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4. The universal stare made the eyes ache. Toward the distant line of Italian coast, indeed, it was a little relieved by light clouds of mist, slowly rising from the evaporation of the sea ; but it softened nowhere else. Tar ăway the staring roads, deep in dust, stared from the hillside, stared from the hollow, stared from the interminable plain.

5. Far away the dusty vines overhanging wayside cottages, and the monotonous wayside avenues of parched trees without shade, drooped beneath the stare of earth and sky. So did the horses with drowsy bells, in long files of carts, creeping slowly toward the interior ; so did their recumbent drivers, when they were awake, which rarely happened; so did the exhausted laborers in the fields.

6. Every thing that lived or grew was oppressed by the glare; except the lizard, passing swiftly over rough stone walls, and the cicāda, chirping his dry hot chirp, like a rattle. The very dust was scorched brown, and something quivered in the atmosphere as if the air itself were panting. Blinds, shutters, curtains, awnings, were all closed to keep out the stare. Grant it but a chink or keyhole, and it shot in like a white-hot ărrow.

7. The churches were freëst from it. To come out of the twilight of pillars and arches-dreamily dotted with winking lamps, dreamily peopled with ugly old shadows piously dozing, spitting, and beggingwas to plunge into a fiery river, and swim for life to the nearest strip of shade. So, with people lounging and lying wherever shade was, with but little hum of tongues or barking of dogs, with occasional jangling of discordant church bells, and rattling of vicious drums, Marseilles, a fact to be strongly smelt and tasted, lay broiling in the sun one day.

III. ACCENT.

I.
DEFINITIONS.

ACCENT is the peculiar force given to one or more

of 2. In many trisyllables and polysyllables, of two syllables accented, one is uttered with greater force than the other. The more forcible accent is called primary, and the less forcible, secondary; as, liab-i-Ta-tion.

3. The mark of acute accent ['] is often used to indicate primary accent; as,

While not forgetting the past, improve the présent.

4. The mark of grave accent ['] is here used to indicate, first, secondary accent; secondly, that the vowel over which it is placed, forms a separate syllable; and, thirdly, that the vowel is not an alphabetic equivalent, but represents one of its usual oral elements; as,

My ben'efactor bought the violin. A learned man caught that wingèd thing. Her goodness (not goodniss] moved the roughest (not roughist.]

The pupil will be required to give the office of each mark in the following

EXERCISES IN ACCENT.

1. The loneʼly hunt'er calls his bound'ing dogs, and seeks the high'way.

2. Hark! the whirlwind is in the forest : agèd trees are o'verturned'.

3. Verácity first of all, and fòréver.

4. Will the heed'lessness of honest students offend' their truest friends?

5. Hónèst stúdents learn the greátnèss of hùmílity. 6. That blessed and beloved child loves every winged thing.

7. The agree'able ar'tisan made an admirable păr'asol' for that beau'tiful Russian (răsh'an) la'dy.

8. No'tice the marks of ac'cent, and al'ways accent correct'ly worces that should have but one ac'cent, as in sen'sible, vaga'ry, cir'cumstances, difficulty, in'teresting, &c.

9. Costúme, mánnèrs, ríchès, civilizátion, have no permanent interest for him. His heedlessness offénds his trúest friends.

10. In a crowded life, on a stage of nátions, or in the obscúrèst hámlèt, the same bléssèd élemènts offer the same rich choices to each new comer,

ACCENT CHANGED BY CONTRAST.

31

MAN

II.
WORDS DISTINGUISHED BY ACCÉNT.
ANY words, or parts of speech, having the same

form, are distinguished by accent alone. Nouns and adjectives are often thus distinguished from verbs, and, in a few dissyllables, from each other.

EXAMPLES. 1. Why does your ab'sent friend absent himself ? 2. Did he abstract' an abstract of your speech from the desk? 3. Note the mark of ac'cent, and accent' the right syllable. 4. Buy some cem'ent and cement the glass. 5. Desert' us not in the des'ert. 6. If that proj'ect fail, he will project another. 7. My in'crease is taken to increase your wealth. 8. Perfume' the room with rich per'fume.

