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having had a personal friend among my | rationalism of a half century ago bears people. Here, in South Germany,as is well alınost undisputed sway. known, there is very little family life. But this is not so everywhere. There One family never visits another. That are regions where one already begins to would be exclusive and unsocial. It feel the warmth of Christian life among would also be considered tedious and the people, and where God's truth is stupid. We always meet each other in gaining ground powerfully. Everypublic, the common people at the beer where, indeed, it is gaining ground. house, the higher classes at the more At the time of Göethe there was aristocratic club-room, or, if both sexes nothing but rationalism throughout the are together, at the ball or the party. I land. Now, indeed, the clergy in most know of no society in which the pre parts are orthodox enough, but the sence of a pious minister would be wel. trouble is, they substitute orthodoxy in come. If I join them, I must talk of the head for God's love in the heart, and that which they do, must make myself nobody listeus to their words, because one of them in their frivolous and sinful | they are nothing but words. But there conversation. To talk earnestly upon

is piety here, nevertheless. any subject, is to damp the spirits of

C. F. G. the company, and to get one's self voted a bore. This tendency to luxury and

** The writer of the foregoing has done frivolity, and dissipation, is increasing

good service to the cause of truth. The conupon us every day, and unless some

dition of the country is deplorable in the expower can counteract it, is to overwhelm

treme. German Theology, properly so called, jis." It is by no means true, however,

is in melancholy harmony with German that all the clergy are unwelcome in

Religion. There are yet, here and there, noble society, or have no influence there. I

witnesses for the truth as it is in Jesus, who have in mind one here in the vicinity of

| sorrowfully, yet prayerfully and hopefully, Heidelberg, for instance, who for the

wait for the breaking of the day.--Ep. last ten years has been chairman and master-spirit at all sorts of suppers and , CHURCH. MEMBERSHIP. carousals in the city, and entertains the

Sir, I am instructed by the Comcompany by singing burlesque songs on

mittee of the Congregational Union to Scripture scenes, and keeping every

request you kindly to insert in your body in a roar by his wit. Such a

Journal the following Resolution, which minister is considered to have a piety of

was adopted at the recent Annual a very "genial an: sunny order," which

Meeting of the Union, and I would does not throw a gloom over life, and

crave for it the serious attention of our rob it of its enjoyment.

pastors and church members. I have dwelt at some length upon an

Believe me, Sir, individual instance, because I knew no

Yours faithfully, better way in which I could give an idea

GEORGE SMITH, of the relations of clergy to people, and

Congregational Library, of the currents of public feeling in Ger

June 17, 1859. many. The picture that my friend has given is in the former respect untrue, Resolved, “That an appeal having for the clergy in general do not stand been made to the Congregational Union isolated and without influence in the of England and Wales, from a conworld, simply because they are of the ference of Congregationalists of Ausworld ; and in the latter respect I trust tralia, held in Hobart Town, Tasmania, it is too dark for Germany as a whole

on the subject of giving suitable tostiwould to God I could only believe much monials to the members of our churches too dark. For Bavaria, it is perhaps emigrating to the colonies, this assembly true ; for Rhenish Bavaria it would ventures respectfully to call the attenneed to be darkened many shades; in tion of our pastors to this important Baden, the matter is bad enough. I matter, and to urge them, as far as poshave heard it said repeatedly that not a sible, to take steps for supplying all the fourth of the people here believe in a members of their churches about to future life. And yet there are some emigrate with letters of dismission and godly ministers here, and the matter is commendation to some one of our growing better. In central Germany, churches in the colony to which they with Jena as the radiating point, the 1

The Christian Witness.

LONDON, JULY 1, 1859.

