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into the water, to the depth of three or four feet, enquiry, and probably without a knowledge of between the joints of the trees which composed the cause, that the breadth of a vessel, extended the raft; these, being raised or lowered according beyond a certain proportion, materially retarded to the wish of the untutored pilot, were found, her progress through the water : they discovered by experience, to aid him considerably in the that a rotundity of shape caused their galleys to management of his vessel.
roll ; and that, while the extension of breadth reBesides the Egyptians, to whom the originai tarded their motion, too great a diminution of it invention has been attributed, the same contriv- produced' an inconvenience of greater conseance appears to hav been adopted by the Phe- quence, rendering their vessels so constructed exnicians and Ethiopians, the latter of whom are tremely liable to be upset by any sudden shock, said to have undertaken what, speaking compara- either from the wind or any enemy. In short, tively, miglit be considered very distant voyages, by comparing the knowledge of the ancients with no better means of maritime conveyance. with improvements of the moderns, it plainly Sicily, Corsica, and various other islands in the appears that not only this, but almost all the Mediterranean, are said to have been first colo- sciences may be considerably simplified by a nised by navigators who had no other means of strict attention to what has been the practice of transporting themselves. Instances are not times far remote; and the modern artist will wanting, if any dependence can be placed on the find, by looking back, that those ideas which he terms used by the ancients, of the application of fancied were his own, had been promulgated to such vessels to the purposes of war.
the world long before he was in existence: hence Floats, exactly answering the same description he will find his labors considerably shortened with those in use among the ancients, have been by data established on actual experiment, on found in the South Seas within the last century. which he may raise a superstructure without torWhile genius applied itself to the improvement menting himself about rendering the foundation of this rude system in those quarters, where, of it secure. from the peculiarity of situation, and their ap The discovery of ship-building, or rather the proximation to the ocean, it had first gained invention of it is attributed by the ancients to a footing, the contemporary inhabitants of coun- casual observation on the facility with which a tries very far distant struck out boldly at once split reed (in Latin, canna) floated on the surface into a more scientific, though more contracted of the water, and from that term is derived the scale; for a single tree only, artificially hollowed, Indian word canoe. This vessel of the North served them for every purpose which either their American, called by him periague, which serves necessities or their ambition appeared to require. him as a fishing-boat on the coast, and with The invention is supposed by Pliny and others which he travels and trades along his rivers, is to have originated with the inhabitants of Ger- made of bark. The aborigines of Canada used many, who, being little known, were considered the bark of the birch, and sometimes constructed even by the Romans themselves as barbarians them of a sufficient size to hold four or five perand savages. These boats or vessels, varying sons. The raft and the canoe at length became very little from the modern canoes, found, almost inadequate to the wishes of the possessors, and without exception, throughout all the newly dis- ingenuity of course was stimulated to the concovered islands, were in many instances so ca- trivance of what was considered as a necessary pacious as to contain thirty persons, and were on extension. The variety of inconveniences to that account either extremely formidable or use- which the primary invention was liable, was ful, according to the tempers of the navigators. afterwards much reduced by that more ingenious -Vide Pliny, lib. xvi. сар. .
piece of mechanism called by the Romans navis The Romans were little inclined to expeditions oneraria, by the Grecians poprnyos, a ship of of mere discovery, and sought not to become burden, built either for the purpose of commerce, acquainted with any country whose remote situa- or for the conveyance of troops and different tion appeared to defy their arms; they hesitated warlike and other stores, which the frequent connot to bestow the name of barbarians on the in- tentions between nations rendered in some meahabitants of all those districts whose manners or sure indispensably necessary. customs differed from their own. This fact is a The use of the sail appears, from the most ausufficient reason why a people, whose judgment, thentic testimony, to have been very particularly taste, and consummate knowledge, in what were appropriated to this class of vessels. considered the polite arts, should have so little Before entering farther on this subject, it may knowledge of the science of ship-building, which , be necessary to state here concisely the various might have gratified their ambition to the greatest additions and progressive improvements made in extent.
