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ORAL ELEMENTS COMBINED.

19

For ð, au, eau, eo, ew, oa, oe, oo, ou, ow; as in hautboy, beau, yeoman, sew, coal, foe, door, soul, blow.

For o, a, ou, ow; as in what, hough, knowledge.

For å, ew, 02, 00, ou, W, ui ; as in grew, shoe, spoon, soup, rude, fruit.

For , eau, eu, ew, ieu, iew, ue, ui ; as in beauty, feud, new, adieu, view, hue, juice.

For ů, o, oe, oo, ou; as in love, does, blood, young.
For ů, 0, 00, ou; wolf, book, could.
For ou, ow; as in now.
For oi (af), oy; as in boy.

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gem, gin.

For f, gh, ph; as in cough, nymph.
For j,g; as in
For k, c, ch, gh, 2; as in cole, conch, lough, etiquette.
For s, c; as in cell.
For t, d, th, phth; as in danced, Thames, phthisic.
For v,f, ph; as in of, Stephen.
For y, i; as in pinion.
For 2, C, s, x; as in suffice, rose, xebec.
For z, 9, 8; as in rouge, osier.
For ng, n; as in anger, bank.
For ch, t; as in fustian.

For sh, c, ch, 8, 88, t; as in ocean, chaise, sure, assure, martial.

V.
ORAL ELEMENTS COMBINED.

Α'

FTER the instructor has given a class thorough drill

on the preceding tables, as arranged, the following exercises will be found of great value, to improve the organs of speech and the voice, as well as to familiarize the student with different combinations of sounds. Students will not pass from these exercises until they can utter the elements represented by the figured vowels in whatever order the instructor may require. As the fifth element represented by a, and the third element of e, are always immediately followed by the oral element of r in words, the go is introduced in like manner in these exercises. The sixth sound of a, when not a syllable by itself, is always immediately followed by the oral element of f, n, or s, in words. For convenience, f only is introduced in these combinations.

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bi;

åb,

èrb;

ib;

ůb;

der;

dů;

erd;

ůd;

1. ba, bå, bå, bå, bår, båf; bė, be, ber; bi,

bó, bở, bỏ; bi, bů, bů; bou. åb, åb, åb, årb, &f;

èb, eb, ib, ob, ób, åb; ủb, ůb,

oub. dà, då, då, då, dår, dåf; dė, de, di, di; do, dů, dů; dů, dů,

dou. åd, åd, åd, åd, ård, Sf; ed,

ed, id, id; od,

od,
8d; úd,
id,

oud. gà, gà, gå, gå, går, gåf; gė, gė, gër; gì, gỉ; go, go, gỏ; gủ, gủ, gủ; gou. ág, åg, åg, åg, årg, åf; eg, ég, erg;

ig, ig; og, ög, ôg; ug, ůg, úg; oug. 2. jåf, jår, , já, jà, já, jà; jer, je,

je; ji, ji; jo, jo, jo; jů, jů, jù; jou. låf, lår, lå,

lå, lå, là; ler, le, le; li,

18,
10,
lů, lů,

lou.
årl,
ål, ål, ål,

ërl, el, èl; il, il; 81, ol, ol;

ůl,

oul. måf, mår, må, må, må, må; mër, mė, mė; mi, mi; mě, mě, md; mů, mů, mů; mou. åf, irm, âm, âm, âm, âm; êm, êm, em;

im, im; ôm, ôm, ôm; ủm, ủm, 1m; oum. 3. nå, nå,

nå, når, nåf, nå; nė, når, në; ni, ni; nô, no, no; nů,

nů,

nů; ång, årng, ång, åf, ảng, ảng; ong, ẵng, êng; ẳng, ing; ông, ông, ông; ủng, ủng, ủng; oung. rà, rå,

rår, rå, råf; rė, rồr, re; ri,

ro, ró, rồ; rů, rů,

li;

lo;

lů;

àl;

ül;

;

nou.

ri;

rů;

rou.

ORAL ELEMENTS COMBINED.

21

và,

ve;

4. hà, thả, thản, thảf, thả, hà; ther, the, thẻ; thi, fhi; fho, fho, fhð; thủ, fhů, fhů; fhou.