EVANGELIZATION OF LONDON. With respect to Articles on the Evangeliza- i eight gentlemen of high literary reputation, tion of London our views are these : instead of each receiving what was deemed most congeone Essay, consisting of so many chapters, to nial to his ascertained tastes, talents, and be successively published, forming one whole, pursuits, and awarding to each the sum of we wish a variety of Essays, each complete £1,000.' Viewing the eight Essays in their in itself, but all constituting a species of unity; unity, a work was thus called forth, such as no and instead of one mind operating on the sub one man in England, or the world, could have ject, we prefer to have a number of minds, produced. The plan combined powerful mosome probably more competent to deal with tive with perfect certainty; and accordingly one phase of it, and some with another. The each writer begirded himself to his task with advantages of this are too obvious to require the confidence that his production would, specification. The idea of competition, with without fail, go before the public, and that he all its contingencies and uncertainties, will should receive a fair reward for his labour. thus be set aside, and a class of men enlisted Had the thing taken the shape of an ordinary in the enterprise who would never have been Prize Essay, not one of those distinguished induced to enter on a competition. In this men,-among whom was the late Dr. Chalway, too, much useless labour will be saved, mers,—would have been a competitor. It is, and much disappointment prevented, the neces mortifying, however, to state that, notwithsary attendants of all competition. The sub standing the wisdom of the arrangement, and jects, after the manner of getting up a Number the munificence of the reward, the combined of a great Review, or a Part of a Cyclopædia, result by no means equalled just expectation, will be committed to the hands of picked men, It would seem as if great men were incapable so that every Essay will, to a reasonable ex of writing “to order.” It is a condition of tent, do justice to its theme. By this means success, that the subject should be one of their the peril generally attaching to Prize Essays own selection, and its prosecution an object of will also be averted; it often happens that

ardent passion. No mere pecuniary consideeven where the number of competitors is very ration can command complete success. True considerable, not one of their productions genius resents compulsion as an indignity to reaches the excellence which was desired, her heaven-born nature ! while the prize must, from the conditions, be

Now these principles apply to small entergiven to the best, however it may sink even prises, such as our own, equally with the below mediocrity. This is the inevitable greatest. The apportioned task to the selected danger in all cases of literary competition. writer is much superior to the stated prize, Men of real power are generally too busy, and offered indefinitely to all who choose to enter their time too precious to be expended on an the lists. Such are the principles by which uncertainty. Hence such men rarely become our matter is to be governed. Our rewards competitors for prizes.

will, of course, be a very humble affair ; but In connexion with this subject, an inte they will considerably exceed those of reresting illustration occurred many years ago. spectable journalism. It is to be hoped, howThe late Earl of Bridgewater left the munifi ever, that with our writers that will be a very cent sum of £8,000 for the best Essay on a secondary matter, and that the great point great point of natural theology. Had the will be to promote the salvation of men ! Will of the Earl been carried out to the letter, The points we wish to have discussed are the result must have been largely to disappoint the following: his own hopes and wishes. To the best Essay, 1. The Spiritual Condition of the Metrohowever imperfect and unworthy, the whole polis, as indicated by the Census Report; by prize must have been given. The late Bishop the Report recently made to the House of of London, however,-a thorough man of Lords ; by the Reports of the London City business,—who was appointed to act in the Mission and the Journals of its Agents; and matter, judged more correctly, and acted more by evidence derived from other reliable discreetly. Instead of offering the whole of sources. the enormous sum for a single Essay, he broke II. Special Prayer with respect to the Conup both the prize and the subject into eight version of the Metropolis, and how it may be parts, committing the latter, severally, to called forth to the largest extent amongst


individuals, families, churches, and union 38,455; Kentucky, 38,385; Louisiana, 20,670; meetings.

Maryland, 16,040; Mississippi, 23,116 ; MisIII. Open-Air Preaching: the principles on souri, 19,185 ; North Carolina, 28,303; South which it ought to be conducted, whether deno Carolina, 25,596; Tennessee, 33,864; Texas, minational or general, and by what means 7,747 ; Virginia, 55,093. and in what way it may best be carried on. Thus it will be seen that in the United

IV. Preaching in Public Rooms and Iron States the total amount of slaveholders is Chapels throughout and around the Metropo 347,525, who may be thus classified :lis: How an organization for this purpose may

Holders of 1 slave

68,820 best be formed; and whether it should be de

1 to 5 slaves 105,683 nominational or general.

