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5. When I look upon the tombs of the great, every emotion of envy

dies in me. -Addison.
7. If two are in the churchyard laid

Then ye are only five.- Wordsworth.
8. When I was at Grand Cairo, I picked up several oriental manu-

scripts which I have still by me.-Addison. 9. A time there was, ere England's griefs began,

When every rood of ground maintained its man.Goldsmith. 10. Antonio, with calm resignation, replied that he had but little to

say, for that he had prepared his mind for death.-Lamb. 11. A man is more sure of his conduct when the verdict which he

passes upon his own behaviour, is thus warranted and con

firmed by the opinion of all that know him.-Spectator. 12. When they smiled because he deemed it near,

His heart more truly knew that sound too well
Which stretched his father on a bloody bier,

And roused the vengeance blood alone could quell.—Byron. 44. Subordinate clauses, like the terms of the simple sentence, are named according to the functions which they perform, -noun or substantive, adjective or attributive, and adverbial.

45. A clause occupying the place of a noun, whether as subject, object, or complement, is called a substantive clause;

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That you have wronged me doth appear in this.—Shakespeare.

46. A clause occupying the place of an attribute is called an attributive clause; as,

I drew near with that reverence which is due to a superior nature.-Addison.

47. Attributive clauses are either (1) Explanatory or (2) Restrictive.* When the attributive clause expresses a universal quality of that which it qualifies, it is termed simply explanatory; as, Ice, which is congealed liquid (i.e. all ice), melts before the sun.

* In the author's "English Composition,” Restrictive clauses are called Determinative. The preferable term Restrictive is adopted from Professor Bain's “ English Grammar,” a work remarkable for its exactness in dealing with the logical part of Grammar.

When the attributive clause expresses a special character of that which it qualifies, and is used to define it, it is called restrictive; as, Ice that is found in March (i.e., certain ice) soon disappears.

48. A clause occupying the place, and performing the functions, of an adverb, is called an adverbial clause; as,

The spleen is seldom felt where Flora reigns. 49. Adverbial clauses, like adverbial words and phrases, are of four kinds, expressing,

1st, Time. 2d, Place. 3d, Manner. 4th, Cause.

Exercise 10. Analyze the following Sentences into Clauses, and state of what KIND each Clause is :

1. They whom truth and wisdom lead

Can gather honey from a weed.— Cowper.
2. When vice prevails, and impious men prevail,

The post of honour is a private station. --Addison.
3. I love everything that's old.— Goldsmith.
4. New laws from him who reigns new minds may raise

In us who serve.Milton.
5. When we were arrived upon the verge of his estate, we stopped
at a little inn, to rest ourselves and our horses.- Addison.

The play's the thing Wherein I'll catch the conscience of the king.Shakespeare. 7. I am monarch of all I survey.- Cowper. 8. When Cæsar lived, he durst not thus have moved me.Shakespeare. 9. Try not the pass, the old man said. —Longfellow. 10. I prayed that I might be restored to that state of innocence in

which I had wandered in those shades.-Lamb. 11. I would the friend to whom belongs

The vengeance due to all her wrongs

Would spare me but a day.-Scott. 12. When we are born, we cry that we are come

To this great stage of fools.-Shakespeare. 50. Connectives, or the words which connect subordinate with principal clauses, are either conjunctions or relative words. Besides linking the two clauses together, the connective determines the nature of the subordinate clause; for this reason the conjunction is sometimes said to govern the clause which it introduces.

Under relative words are included not only relative pronouns, but such words as where, when, doc., partly adverbial and partly conjunctive in their nature, which always contain a reference to some correlative word expressed or understood.

1. Connectives of Substantive Clauses. 51. The word most generally used to introduce substantive clauses, is the conjunction that; as,

Yet some maintain that to this day

She is a living child.— Wordsworth. The use of that as a conjunction has arisen from its demonstrative character. In the above example, it points out the thing which is maintained.

52. Sometimes the conjunction is omitted, especially when the substantive clause is the object of the principal verb; as,

I'll warrant (that) we'll never see him sell his hen on a rainy day.Goldsmith.

53. An attributive clause frequently absorbs the substantive to which it refers, and thus becomes a substantive clause; as,

Who was the thane lives yet.—Shakespeare. Here " who was the thane” is properly an attribute to “he," understood. By the omission of “he," the attributive clause becomes the subject of " lives.”

54. All relative clauses used substantively may be similarly explained; as, 1st, And see where surly winter passes off.Thomson.

Here " where" is equivalent to “the place at or in which." The proper object of "see” is “the place, to which the clause "at which surly winter passes off” is an attribute.

2d, He earns whate'er he can.Longfellow.

Here " whate'er” = the thing which-ever; “ thing" is the object of “ earns;" " which ever he can " is attributive to thing. 3d, When he will arrive is uncertain.

“When” = the time at which. 4th, How he got home is a profound mystery.

“How” = the manner in which. 5th, We cannot learn why he refused to return.

“Why' = the reason for which. 55. When two or more substantive clauses are stated alternatively the first is introduced by whether, the others by or; as,

Whether he was combined
With those of Norway; or did line the rebel
With hidden help and vantage; or that with both
He labour'd in his country's wrack, I know not.

Here whether" ... "or" = either that, or that : I knew not either that
he was combined, &c., or that he did live, &c., or that he labour'd, &c.
In this sense, Shakespeare also uses except instead of whether; as,

Except they meant to bathe in reeking wounds,
Or memorize another Golgotha,

I cannot tell.Shakespeare. It is to be observed, however, that this sentence admits of another explanation. The subordinate clauses may be taken as adverbial clauses (of condition), to “tell,” and we may supply an object clause to “tell,” I cannot tell what they meant.

56. Sometimes the second alternative is not expressed, but implied; as,

Ask him whether he is ready (or not). Whether is thus used to introduce indirect questions. The conjunction if is, in this sense, often used for whether; as,

Ask Charles if he be ready. Here the direct question to be put to Charles is, " Are you ready?" In all these cases, whether, except, and if, imply contingency or doubt.

57. The connectives of substantive clauses may be thus classified: The clause may mention

1. A fact directly, and be introduced by that.
2. A fact contingently,

whether, if.
3. A person,


who, whom, &c. 4. A thing,

which, what. 5. A place,

where. 6. A time,

when. 7. A manner,

how. 8. A reason,


» why. 58. When the substantive clause expresses what is said, thought, believed, seen, or found, prominence is often given to it by putting it in the principal place (omitting the conjunction), and introducing the principal clause parenthetically ; as, (a) These, I found, were all of them politicians. — Addison.

= I found that these were, &c. (6) Every one, I think, will acknowledge this, &c. - Hallam.

= I think that every one, &c. (c) Elizabeth, it is true, often spoke to her parliaments,

&c. — Macaulay. = It is true that Elizabeth often

spoke, &c. The parenthetical clause may be introduced in a subordinate clause; , as, A friend, who is now, I believe, near me has said, &c.

The clause " who is now near me” is the object of “I believe," and at the same time attributive to “friend.”

2. Connectives of Attributive Clauses. 59. The words most frequently used to introduce attributive clauses are the relative pronouns; as,

Uneasy lies the head that wears a crown.-Shakespeare.
I saw two other gentlemen by me, who were in the same

ridiculous circumstances. --Addison. We are such stuff as dreams are made of.--Shakespeare. 60. A clause attributive to a noun expressing place, time, or reason, is frequently introduced by a relative adverb; but

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