the construction of a ship:—The hull consisted of The strict analogy the galleys of the Romans three parts, viz. the prow, or head; the poop, or and Grecians bore to those possessed by the in- stern; and the body, or midship-frame : under habitants of the Sandwich Islands, in the South the bottom, and along the centre of the latter, Seas, seems to prove that they must have origi- passed the carina, or keel, which, by dividing the nally gone thither from Athens or from Rome. element on which the vessel floated in an acute Although ignorant of the principles of the angle, was found to contribute, in a very great science, the ancients soon discovered, without degree, towards increasing the celerity with much investigation, many of those essential which the hull passed through the water; at the points which, even at the present time, are con same time it produced another good effect, sidered among the most valuable and interesting serving as it does in modern use for the foundathat relate to it. They found out, without much tion of the ribs or timbers, which formed the
borly, bearing no slight resemblance to the ver- part; the upper division Opávos, signifying a tebræ of the back, in the animal and human bench or seat; the deck, which was called frame; continuing up the head or bow of the kataotwwa, was thrown over at the part now vessel in a curve line, conforming to its shape, termed the top timber. In each of these divisions it became what is now called the stem; as well that particular class of warlike vessels called adding stability and firmness to the front most triremes, which, as they were the most frequent opposed to the assaults of the sea, as enabling it in use, so were they most commonly noticed ; to divide and pass through the swell of it with and from which all deductions or descriptions greater ease and velocity than the adoption of relative to the ancient marine have been usually any other form would have permitted.
drawn, had, as is now commonly thought, a tier The keel is reported to have been generally or range of oars. The opening in the, side of omitted during the early ages of navigation in the vessel, through which these were worked, was vessels intended merely for commerce; but, as called Tpaone, probably from tpénw, to turn, and many inconveniences and dangers were soon are now, when adopted in modern use, styled discovered from this omission, the keel was uni- row, or row-lock ports. versally and indiscriminately applied to them as There exists some difference of opinion relawell as to vessels of war. To this improve- tive to the form and disposition of these ports ; ment of the keel, subsequent experience sug some asserting that the aperture was continued gested the addition of what the Greeks call through the whole range, while others, with much çahes, or kelson, which confining the heads of more reason on their side, attribute a distinct the floor-timbers, then in two parts, joined into port to each oar. It is evident this supposition and divided by the keel, very materially contri- is correct from the term which we find frequently buted to strengthen the vessel. Close to the bestowed on them by the ancients themselves, of kelson was the well, contrived as a receptacle for columbaria, or pigeon-holes, a term so congruous all that bilge-water which the working of the to their form as to prevent all possibility of vessel through a rough sea caused the admission doubt or dispute. These different tiers were of, added to the impossibility of closing the distinguished in the trireme by terms analogous joints or seams so completely by caulking, but that to their situation; the lower being called Palapia; ander such circumstances some must find its way. the second Luyla; the upper Opavia.
The part immediately above the kelson was Historians and others have been so extremely called the Kolan, or hold, and from thence is de- vague, irregular, and contradictory in the acrived the English word keel, which forms the counts they have afforded, not only of the partibottom of it. Aloft beams were fixed, which na- cular form in which the galley was constructed, turally strengthened the vessel, and supported but also as to other points not less consequential, that necessary covering, the deck. The frame that investigation, were they to be implicitly reconsisted of such timbers as formed the princi- lied on, would be extremely difficult. In aid of pal strength of the vessel, which might then have this enquiry the curious have therefore had rebeen considered as complete; but, if it be fair to course to the very indeterminate information of give any pre-eminence where two distinct parts coins, and such remnants of sculpture as the ramutually contribute to the support and perfec- vages of time, and the barbarous fury of invaders, tion of each other, that which may be deemed have left to treasure up in the cabinets of the the most material is the 'nośúa, the side, or curious. The information they afford, though exterior planking of the vessel.