5 to 10 slaves 80,765 V. The establishment of Missionary

10 to 20 slaves Churches after the Scottish model: How the

20 to 50 slaves 29,733

50 to 100 slaves 6,196 enterprise may best be carried out; and assuming

100 to 200 slaves 1,479 that it must be denominational, whether a

200 to 300 slaves 187 Society for that purpose be desirable or ne

300 to 500 slaves 56 cessary.

500 to 1,000 slaves 9 VI. How far existing Places of Worship

1,000 to 2,000 slaves 2 may be available for Afternoon Services : The following figures show the number of Seeing that this is the chief service in Scot slaves connected with the different churches in land, and was anciently so in England, whether

the South :anything could be done to revive it in the Me

Methodist Church, South ............... 200,000 tropolis, as a much more convenient season

Methodist, North, in Va. and Maryfor multitudes than either the morning or the land ..........

............... 15,000 evening; and if so, how it may best be gone Missionary and Hard Shell Baptists 175,000

Old School Presbyterians ...............

12,000 VII. City Mission Operations: Whether

New School Presbyterians, supposed 6,000

Cumberland Presbyterians ............. 20,000 anything, and what, can be done to strengthen

Protestant Episcopalians ....

7,000 the hands of the Committee of this Society, Campbellites, or Christian Church ... 10,000 and to render the labours of the Mission more All other sects combined

............... 20,000 efficient; and how the resources of the churches may best be brought to bear upon

Total coloured membership, South ... 460,000 the subject.

Nothing has existed since the world began VIII. Whether it be practicable and de | to match with the foregoing figures. Nearly sirable to revive the London Christian In half a million of immortal beings, professed struction Society, or preferable to attempt the children of God, brothers and sisters of the formation of a New Institution : and in either Lord Jesus Christ, redeemed by His blood, case, what is the best method of proceeding. quickened by His Spirit, clothed with His

IX. A Union of the Congregational Churches righteousness, and fellow-heirs with Him of in and around London for the Evangelization the Kingdom, all reduced to the level of brute of the City: Whether such an organization be beasts, and sold over the same auction block desirable, and if so, what ought to be its con with horses and oxen, sheep and swine, to the stitution and general method of operation. highest bidder !

As a rule, it is desirable that the Essays That there is a determination at the South should not exceed six pages, although two or to prosecute the slave-trade vigorously, is evithree of the subjects might require seven or dent from the openness with which the newlyeight.

imported negroes are advertised in the news

papers of Mississippi and Texas. The · REVIVAL OF THE SLAVE-TRADE.

following is from The Richmond Reporter

(Texas) of the 14th ult. :The philanthropists of England will learn with surprise and sorrow that the thrice-ac

"FOR SALE.Four hundred likely AFRI

CAN NEGROES, lately landed upon the cursed traffic in human beings is fairly revived

coast of Texas. Said negroes will be sold in the Southern States of America. It might

upon the most reasonable terms. One-third have been thought that there had already been down; the remainder in one or two years, enow, both of slaveholders and of Christian

with eight per cent. interest. For further in

formation, inquire of C. K. C., Houston; or slaves, as well as of slaves generally. Let us

