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ANALYSIS.—1st. The word Shoe, in pronunciation, is formed by the union of two oral elements; sh 8-shoe. The first is a modified breathing; hence, it is an atonic. The second is a pure tone; hence, it is a tonic.

2d. The word SHOE, in writing, is represented by four letters; sho e-shoe. The combination sh represents an atonic; hence, it is a consonant. Its oral element is chiefly formed by the teeth ; hence, it is a dental. Its oral element is produced by the same organs and in a similar manner as the second oral element represented by %; hence, it is a cognate of %. The combination oe is formed by the union of two vowels, one of which is silent; hence, it is an improper diphthong. It represents the oral element usually represented by ô; hence, it is an alphabetic equivalent of 0.

VIII.

RULES IN ARTICULATION.

А.

AS the name of a letter, or when used as an emphatic

word, should always be pronounced a (a in age); as, She did not say that the three boys knew the letter ā, but that à boy knew it.

2. THE WORD A, when not emphatic, is marked short (ă), though in quality it should be pronounced nearly like a as heard in åsk, gråss; as,

Give ă baby sister å smile, ă kind word, and å kiss.

3. The, when not emphatic nor immediately followed by a word that commences with a vowel sound, should be pro nounced thủ; as,

The (fhŭ) peach, the (thú) plum, the apple, and the (thú) cherry are yours. Did he ask for à pen, or for the pen ?

4. U PRECEDED BY R.—When u long (u in tūbe), or its alphabetic equivalent ew, is preceded by r, or the sound of

- A initial.-A in many words, or volume of sound being less than as an initial unaccented syllable, is that of a sixth power (d), as in ălås, also marked short (ă), its quantity ămåss, ă båft.

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EXERCISES IN ARTICULATION.

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sh, in the same syllable, it has always the sound of o in

do; as,

Are you sure that shrewd youth was rude? . 5. R MAY BE TRILLED when immediately followed by a vowel sound in the same syllable. When thus situated in emphatic words, it should always be trilled; as,

He is both brave and true. She said scratching, not scrawling.

IX.
EXERCISES IN ARTICULATION.

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ILENT letters are here omitted and the words are

spelled as they should be pronounced. The pupils will read the sentences several times, both separately and in concert, uttering all the oral elements with force and distinctness. They will also analyze the words, both as spoken and written, and name the rules in articulation that are illustrated by the exercises.

1. Thủ bóld, båd båiz brók bólts ånd bårz.
2. Thủ rögz răsht round fhū rūf, rèd rõks.
3. Hi on a hil Hủ hêrd hårsez hárni hófs.
4. Shỏr ål her påfhz år påfhz 8v pės.
5. Bå! fåt'z not siks děllårz, bůt a dollår.
6. Chẳrị hẽ öld màn tỏ chöz & châĩs chẽz.
7. Līt sēkững līt, hăth lit ov līt bēgīld.
8. Thů hosts stůd stil, in silent wûnder fikst.
9. A thouzånd shrèks får hòplės mërsi kål.
10. Thů fölishnes Öv fölz iz fölli.
11. Bởth’z yởths with trồths yüz othz.
12. Arm ît wỉth răgz, ă pîgmĩ strå wil pērs it.
13. Nou set fhů těth ånd strech fhů nostril wid.
14. Hè wòcht ånd wept, hệ félt ånd pråd får ål.
15. Hiz iz, åmidst thů mists, mêzêrd ån åzer skł.

*16. Thů whảlz whéld ånd whërld, and bård thår bråd, broun båks.

17. Jilz ănd Jasn Jönz kằn nốt sẽ–Arörũ, alis, ămẫs, mănni, vìllå, når Lūnå.

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18. Thů strif sėsėth, pès åpprocheth, ånd fhů gůd må rėjáisėth.

19. Thủ shrởd shrôz båd him så thåt fhů vil viksnz yúzd shrůgz, ånd shårp shril shréks.

20. Shỏrli, tho wồnděd, thủ prodént rēkrôt wůd not ēt fhăt kród frôt.

21. Stêrn, růgged nêrs ! thi rijid lór with påshens mėni å yer shể bór.

22. Amidst thů mists ånd koldest frosts, with bårest rists ånd stoutést bósts, hệ thrůsts hiz fists ågenst thů pòsts, ånd stil insists hè sèz thả gösts.

23. A starm arizoth ôn thủ sẻ. A mödễl vossẽl z struggling åmidst thủ wår ov elements, kwivềring ånd shivering, shringking ånd båttling lik å thingking being. Thů mersilės, råking whềrlwindz, lik fritfůl fèndz, houl ånd mòn, ånd send shårp, shril shrèks thr8 fhů krėking kårdåj, snåpping fhů shets ånd måsts. Thů stërdi sålårz stånd tô fhår tåsks, ånd wether fhů sévèrèst stårm ởy fhů sezn.