9. If they reprimand' that officer, he will not regard their rep'rimand.

10. If they rebel', and overthrow' the government, even the reb'els can not justify the o' verthrow.

11. In Au'gust, the august' writer entered into a com'pact to prepare a compact' discourse.

12. In'stinct, not reason, rendered the herd instinct with spirit.

13. Within a min'ute from this time, I will find a minute' piece of gold.

III.
ACCENT CHANGED BY CONTRAST.
HE ordinary accent of words is sometimes changed

by a contrast in sense, or to express opposition of thought.

EXAMPLES. 1. He must in'crease, but I must de'crease. 2. He did not say a new ad'dition, but a new e'dition.

3. Consider well what you have done, and what you have left un'done.

4. I said that she will sus'pect the truth of the story, not that she will ex'pect it.

5. He that descended is also the same that as'cended.

6. This corruptible must put on in'corruption ; and this mortal must put on im'mortality.

THI

EXPRESSION.

XPRESSION OF SPEECH is the utterance of thought,

feeling, or passion, with due significance or force. Its general divisions are EMPHASIS, SLUR, INFLECTION, MODULATION, MONOTONE, PERSONATION, and PAUSES.

Orthoöpy, the first general division of elocution, has to do with separate words,—the production of their oral elements, the division of these elements into syllables, and the accentuation of the right syllables. Its thorough mastery will insure the correct and exact pronunciation of all words, used in speaking and reading, with as little effort of the mind as is usually employed in the act of walking.

Expression, the second general division of elocution, has to do with words as found in sentences and extended discourse. It enables the reader to see clearly whatever is represented or described, to enter fully into the feelings of the writer, and to cause others to see, feel, and understand.

I. EMPHASIS.

I.
DEFINITIONS.

MPHASIS is the peculiar force given to one or more

words of a sentence. 2. To give a word emphasis, means to pronounce it in a loud' or forcible manner. No uncommon tone, however, is necessary, as words may be made emphatic by prolonging the vowel sounds, by a pause, or even by a whisper.

3. Emphatic words are often printed in italics ; those more emphatic, in small CAPITALS; and those that receive the greatest force, in large CAPITALS.

4. By the proper use of emphasis, we are enabled to im

*Loudness. The instructor will ence to high pitch, but to volume of explain to the class the fact, that voice, used on the same key or pitch, Loudness has not, of necessity, refer. when reading or speaking.

RULES IN EMPHASIS.

33

part animation and interest to conversation and reading. Its importance can not be over-estimated, as the meaning of a sentence often depends upon the proper placing of the emphasis. If readers have a desire to produce an impression on hearers, and read what they understand and FEEL, they will generally place emphasis on the right words. Students, however should be required to observe carefully the following:

II.
RULES IN EMPHASIS.

WORDS AND PHRASES, PECULIARLY SIGNIFICANT, or im

ORDS AND PHRASES PECULIARLY SIGNIFICANT, or im

portant in meaningare emphatic Whence and what art thou, execrable shape ?

2. WORDS AND PHRASES THAT CONTRAST, or point out a difference, are emphatic; as,

I did not say a better soldier, but an elder.

3. THE REPETITION of an emphatic word or phrase usually requires an increased force of utterance; as,

You injured my child—you, sir !

4. A SUCCESSION of important words or phrases usually requires a gradual increase of emphatic force, though emphasis sometimes falls on the last word of a series only; as,

His disappointment, his ANGUISH, his DEATH, were caused by your carelessness.

These misfortunes are the same to the poor, the ignorant, and the weak, as to the rich, the wise, and the powerful.

EXERCISES IN EMPHASIS."

1. Speak little and well, if you wish to be considered as possessing měrit.

2. Boisterous in speech, in action prompt and bold.
3. He buys, he sells,-he STEALS, he KILLS for gold.
4. But here I stand for right, for Roman right.

Direction.-Require the student is illustrated by each of the followto tell which of the preceding rules ing exercises.

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