L. R. G., Galveston." but look at the figures :

In Alabama there are 29,295 holders of The juries of the South are now making slaves; Arkansas, 5,999; Columbia, 1,477 ; | common cause with the judges of the North. Delaware, 809; . Florida, 3,520; Georgia, The Grand Jury of Savannah have risen

against the law! · The following is part of their atrocious utterance : • "Heretofore, the people of the South, firm in their consciousness of right and strength, have failed to place the stamp of condemnation upon such laws as reflect upon the institution of slavery, but have permitted, unrebuked, the influence of foreign opinion to prevail in their support. Longer to yield to a sickly sentiment of pretended philanthropy and diseased mental aberration of higher-law' fanatics, the tendency of which is to debase us in the estimation of civilized nations, is weak and unwise, Regarding all such laws as tending to encourage such results, and consequently as baneful in their effects, we unhesitatingly advocate the repeal of all laws which, directly or indirectly, condemn this institution, and those who have inherited or maintain it; and think it the duty of the Southern people to require their legislators to unite their efforts for the accomplishment of this object.”

· If these things do not open men's eyes nothing will. It would really seem as if the Southern States were fast ripening for destruction!

exert all the power which is involved in the full conviction. It is felt, seeing that the money is the produce of a common taxation, that justice requires the endowment of all or none. The result is, that truth and error are confounded, or identified. The State has no conscience; it simply recognizes worship, wholly regardless of its character, its truth, or its falsehood.

We unfeignedly rejoice in the conclusions the Wesleyan Methodists have arrived at. We make no remark on the course they have determined to pursue as to the receipt of the money until the abolition, a point on which, we see, the genuine voluntaries of New South Wales are somewhat sharply pressing them. The ground they take, we think, with their views of endowment in the abstract, is tenable. They feel, that were they to relinquish thoir share of State-aid, seeing that a fixed sum is set apart for that purpose, the dividend of heresy would just be so much the greater ! Were all to resign but the Romanists, they would receive the whole. All honour to the Wesleyans, then, for their determination to use every means to effect its entire abolition as early as possible. In this attempt they want neither for example nor stimulus. Stateaid is already abolished in South Australia; and it is on the very eve of abolition in Vica toria : how, then, can it stand in New South Wales ?

METHODISM IN SYDNEY. THE friends of truth, whether religious or political, are always, at the outset, from the very nature of things, in a minority, and a very small one. But how small soever their numbers, and whatever their afflictions on account of their principles, they are invincible; and their triumph is only a question of time, The following resolutions of the Annual District Meeting of the ministers and official laymen of the Wesleyan Church, in the colony of New South Wales, held in Sydney in November, 1858, present a striking and a cheering illustration ::,"1. That it is the opinion of this Committee that the system of State-aid to public worship existing in this colony is, upon the whole, injurious to the interests of true religion, confounding, as it does, all distinctions between truth and error, in matters of Divine revelation, by indiscriminately supporting both.

“2. That this Committee does not affirm that the principle of State-aid is in itself sinful or unsound, and is of opinion that the Wesleyan Church in this colony would not be justified in relinquishing its own participation in State-aid so long as the other denominations continue to receive it, believing that such relinquishment would only aggravate the eyil herein practicable.

"3. That this Committee, therefore, deems it a duty to recommend the adoption of all constitutional and befitting means for causing the said system to be abolished entirely, andas early as practicable.”

These resolutions, the fruit of true light, are fraught with most important consequences. They are based on a correct principle, and will

CHINESE MISSIONS. MR. ALBERT SMITH, in prosecuting his garrulous vocation of catering for the amusement of mankind, some time back proceeded to China; and on returning, he began as usual to entertain his West-End audiences with an account of the things he had heard and seen. This, to be sure, amounted to very little, for he only glanced at a small speck of the Celestial Empire for a few weeks, and took ship again for England; but a vigorous imagination and a ready eloquence easily supplied the defects of knowledge. Whatever came to hand was seized without scruple. Sacredness furnished no protection. The Bishop of Victoria showed him some kindness, which he turned to account in his lectures. His lordship took him to several of the schools recently established there. On Mr. Smith's stating to the Bishop that he felt very much gratified to see such exertions going on for the spread of civilization in China, he tells us the Bishop replied, "I wish I could say so, Mr. Smith; but our labours are very disheartening. When our education becomes grafted on their natural cunning, they turn out incorrigible rogues, and give us great trouble. They lie, forge, &c. I

