest, and in its way is a little storehouse of information. Scripture Lessons. Second Series. London:

T. C. Jack. This publication consists of a series of exercises on great scriptural subjects, such as the

Fall of Man, the Coming of the Lord, the
Wise Men of the East, the Gospel, &c., &c.
On all the leading points we have first a long
text, and then a short commentary.
On True Religion: How it is to be Sought, and

How it is to be Secured. By E. ELDRED, Jun.

London : lladdon. WE bave here seven sections :-On False Worship, the Trinity, Prayer, the Bible, the Duties of Life, Religion, and Controversy, every part being worked cut in such a manner as to show what is false and what is true, Brief although it is, it comprises much sound thought, set forth in clear and accurate language. Illustrative Teaching. By W. H. GROSER.

London : Ward and Co. It is customary to talk of this or that is being “worth its weight in gold." We do not think we should be at all extravagant were we to say that the present publication, of some sixty pages, is so. It is in its way a perfect gem, embodying a very large amount of exquisite thought, and suggestive observation. A Short and Plain Instruction and Prepara

tion for the better understanding of the Lord's Supper. By the Rev. T. Wilson.

London: Routledge and Co. This publication is well known to the Church of God, and it has been serviceable to multitudes all but countless. Although more especially adapted to Church people, Dissenters may read it with advantage. Twilight Hours. A Selection of Poems. By

LIZZIE May. London: Snow. The volume is pervaded by a gentle spirit, largely bedewed with evangelism. The variety is very considerable, and many of the pieces are remarkable for their pathos and beauty. A Simple Interpretation of the Revelation. By

H. W. Monk. London: Tallant and Co. THERE is, from the nature of the subject, much speculation in this volume. What reception it may meet with from the student of prophecy we cannot tell; it is, nevertheless, obviously, the fruit of much thought and inquiry, and a close appeal to the word of God; and whatever be its merits as a piece of exposition, no man can read it carefully without deriving an addition to his wisdom, and experiencing an improvement in his affections. Pleading with God. By W. D. HOGARTH.

Edinburgh : J. Maclaren. The present publication is intended to illustrate a principle of infinite importance. The truths presented are remarkable for their simplicity, spirituality, and evangelism, and the text by which it is accompanied is worthy of it. Sabbath Scenes and deditations. By the Rev.

J. C. FAIRBURN. Edinburgh: Elliot. It is worthy of note that the spirit of poetry appears more largely to rest upon the ministers of the Presbyterian communities of Scotland than on those of any other denomination in Great Britain. Mr. Fairburn thinks well, and versifies well. These meditations present níuch sound truth, clothed in appropriate cos

tume. These portraits cannot fail to strike the English eye, and to reach the English heart, although it is probable they will be more fully realised beyond the Tweed. It is said, when Whitefield went to Scotland, he was specially struck and delighted with the fact

that when he gave out his text he found every auditor with à Bible in his hand, and the rustle of simultaneous opening throughout the mighty throngs made a sensible flapping noise. Our poet supplies some fine thoughts on the subject.

Intelligence

.

CG

IRISH MISSIONS. The following Circular is now being issued, and we feel assured it will everywhere meet with the response which is due to an appeal so well founded, and withal so very urgent. It may be safely atfirmed that never was the cause of Christ in Ireland so hopeful as at the present hour. It would seem, indeed, as if the time, yea, the set time, to favour her were come. The tidings daily reaching us are wonderful, and full of encouragement! While God has come down with a shout, and made bare His holy arm, surely His will not be supine! Let the cry of the hour be, “ Pecuniary aid for Ireland !” Importunate prayer for Ireland !

!" Preachers full of faith and of the Holy Ghost for Ireland !” " London, Ludgate-street,

IRISH EVANGELICAL SOCIETY.-Special " June, 1859.

Paper with a view to Increased Efforts. - It has “DEAR SIR,- The Committee of the Irish

not been the practice of the Committee to

involve the organizations, or proceedings of Evangelical Society venture respectfully to

the Society in the contests, or schemes of pourge upon the renewed consideration of the litical factions. The labours of its agents are friends of Ireland the sphere and claims of directed to the weifare of all classes of the their mission. The accompanying report will

people ; to bring the Gospel among the peabriefly present to your view the several sta

santry in rural hamlets, and the industrious

inhabitants in towns, without respect to sect tions occupied, and the nature of the work

or party. Nevertheless, freedom of teaching sustained by the agencies of the Society. The is required for this end ; and, now that the funds received last year included four special cause of religious liberty as well as of scripdonations to meet an emergency, but yet they

tural instruction in Ireland is in peril, deep

solicitude is awakened. The designs and orwere not more than adequate to the expendi

ganizations of political partisans, under a carture. In several of the existing stations addi

dinal's direction, have recently been such as tional agents are required; and in numerous to warrant intense apprehension. The Goother districts there is not only need for, but vernment support of schools where Popish also encouragement to adopt, new stations.

doctrines are openly taught; their continued

maintenance of Maynooth College, a nursery “ The Committee earnestly desire to do for Romish Priests, to be planted in every more for the moral emancipation of the Irish corner of British territory; and the probability people. They are greatly encouraged by the of a Royal Charter, encouraged by them, to resolution of the English Chapel-Building

the Roman Catholic University in Dublin; Society to originate and work a special fund

accompanied by the appointment and extended for the erection of Congregational chapels in

support of Catholic priests in workhouses,

prisons, the army, navy, and Colonial and Ireland,

Indian territories and garrisons, are the ri“The present revenues of the Irish Evan- pening fruits of a cordial understanding begelical Society do not reach £2000. It is the tween papal dignitaries and English statesmen. wish of the Committee, by earnest efforts, to

The new phases of parliamentary tactics, by

members of the Roman Catholic party and bring them up to £5000 annually; and for

magisterial authorities in Ireland, are calcuthis purpose the Secretary, whose resignation lated to create alarm. The Protestant of other duties will set him free for more liberties hitherto possessed, for scriptural vigorous exertions on behalf of Ireland, has teaching, are hated by a dominant priesthood,

while it is manifest that the necessity for engaged to seek further support, by personal

evangelical ministrations daily increases among visits to the friends of the cause of God among the masses of the Irish people. the Irish throughout the country.

Were British Protestants wise, they would " THOMAS M. COOMBS,

make Ireland their battle-field with Popery; " Treasurer.

and every section of the Church of Christ

would arm themselves, for the spiritual war" JAMES WM. MASSIE, fare against the Man of Sin, with those wea

Secretary.". pons which are not carnal, but mighty through

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