founded, perhaps, on the most respectable eviAs the frame, especially in midships, rose at dence now existing, is at best extremely imperright angles from the keel, so was the planking in fect. Among the most probable and the most former times, as now, put on in a line nearly pa- rational explanations that have yet been given, rallel to it, allowing, as was necessary for the is one by Monsieur Lescallier. It solves many curve, or sheer of the frame; it completely en of those strange assertions made by the ancients closed it, being closely as well as firmly attached of the magnitude of particular vessels, which, and fastened to it by means of large nails or throwing an air of fiction and romance on their bolts, formed of iron, some of which, as neces- descriptions, consequently induce posterity to sity required, passing through both, were bent or doubt, if not totally discredit them. We have, clenched, thereby rendering the whole structure for a long time,' says he,“ treated as a kind of firm and compact. As it was found impossible, visionary chimera, the account of three, four, particularly in vessels of large dimensions, to five, and even eight tiers of oars, one above the procure planks of sufficient length to extend other, by which the curious, who are unacfrom the stem to the stern, the danger or incon- quainted with naval matters, wish to explain the venience that might otherwise have arisen from different appellations bestowed on ancient galleys, the end of either starting, was in a very great called triremes, quadriremes, quinquiremes, and measure obviated by the ingenious and useful in octoremes. Whoever will give himself the least troduction of a dovetail, which connected them trouble to reflect on the subject, will very easily so securely that little danger appeared to remain perceive the absolute impossibility of any vessel of their ever separating. The side was, as now, being able to carry even four rows or ranks of divided into different parts, and distinguished by oars thus disposed. In modern galleys, which different appellations; the lowest was terme, have only one tier, and are in length equal to a Oálapos, or the floor-timber; the second, corres- ship carrying sixty-four guns, the oars, though ponding to that part of the hull now distinguished the supporting point, or row-lock port, is as near by the name of second futtock, was styled (úyos, the water-line as possible, are forty-four feet long. so termed from the junction of the timber at ihat Allowing a space of four feet and a half between
the lower tier of row-ports, and that immedi The foregoing, which appears a perfectly simately above it, the oars of the second must, pur- ple and reasonable explanation, enlarges our suing this rule, be seventy-seven feet in length; ideas of the marine of the ancients, which has those of the third 110; those of the fourth 143, hitherto been very much misunderstood. &c.' Where can we, as judiciously remarked The galleys of war when the custom of naval by this author, either find wood proper for the hostility was introduced, and gradually advanced formation of these oars, or men powerful enough in general practice, were certainly improved, and to use them ? Even the third tier could not be perhaps enlarged ; but the peculiar exigences of managed properly, were not the vessel perfectly the state, and the mode of fighting then practised, straight, or, according to the English term, wall- not requiring an attention to those points which sided. The oars of the lower rank, too, must have become necessary since the revival of the have been extremely short, so as to act on the science in modern times, the ease with which surface of the water at a very small distance from vessels were at that time built, rendered it posthe side of the vessel, in which case it must be sible for a powerful nation to send forth an arremarked that it is very evident they could not mament as formidable, in respect to numbers, as be of any service except in a dead calm. As to it thought proper, or could find persons to navithe quadragintiremes, or vessels usually described gate and man it. The gradual diminution in the as having forty ranks or tiers of oars, we cannot numbers of vessels composing fleets, as the imreconcile the report to our understandings, except provement in the construction of those vessels by supposing them nothing more than galleys fitted gradually advanced, forms no slight internal eviwith as many oars in each rank. Those who pretend dence in favor of the correctness with which to give any other interpretation may as well at- historians have given such numerical statements, tempt to prove that a modern ship of war, as, at first sight, inay have been considered as mounting 100 guns, had as many tiers of cannon, exaggerated and untrue. The same points perone above the other.
