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of the ten borns. (ver. 12, 13, 14.) The ten borns are ten kings, who bave received no kingdom as yet : and consequently they were not in being at the time of the vision; and indeed the Roman empire was not divided into ten kingdoms, till fome time after it was become Christian. But they receive power as kings one bour, (3) usar 'wpov, at the same time, or for the same length of time, with the beaft: It is true in both senses, they rise and fall together with the beast: and consequently they are not to be reckoned before the rise and eftablishment of the beast; and accordingly when à catalogue was produced of these ten kings or kingdoms in a differtation upon Daniel, they were exhibited as they stood in the eighth century, which is the time of the rise and establishment of the beast. Kingdoms they might be before, but they were not before kingdoms or borns of the beast, till they embraced his religion, and submitted to his authority; and the beast strengthened them,
imp jugum, quem anno super- D. 752 Exarchatum Ravenna riore excommunicarat, prorsus &c papæ datum tantum cum excuffit Gregorius II, Romam- aliis urbibus, non ipfam Rom que et regiones vicinas fibi fub
fed mihi videntur non de jecit. Ex illo enim tempore re, sed umbra tantum certare. papa rex octavus merito haberi M. S. poteft, cum gladio spirituali tem
(3) Uno eodemque tempore. Viporalem quoque dehinc adep- tring. Malim, ad unum idemtus. Scio effe, qui pulfo Leone
que tempus, ut cum indentitate imp negent Romam papæ sub- temporis durationem comples. jedtam fuiffe, fed a Pipino A. tatur. Mr. Mann's M. S. Vol. III.
as they again strengthened the beast. It is upon the seventh or last head of the beast that the horns are seen growing together, that is upon the Roman empire in its seventh or last form of government; and they are not like the heads, successive, but contemporary kingdoms. 7: These have one mind, and fall give their power and strength unto the beast; which is easily understood and applied to the princes and states in communion with the church of Rome. However they may differ in other respects, yet they agree in submitting implicitly to; the authority of the Roman church, and in defending its rights and prerogatives, against all opposers. But where were ever ten kings or kingdoms, who were all unanimous in their submissions to the Roman empire, and voluntarily and of their own accord contributed their power and strength, their forces and riches to support and maintain it ? These: fhall make war with the Lamb, and the Lamb sisall overcome them; they persecute the true church of Christ, but the true church shall in the end prevail and triumph over them ; which particulars have been fulfilled in part
(4) Idque hoc loco, tanto populi Romani fuffragiis creati magis appofite, quod ex popu- funt papæ. Mr. Mann's M. S. li reverentia et favore primo excrevit poteftas illa papalis, et (5) Prima Nota, eft ipfum per decem aut plura 'æcula Catholicæ Ecclesiæ & Chriftia.
already, and will be more fully accomplished hereafter.
In the former part of this description (ver. I:) the whore is represented like ancient Babylon, fitting upon, many waters : and these waters: are here (ver. 15.) said exprefly to (4) signify peoples, and multitudes, and nations, and tongués. So many words in the plural number fitly denote the great extensiveness of her power and jurisdiction : and it is a remarkable peculiarity of Rome, different from all other governments in the world, that her authority is not limited to her own immediate subjects, and confined within the bounds of her own dominions, but extends over all kingdoms and countries profefsing the same religion. She herself glories in the title of the Catholic church, and exults in the number of her votaries as a certain proof of the true religion. Cardinal (5) Bellarmin's first note of the true church is the very name of the Catholic church : and his fourth note is amplitude, or multitude and variety of believers ; for the truly catholic church, says he, ought not only to comprehend all ages, but likewise all
places, norum nomen. Bellar de Notis tholica, non folum debet amEcclefiæ. Lib. 4. Cap. 4. Quar- plecti omnia tempora, sed etiam ta Nota, eft amplitudo, five omnia loca, omnes nationes, multitudo et varietas creden- omnium hominum genera. Ibid. tium. Ecclefiæ enim vere ca- Cap. 7.
places, all nations, all kinds of men. But not withstanding the general current in her favor, the tide shall turn against her; and the hands which helped to raise her, Thall also pull her down. (ver. 16.) The ten horns shall bate the wbore; that is by a common figure of the whole for a part, some of the ten kings, for others (XVIII. 9.) Shall bewail ber and lament for ber, and (XIX. 19.) shall fight and perish in the cause of the beast.' Some of the kings who formerly loved her, grown fenfible of her exorbitant exactions and oppressions, shall bate ber, shall strip, and expose, and plunder her, and utterly consume her with fire. Rome therefore will finally be destroyed by some of the princes, who are reformed, or shall be reformed from popery: and as the kings of France have contributed greatly to her advancement, it is not impoffible, nor improbable, that some time ot other they may also be the principal authors of her destruction. France hath already shown some tendency towards a reformation, and therefore may appear more likely to effect such a revolution. Such a revolution may reasonably be expected, because (ver. 17.) this infåtuation of popish princes is permitted by divine providence only for a certain period, until the words of God shall be fulfilled, and particularly the
words of the prophet Daniel, (VII. 25, 26.) They shall be given into his band, until a time, and times, and the dividing of time: But then, as it immediately follows, the judgment shall fit, and they shall take away bis dominion, to consume, and to destroy it unto the end.
Listle doubt can remain after this, what idolatrous church was meant by the whore of Babylon : but for the greater assuredness it is added by the angel, (ver. 18.) The woman wbich thou sawest is that great city. The angel had undertaken to tell the mystery of the woman, and of the beast. He hath explained the mystery of the beast, and of his seven heads and ten horns; and his explanation of the mystery of the woman is that great city, which reigneth over the kings of the earth. And what city at the time of the vision reigned over the kings of the earth, but Rome? She hath too ever since reigned over the kings of the earth, if not with temporal, yet at least with spiritual authority, In the arts of government she hath far exceeded all the cities both of ancient and of modern times: as if the had constantly remembered and put in practice the advice of the poet,
Tu regere imperio populos, Romane, memento;