. åth, ath; af, åth, årth, åth; ěth, ërth ifh, ith; ôfh, öfh, oth; ůth, ùth, úth ; outh

vå, vår, vå, vif, vả; vẹr, ve, vì, vi; vò, VỎ, vỏ; vũ, vů, vů; åv, åf, åv, àv, åv, årv; érv, év, év; iv, iv; ov, ov, ov; úv, ův, ův; wà, wå, wår, wå, wa, wåf; wêr, we, we; wi, wò, wo, Wồ; wů, wů, wů; wou.

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års,

ās;

ēs;

ås, Ös,

ous.

2. åf,

ås, ăs,

èrs, és, is, is;

os, os; ůs, ŭs, ūs; tåf, tår, tå, tå, tă, tā; ter, tē, tē; tĩ, ti; to, to, to; tū, tů, tủ; tou. thải, thẳr, thả, thả, thã, thị thêr, thẽ, thể; īth, ith; oth, th, oth; ūth, ùth, ith; outh. ouch; ůch, ūch, úch; õch, Och, och; ich, ich; ễrch, êch, ěch; df, āch, åchÅrch, ach, ăch.

3. chou; chủ, chũ, chủ; chỗ, chó, chõ; chi, chỉ; cher, chē, chě; chā, chă, chå, chå,

chỗ, cha, chả, chẳr, chăf. oush ; ůsh, ush, ūsh; ösh, ôsh, osh; ish, ish; ërsh, ēsh, ësh; ash, &f, ăsh, åsh, åsh, årsh, shou; shů, shủ, shū; sh8, sho, sho; shī, shi; shểr, shē, shë; shår, shår, shā, shå, shă, shå. whou; whủ, whů, whū; who, whồ, whð; whī, whỉ; wher, whể, whē; whảf, whår, whå, whă, whā, whå.

VI.
ERRORS IN ARTICULATION.

an?

RRORS in Articulation arise chiefly, first, from the
omission of one or more elements in a word; as,
for and.

sta'm

for storm. frien's friends.

wa'm

wårm. blin'ness “ blind ness.

bois t'rous 6

bois têr ous. fac's facts.

chick'n chick en.

sof' ly

66 soft ly.

his try

his to ry.

fiel's wil's

fields.
wilds.

nov'l
trav'l

nov el. trav el.

rav el sev en

66

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Secondly, from uttering one or more elements that should not be sounded; as, èv en for ev'n.

for rav'l. heav en 66 heav'n.

sev'n. tảk en tåk’n.

sof ten sof'n. sick en sick’n.

shảk en shảk’n. driv el driv'l.

shov el shov'l. grov'l.

shriv el shriv'l. Thirdly, from substituting one element for another; as, set for sit.

dånce for dånce. sen'ce since.

påst shet shůt.

åsk

gråss gråss. cåre cåre.

srill

shrill,

66

grov el

“ påst.

for git

for gět.

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ANALYSIS OF WORDS.

23

pil ler

pil low.

wirl for whirl.

chil drun for children. a gån a gain (ă gen). sůl ler

cel lar. a gånst « against (ă genst). mel ler mel lów. herth hearth (hårth). carse course.

mo munt 66

mo mėnt. re pårt re port.

harm liss harm less.

kind niss 66 kind nėss. på rent

“ pår ent. bản net bỏn net.

sing ing.

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trồf fy

trỏ phy.

wis per

whis per.

sing in

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VII.
ANALYSIS OF WORDS.

IM
N order to secure a practical knowledge of the preced-

ing definitions and tables, to learn to spell spoken words by their oral elements, and to understand the uses of letters in written words, the instructor will aid the pupil to master the following exhaustive, though simple analysis.

ANALYSIS.—1st. The word SALVE, in pronunciation, is formed by the union of three oral elements; så v--salve. [Here let the pupil utter the three oral elements separately, and then pronounce the word.] The first is a modified breathing; hence, it is an atonic. The second is a pure tone; hence, it is a tonic. The third is a modified tone; hence, it is a subtonic.

2d. The word SALVE, in writing, is represented by five letters; salve-salve. S represents an atonic; hence, it is a consonant. Its oral element is chiefly formed by the teeth; hence, it is a dental. Its oral element is produced by the same organs and in a similar manner as the first oral element of z; hence, it is a cognate of z. A represents a tonic; hence, it is a vowel. L is silent. V represents a subtonic; hence, it is a consonant. Its oral element is chiefly formed by the lower lip and the upper teeth ; hence, it is a labia-dental. Its oral element is formed by the same organs and in a similar manner as that of f ; hence, it is a cognate of f. E is silent.

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