vade the chronology of naval war, and serve ' It may be probably interesting,' says Les- for at least circumstantial evidence, as well in callier, to explain this opinion more fully; the support of the historians of antiquity, as of even should it be deemed erroneous, it will be those in modern Europe, whose accounts have some consolation to reflect it is not the first error been rejected by many as legendary tales, fit the investigation of this subject has given birth only for the extravagance of romance, or the alto. The uniremes may be supposed to have lowed effusions of poetical fancy. To conclude, been those galleys or vessels which had only one we may venture to assert that the galleys of the row of oars extending between their masts, or, ancients were as long as any modern ships of perhaps, the entire length of the vessel, like the war, though very narrow, and much less raised modern feluccas of Barbary; and, consequently, from the surface of the water, if we except the required only one rank of rowers. The bi- octoremes, vessels with eight ranks, or, as some remes had one tier of oars between their masts, will have it, distinct tiers of oars. and another abaft the main-mast. The triremes Though in the time of action the success of appear to have been galleys of a still more for- every manœuvre, and the event of the encounter midable description than the preceding, having itself, in a great measure depended on the disone tier of oars extending between the masts, a cipline and strength of the rowers, yet it is not second abaft the main-mast, and a third forward, thence to be concluded that galleys were not at near the prow or stem, before the fore-mast. The other times deprived of the use of the mast and quadriremes had their oars ranged like the tri sail. When the wind was fair they constantly remes, with the difference of having two tiers of made use of the sails, and worked their vessels oars one above the other abaft the main-mast. either with those only, or aided by the oars also, The quinquiremes were also of the same descrip- if it was so nearly a calm as to enable the latter tion, with the addition of a second tier of oars to afford any supplementary assistance: this forward. The octoremes had two tiers of oars custom has been continued in the Mediterranean in the midships, and three at the stem and stern, among vessels still retaining the same name up making in the whole eight. It cannot be denied even to the present time. that some vessels had three entire tiers of oars;
Some of the ancient vessels were of wonthis is, indeed, established to have been the case derful magnitude, if we may credit the testimony from the evidence of a multitude of ancient of authors. In particular, Hiero, king of Syrasculptures; but there is no certain proof of any cuse, is said to have possessed one, intended for having been constructed with a greater number. the sole purpose of carrying merchandise, which With regard to the octoremes, they were enor was of 4000 tons burden: and the Egyptians mous floating structures, built merely for the at a still earlier period, built a ship which they purposes of luxury, and to gratify a ridiculous called the Isis, that was 180 feet in length, fortyostentation ; so unfit for war, or even navigation, five in breadth, and forty-three in perpendicular that they could not venture to sea without mani- height from the upper-deck to the bottom of the fest danger
. Of this description was the cele- pump-well. The inhabitants of Alexandria were brated galley of Philopater; such also was that also much noticed, in ages somewhat later, on acconstructed by Archimedes, for Hiero, king of count of the immense size of the vessels which Syracuse, and presented to Ptolemy; and lastly, they constructed for similar service to that lastof the same class may that built in the reign of mentioned. the emperor Caligula be supposed to have been, After making all possible allowance for the exwhich foundered in the reign of Claudius, and travagant notions of ancient writers, we may was irrecoverably lost in the port of Ostia.' fairly conclude that the science of aval archi
tecture very rapidly advanced, in some parti- just mentioned, which bear so close a resemcular countries, soon after its first discovery; for, blance, in the principal particulars, to the Pepythough we may doubt some particulars, still sian drawing, as may silence those who boldly there will remain behind firm and immoveable reject the drawing in question, because some facts, fully sufficient to convince us that it must, parts of it are incorrect and absurd. On the in point of strength, at least, have been con other hand, there is a second description of ducted on fixed and determinate principles, esta vessels, which appear to have been peculiar to blished by close attention and considerable expe- the English, and contrived as a very wise imrience. The principal proportions, if those of provement on the ridiculous height of the first, the Isis are to be taken as a pattern, differed not which bears so great a similitude to a print pubvery materially from those even of our own lished by a person of the name of Allen, in times: but we are much in the dark as to any 1756, and professed to be a representation of the other of those more minute particulars, the know- Great Harry, that it may also serve to convince us ledge of which would enable us to form that this print is not so bad a representation of the perfect representation of their vessels, which fu- ship as many persons have considered it. In ture ages, no matter how remote, will be able fact, it seems certain that such vessels, so differ10 amuse themselves with, of those built at the ing from each other, were actually contemporary, present time.
and engaged at one and the same time, in the At a period no farther distant than the fif- same line of service; therefore, taking the whole teenth century, there is some doubt and much of the evidence into consideration, it seems but fair obscurity among writers in their descriptions of to assert that the drawing and the print were the form of particula celebrated ships ; and both of them tolerably correct, that one was the historians have also given extravagant accounts production of a very inferior, and the other of a of vessels constructed even in these times, which much more polished, artist. appear to be derived more from fancy than from The historical accounts of the Spanish Armada fact.
