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and therefore save the trouble of new demonstrations; under which come the several ways of practice, or means of operation. And 27. Such instances as shew that a small quantity of matter, or an apparently small efficient, may have a great effect.
This doctrine of prerogative instances is treated with care; and illustrated with a suitable variety of examples, that open the way to enquiries of all kinds, and lead to the improvement of all the parts of philosophy, so as to shew, in a summary view, what is already known, in numerous subjects, and direct a farther prosecution ; at the same time that the author is carrying on his own particular design of perfecting the art of induction; and laying down precepts, and giving directions for the execution of the remaining parts of his work. And here ends all that is left us of the Novum Orga
It is extremely to be regretted that the author did not finish this piece; of which it is evident he had the complete idea, with its almost infinite train of uses. But there being nothing at that time extant, which could, in any
tolerable degree, afford the necessary instances for the tables of view; he thought it incumbent upon him to set an example, at least, of the manner of procuring them; as he did in his Sylva Sylvarum ; and afterwards digested and fashioned many of them into particular tables, in his History of Winds, History of Life and Death, &c!
He had proposed to deliver the remaining parts of this Organum under the following heads, viz. 1. the helps of induction; 2. the rectification of induction; 3. the method of varying enquiries ; 4. the prerogative natures for enquiry; 5. the limits of enquiry; 6. the reduction of enquiries to practice, 7. the preliminaries to 'enquiry; and, 8. the ascending and descending scale of axioms. It might, perhaps, be of
* some utility briefly to go over these several heads, so as to indicate a little of the manner wherein it may be conjectured, from his other writings, the author proposed to treat them; and, at the same time, refer the reader to those parts of his own, and other works, where farther light and assistance may be procured towards finishing the whole.
(1.) The first thing in order, after the doct trine of prerogative instances, was to lay down the helps of induction, under which it should seem that the author proposed to deliver, 1.the way of procuring a genuine history of nature and art, as the basis or matter of induction t; 2. to
See Part II. Aph. 21. + See Dr. Hook's Method of Improving Philosophy, p. 18-33. and Mr. Boyle's Works.
explain the manner wherein this matter might occasionally be reduced into regular tables of view, according to the nature of each subject; 3. to shew, the order or method wherein the mind
s to consider the instances contained in these tables, both separately and comparatively, or collectively, in order to discover the causes of the thing enquired after, and deduce the axioms for directing new experiments; 4. how these tables of view are afterwards to be improv: ed, or made more full or comprehensive, and ranged anew, so as to exhibit all the particulars, in their most natural order, and afford still greater assistance to the mind, in forming more just and perfect conceptions, notions, and axioms 3"
5. the several ways that might be contrived for helping or improving the senses, the memory, and the reason, in order to the forming a more perfect induction *.
(2.) The rectification of induction stands next in order, by which appears to be meant the making a due exclusion, or rejection, of all those simple natures, or properties, that do not essentially contribute in constituting the form of a thing, so that, after such an exclusion is com
See Dr. Hook's Method of Improving Philosophy, p. 12-18. 3442. and M. Tschirnhaus's Medicina Meks tis; p. 182-211, &c. 2d edit.
pleatly made, the pure form shall remain behind, unattended with any thing more than is absolutely necessary, or essential to it; that is, a perfect notion of the essence, or constituent cause of the thing, will be obtained, according to what was mentioned above.
The business of rectifying induction will, therefore, require, 1. a previous knowledge of simple natures, or a set of just and philosophical notions; and, 2. the way of contriving and making certain experiments, or trials, for producing certain works, that shall verify and confirm the truth of induction, by shewing that if men operate according to such rules as are afforded by the axioms, or forms discovered by induction, they may produce the works and effects thus pointed out, which are such as could not be otherwise scientifically produced by men.
The way of forming these notions, is by the use of induction itself, and requires an entire extirpation of all false theories, idols, and vain imaginations, that the mind may become perfectly equable, and disposed to receive these genuine notions *, which are not to be made conformable to the sense of man, but in exact agreement to the sense of nature, so as to be scientifical and just expressions of things, as they exist in nature, and not as the mind of itself, from the first information of the sense, is apt to imagine them. And these notions will enable us to make a true induction, as it were, a priori.
* See Dr. Hook's Method of Improving Philosophy, p. 9. and M. Tschirnhaus's Medicina Mentis, p. 72–91.
But the other way of rectifying induction is a posteriori, and depends upon this, that when a form, an axiom, or canon is found, or supposed to be found, by using the tables of view, and the method of rejection, the proper experiments are to be contrived for determining whether this form, axiom, or canon, be real, and not imaginary or fictitious. And here the doctrine of prerogative instances is of great service, in indi. cating the requisite trials, experiments, or works for this purpose. If the expected effect should in no wise follow, the particulars of the tables were either false or incompetent, for the method, when properly pursued, must needs be infallible. If the effect answer but in part, and no error has been committed in the experiment, then the form, axiom, or canon, must be mended, by going over the induction with more exactness, and better helps. If the effect answers to the full, under a due variation of circumstances, and in all trials, a proof will thus be gained of the justness of the procedure, the goodness of the induction, and the validity of the discovery. And