only remember one case in my mission that I thought that missionary topics would have achieved a good position. I am sorry I did found a place in your Egyptian-hall lectures, I not ask who he was, but that interview made should have been more careful to exclude the a great impression on me, and, mentioning it possibility of your confounding the difficulties' at the Hong Kong club at night, some one and disappointments incidental to teaching said, 'Oh! that is A-Yung, or A-Ching,' or a young Chinese the English language, amid some such name; "he is the marker in our European mercantile settlements, with a total billiard-rooms.' I could not help thinking it failure of the general work of Christian miswas a melancholy putting of the cart before

sionary evangelization." the horse, to expend so much in missions It is to be hoped that, in justice, all journals thousands and thousands of miles away, even which have given currency to the erroneous with a doubtful result, when there is so much and mischievous statement of Mr, Albert to educate and reclaim under our eyes, among Smith, will supply the antidote by giving the the dark and wretched outcasts crowding in Bishop's letter. the holes and corners of our own mighty London.” This is the old story, " the wants of home.”

REVIVAL IN IRELAND. It might be instructive to know the extent of our present Number, it will be seen, bears Mr. Albert Smith's practical sympathy with very strongly on the subject of the Revival of what is being done for "the wretched outcasts Religion. For a generation, much has been of mighty London.” It has hitherto been said and written on it; and there is abundant found, that the whole of the home-work has reason to believe that the labour has not been been done by the very men who support lost. The persevering supplications of the foreign operations, while our compassion-mon people of God are now being answered in the gers are ever ready to censure foreign, as if to descent of "showers of blessing." Where, of compensate for the neglect of home effort. all places in the three kingdoms, it was, perThe Bishop of Victoria having been apprised haps, least looked for, there the power is being of the facts, at once set the matter right by made manifest in a manner the most extraorwriting to Mr. Albert Smith a letter, in which dinary. Nothing like it has occurred in these he says :

Isles for nearly a century. It is just now one “No Church of England convert, nor any hundred years since the mighty movement took pupil of St. Paul's College, has ever become a place in many parts of England, and more billiard-marker at the club. From the especially under the ministry of Berridge and strictest inquiries, I find that there is not the Hicks. The types of the manifestations are in slightest foundation for such an assertion. I all points identical: they agree even in the enclose the original letter of the secretary of minutest particulars. A most impressive illus. the club as a conclusive testimony on this point. tration will be found in another page of our

“You have evidently mistaken a few words present Number, in the Memoir of Berof discouragement, occasioned by one recent ridge. case then painfully present before my view, of Many people profess to be stumbled by these a Chinese formerly connected with the col mysterious displays of bodily suffering. On lege, abusing his talents, and disappointing this point there is, we think, much talk with, our expectations, for a confession of the hope out knowledge. In our next Number, we lessness of the work of conversions to Chris expect that a competent writer will enter tianity in China. Had I entertained any | thoroughly into the whole question,


DIMINUTION OF THE POPULATION OF THE SANDWICH ISLANDS. For many years the missions of the Sand- | between Maunama on the east, and Moanaluà wich Islands have been among the most suc on the west, a distance of some fourteen miles, cessful in the world; and yet the native popu and containing a population of about 10,000 lation are melting away like snow before a souls. The deaths from small-pox, included summer's sun. The official returns of James in the above, are supposed to be about 2,800 W. Marsh, Esq., to the Governor of Oahu, in the balance from other diseases. the Islands, for the year 1853, show the fol In the same district, during the year 1852, lowing results for the First District, in which there were births, 337; deaths, 906; marriages, Honolulu is situated :-Births, 191 ; deaths, 418. It is to be remarked that it was in this 3,759; marriages of natives, 453; marriages district that the small-pox first broke out, and of foreigners, 62. This district is comprised was more fatal, perhaps, than in any other

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