in respect to the vessels of which it consisted, Our Henry VII., who from his long resi- compared to the English fleet opposed to it, redence on the continent had opportunities of ac- presents their magnitude and lofty appearance quiring greater skill in maritime affairs than most nearly as far superior as a vessel is to a boat she of his predecessors, and seems to have been the carries to attend her; yet it will be found, on first king that thought of raising such a naval examination, that there were only fourships in the force as might be at all times sufficient for the whole Spanish fleet superior to the Triumph, comservices of the state, built a ship called the Great manded by Sir Martin Frobisher. Although, in Harry, which cost him about £14,000, and the comparative statement of the two armaments, which, properly speaking, was the first ship of that of England was certainly very far inferior the royal navy. She was burnt by accident, at in respect to tonnage, yet the terms made use of Woolwich, in 1553. See Derrick's Memoirs of to excite wonder and applause were undoubtedly the Rise and Progress of the Royal Navy. carried beyond the bounds of truth and proHenry VIII., in the year 1515, built at Erith priety. Of the same nature, and probably the llenry Grace-de-Dieu, of 1000 tons burden; owing to the same cause, are the accounts of the she carried nineteen brass and 103 iron pieces of fleets of Darius, Xerxes, and of Anthony. Anoordnance, was manned with 350 soldiers, 300 ther circumstance exactly in point will be found mariners, and fifty gunners ; and is of very dif- in different portraits of the Sovereign of the ferent force from that which the drawing pre- Seas, which was built at Woolwich, in the year served in the Pepysian library seems to convey 1637, in the reign of king Charles I. Accordthe idea of. Taken in a strict sense, it can no ing to Mr. Thomas Heywood's publication, admore be considered as an actual portrait of a dressed at that time to the king, the Sovereign ship, rudely as vessels might then be constructed, of the Seas was in length by the keel 128 feet, than can the uncouth figures of vessels which are within some few inches; her main breadth fortyso frequently seen on the reverse of ancient eight feet; in length from the fore-end of the coins, be taken as the actual and correct records beak-head to the after-end of the stern, à prora of the form of galleys. Not to speak contemptu- ad puppim, 232 feet; and in height, from the ously of so curious a document, it can only be bottom of her keel to the top of her lantern, esteemed as the general resemblance of a ship, seventy-six feet : bore five lanterns, the largest such as might be sketched by the most artless of which would hold ten persons upright; had hand, upon mere recollection, and at a very three flush decks, a forecastle, half-de quarter remote period from actual inspection. It is deck, and round-house. Her lower tier had thirty evident that, at the period now treated of, ports for cannon and demi-cannon, there were two distinct fashions in ship-building Middle tier, 30 for culverines and demi ditto. observed by marine architects, particularly those
Third tier, in Britain. In the tapestry woven to comme
26 for other ordnance.
Forecastle, 12, and two morate in this country the destruction of the Spanish Armada, this point, when joined with Half-decks had thirteen or fourteen ports more other confirming evidence, appears established within-board, for murdering pieces, besides ten almost beyond controversy. The first of these pieces of chase-ordnance forward, and ten right fashions, derived originally from the Venetians, aft, and inany loop-holes in the cabins, for musand transmitted from them to the English, was ket-shot. She had eleven anchors, one of 4400 certainly adopted by the constructor of the ship lbs.; was of 16 tons burden; and by in question. There are very many in the hangings Peter Pett, esq., under the direction of his
father, captain Phineas Pett, one of the prin- sheathing of copper woula produce in the doucipal officers of the navy. She had two galle- ble purposes of preserving the bottom from the ries besides, all of most curious carved work, injury occasioned by the worm, and contributing and all sides of the ship carved with trophies of to the swift sailing of the vessel. It was proved artillery and types of honor, as well belonging that no adhesion of barnacles, or any other subto sea as land, with symbols appertaining to na- stances, could take place on the copper; so that vigation; also their two sacred majesties' badges not only the expense as well as time of graving of honor; arms, with several angels holding and cleaning them would be saved, but that they their letters in compartments; all which works might remain, so long as they continued fit for were gilded over, and no other color but gold service in other respects in the same condition and black. One tree, or oak, made four of the with respect to sailing, as they were the first principal beams, which was