24. Chåst-id, cherisht Chès! Thů chårmz ov thi chekêrd chằmbỏez chân mê chinjlễslĩ. Für the ẵn thủ chắplẹts 6v chảnlès chåriti ånd fhů chålis Öv childlik cherfülnės. Chånj bản nốt chẳng thè: firöm childhủÔ tô thủ chẳrmẹl-hous, frôm our först childish ehörpẵngz tỏ thủ chilz Øy thủ chẳrch-yằrd, thou årt our chèri, chảnjlés chèftinës.

II. SYLLABICATION.

I.
DEFINITIONS.

SYLLABLE is a word, or part of a word, uttered by

a single impulse of the voice. 2. A MONOSYLLABLE is a word of one syllable; as, home. 3. A DISSYLLABLE is a word of two syllables; as, home-less.

4. A TRISYLLABLE is a word of three syllables; as, confine-ment.

RULES IN SYLLABICATION.

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5. A POLYSYLLABLE is a word of four or more syllables ; as, in-no-cen-cy, un-in-tel-li-gi-lil-i-ty.

6. THE ULTIMATE is the last syllable of a word; as sul, in peace-fril.

7. THE PENULT, or penultimate, is the last syllable but one of a word; as māk, in peace-mak-er.

8. THE ANTEPENULT, or antepenultimate, is the last syllable but two of a word; as ta, in spon-ta-ne-ous.

9. THE PREANTEPENULT, or preantepenultimate, is the last syllable but three of a word; as cab, in vo-cat-u-la-ry.

II.
RULES IN SYLLABICATION.

INITI
NITIAL CONSONANTS.—The elements of consonants

that commence words should be uttered distinctly, but should not be much prolonged.'

2. FINAL CONSONANTS.-Elements that are represented by final consonants should be dwelt upon, and uttered with great distinctness; as,

He accepts the office, and attempts by his acts to conceal his faults.

3. WHEN ONE WORD OF A SENTENCE ENDS and the next begins with the same consonant, or another that is hard to produce after it, a difficulty in utterance arises that should be obviated by dwelling on the final consonant, and then taking up the one at the beginning of the next word, in a second impulse of the voice, without pausing between them; as,

It will pain nobody, if the sad dangler regain neither rope.

4. FINAL COGNATES.—In uttering the elements of the final cognates, l, p, d, t, g, and k, the organs of speech

Initial Elements Prolonged.- the following lines : On this point Dr. Rusa mentions the Canst thou not m-inister to a error of a distinguished actor, who, m-ind diseased, in order to give great force and dis- Pl-uck from the memory a r-nottinctness to his articulation, dwelt ed sorrow ?" on the initial letters, as marked in Such mouthing defeats its object.

should not remain closed at the several pauses of discourse, but should be smartly separated by a kind of echo; as,

I took down my hat-t, and put it upon my head-d.

5. UNACCENTED SYLLABLES should be pronounced as distinctly as those which are accented: they should merely have less force of voice and less prolongation; as,

The thoughtless, helpless, homeless girl did not resent his rudeness and harshness.

Very many of the prevailing faults of articulation result from a neglect of these rules, especially the second, the third, and the last. He who gives a full and definite sound to final consonants and to unaccented vowels, if he does it without stiffness or formality, can hardly fail to articulate well.

EXERCISE IN SYLLABICATION.” 1. THIRTY years ago, Marseilles" lay burning in the sun, one day. A blazing sun, upon a fierce August day, was no greater rarity in Southern France then, than at any other time, before or since. Every thing in Marseilles, and about Marseilles, had stared at the fervid sky, and been stared at in return, until å staring habit had become universal there.

2. Strāngers were stared out of countenance by staring white houses, staring white walls, staring white streets, staring tracts of arid road, staring hills from which verdure was burnt ăwāy. The only things to be seen not firedly staring and glaring were the vines drooping under their load of grapes. These did occasionally wink a little, as the hot air moved their faint leaves.

3. There was no wind to make a ripple on the foul water within the harbor, or on the beautiful sea without. The line of dēmarkātion between the two colors, black and blue, showed the point which the pure sea would not pass ; but it lay as quiet as the abominable pool, with which it never mixed. Boats without awnings were too hot to touch; ships blistered at their moorings; the stones of the quays had not cooled for months.

1 Direction. Students will give formation of syllables each letter the number and names of the syl- that appears in Italics, in this exerlables, in words of more than one cise, is designed to illustrate. syllable, and tell what rule for the Marseilles, (mår sålz?).

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