forty-four feet, of hour when they were sent to sea. strong serviceable timber, in length; three feet was realised in every respect; and in the course in diameter at the top, and ten feet at the bot- of the war with America, which terminated in tom. She was the largest ship that had ever 1783, our ships of every class were coppered; been built in England, and is said to have been and it was ordered by the government, in No designed only for splendor and magnificence: vember of that year, that, in future, all ships but, being taken down a deck lower, she became, should be copper-fastened under the load draught according to report, one of the best men of war of water. in the world. Sir Walter Raleigh, speaking of The custom of sheathing, however, is certhe ability and knowledge possessed by the Bri- tainly of very ancient date, which has been fully tish shipwrights, observes, “To say the truth, a proved by the discovery and rescue of Trajan's miserable shame and dishonor it were for our galley from the lake Riccio, where it had reshipwrights, if they did not exceed all others in mained under water for more than thirteen centhe setting up of our royal ships, the errors of turies. Leo Baptisti Alberti, who records the other nations being far more excusable than circumstance, states, on his own inspection and ours; for the kings of England have for many knowledge, that the pine and cypress of which years been at the charge to build and to furnish it was built, had endured, and were then in so a navy of powerful ships for their own defence, sound a state as to be nearly incredible: the and for war only; whereas the French, the Spa- bottom was, according to the modern, doubled : niards, the Portuguese, and the Hollanders, till the seams had been evidently caulked with linen, of late, have had no proper fleet belonging to and the whole of the external part carefully their principal state.'
smeared, or payed, with a coat of Greek pitch, It may be necessary to mention here the dif- over which was brought a sheathing, formed of ferent methods that have been practised in the lead, rolled or beaten to a proper thinness, and sheathing of ships, from the original adoption closely attached to the bottom by a sufficient of the measure to the present time: the first number of small copper nails. For further partiwas a thin covering of deal, or fir plank, into culars see Charnock's History of Marine Archiwhich the worm penetrated; but which, conse tecture. Locke, who has noticed the above cirquently, preserved the bottom itself till they so cumstance in his History of Navigation, obseryes, far demolished the covering as to acquire an here we have caulking and sheathing together easy passage into the interior part, an injury above 1600 years ago; for,' adds our author, • I which took them some time to effect. An at suppose no man can doubt that the sheets of lead tempt was made in the year 1675 to introduce nailed over the outside with copper nails was sheet lead for thin deal, as a more lasting sub- sheathing, and that in great perfection; the copstitute; but, after some experiments, the project per nails being used rather than iron, which, was totally abandoned, and the original method when once rusted in water with the working of persevered in. Some few years afterwards an the ship, soon lose their hold, and drop out.' addition was made to the wood covering, from which much advantage was looked for, and no
PART II. inconsiderable benefit derived: the bottom of
MODERN STATE OF THE ART. the ship having first received a coat of pitch, the whole was completely covered with brown Modern naval architecture, or ship-building, paper, which, of course, closely adhered to it; may be distinguished into three principal parts: a second paying of pitch, mixed with tar, was i. To give the ship such an exterior form as then laid on the paper; and a fourth coating of may be most suitable to the service for which she short hair carefully attached to the tar; the deal is designed. sheathing was then brought over the whole, and, 2. To give the various pieces of a ship being firmly fastened to the bottom by a great their proper figures, and unite them into a firm number of nails, the whole operation was ren- and compact frame, so that by their combination dered complete. A number of experiments, and disposition they may form a solid fabric, with various materials introduced between the sufficient to answer all the purposes for which wood sheathing and the bottom, among which it is intended. that of coating the latter with lime is to be re 3. To provide convenient accommodations membered, have been tried at different times; for the officers and crew, and also suitable places but none of them have proved so effectual or of stowage for the cargo, furniture, provisions, useful as that just described.
artillery, ammunition, &c. In 1758 a trial was made on a small British The exterior figure of a ship may be divided frigate called the Alarm, of the effect which a into the bottom and upper works.' The figure