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Rhine to attack Prussia, one hundred and bim the pretext for declaring war against twenty thousand Russians were advancing to England; a policy in which he persevered, her support.

notwithstanding circumstances were recalled The battle of Jena, which in one day to his mind calculated to deter him from overthrew the Prussian monarchy, and in carrying into execution so unpopular a mea. fourteen days advanced the French standards tu the Visiula, disconcerted the intended “ The seizure of Finland was most unjus. operations, and threw Russia upon the de- tifiable; but the acquisition was of the same sensive on her own frontier, with only fire importance to Russia, as Normandy, under or six thousand dispirited auxiliaries, which English dominion, would be to France. The had escaped the wreck, instead of the two consequent dethronement of the then reignhundred and forty thousand men, who a ing dynasty in Sweden was never anticipated few days previously bad been arrayed to by Alexander, and will always be deplored co-operate with her.

by him, until the injury is compensated either “The battles of Pultusk, of Eylau, of Heils. by indemnity or restoration. berg, and Friedland, could not (or rather, in Napoleon, having again invaded Ausone instance, that of Eylau, did not) prevent tria, to punish equivocal negociations, when the enemy's successive approach to the Nie- he was embarrassed, after the battle of men; and Alexander, alarmed at his situa. Eylau", as well as to anticipate hostile artion, accepted the conditions of peace that rangements in progress, summoned Russia Napoleon offered, and which he not only as an auxiliary to invade Austria on the side rendered advantageous to Russia, but embel- of Gallicia. Her armies overran that protished with circunıstances of respect to the so- vince, and advanced to Olmutz, wheu the vereign, that soothed the feelings of disap. Austrian cabinet resolved on peace, and pointment and defeat.

agreed to give a pledge of permanent friend. The unsuccessful issue of Sir George Duck- ship-a pledge, wbich Fussia is believed to worth's expedition, and the result of the un. have declined to give after the peace of authorised movement of the British troops Tilsit. from Alexandria on Rosetta (for the enter- Peace again added to the Russian empire prise against Alexandria itself was underta- an extensive and inportant district of terri. , ken at the express suggestion of the Russian tory; and, although it has since been reliacabinet) had certainly much chagrined fles. quished, ils re-occupation au aits but the ander, and given such an accession of force conrenience of the Emperor. to the Turks as to oblige the march of rein. “ The defence of Gallicia is as impossible, forcements to that frontier, when they could since Russia has the Duchy of Warsaw, sit not be spared without danger to other points hundred thousand men to act with, and & of great interest : but the real motive, which friendly population to march

as the disposed him to peace, was á conviction, maintenance of the country between the from a short residence at the army, that it Vistula and the Nimen, now under the was too weak in numbers, and too disor. Prussian dominion, would prove to be, if ganized from want of elementary arrange. Russia should ever resolve on its possession, ments, to defend from invasion the provinces unless Prussia negociated cession and in of Poland incorporated in Russia,' where a demnity. spirit of insurrection was to be apprehend. " A strong English party continued to exist ed; whilst he knew that the succours, an.

in Russia ; and the commercial interest, nounced as on a march, were not in existe which embraces the interest of great part ence, and that there were not twenty thousand of the Russian nobility, murmured loudly at men in reserve to cover both his Capitals. the detriment occasioned to their fortunes,

Peace, which restored a throne to his ally, and therefore to the general prosperity of although some of the richest jewels of the the empire, by the English maritime block. crown remained in possession of the invader ade. Sull Alexander persisted; but, bearing diminished much of the personal regret in mind the impressions of the campaign on which Alexander had felt as a man for the the Vistula, he applied himself unremittingly issue of the war- Peace, which gave him to improve the administration of the army, a farther portion of Poland, which sanction- as well as to the increase of its numbers. ed his views in Turkey, as far as the Danube, Napoleon, who had expected and hoped and the conquest of the important province the Turkish war would have exhausted the of Finland, was favourable to his general po- treasure and military resources of Russia, or licy; but peace, which gave him time, and at all events bave prevented the growth of by which he was resolved to profit, was,

her disposable force, saw, with astonishment with the experience which he had acquired and apprehension, the result of Alexander's of the imperfections of bis military system, administrative measures. of still greater, and, as he said himself, "of In three years Russia had losi, of her the greatest value.

Moldavian arinies, by climate rather than by The attack on Copenhagen, which Alex- the sword, thirty-six generals, and an hundred ander always declared to be unjustifiable, (as and twenty thousanul inen. Still an army of the then Crown Prince of Denmark had de. * Napoleon said to the Austrian general sent to retermined on maintaining the strictest neutra

connoitre bis force and situation, and who did not ar. lity, and resisting any infraction whatsoever,

rive until after the danger was passed, “ Go back and whether from the land or the sea,) atforded ready."

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sixty thousand strong, better equipped, or. means of judging of the correctness of ganized, and disciplined, than Russia ever his decisions in regard to military operabefore had, and which equalled, perhaps tions, on which he pronounces with a exceeded in general composition, any aruny,in peremptoriness that would be unbecomEurope, was stationed on the line of the ing in any man, and which in an anony.. Danube, and occasionally blockaded the Turkish army in Schumla, (at the foot of the

mous pamphleteer is most absurd and riBalkan mountains,) the rampart of Constan. diculous. Yet, incompetent as we are to tinople-a rampart, which a general like

convict him of error, on points on which Napoleon would long since have prostrated we may possibly be a little more ignorant by bis genius and kindling spirit of en. than himself

, his inaccuracy, and even anterprise.

achronisms in regard to historical eventy • The Persian war had consumed annually of a remoter period, of which he pretends from ten to twenty thousand men; but every

to speak knowingly, have destroyed all year improved the Russian lines of commu.

claim to confidence, even were his denication, and gradually weakened the Persian frontier.

mands as modest and moderate as they “ Instead of one feeble army to guard the

are impudent and unlimited. We will Niemen, one hundred and eighty thousand however copy, though we question its men were formed in three lines to repel any truth, as presenting to the imagination a attack. and another considerable body of vivid picture of the horrors attending the troops was stationed in Finland; all the ar. memorable retreat from Moscow, the folsenals were full of stores---fifteen hundred lowing description of the miserable deaths pieces of cannon in the field-recruits were

of multitudes of the famished, fugitive intraining in every province-and a mililia was

vaders. instituted through the whole empire.

“ In the hospitals of Wilna there were “ Napoleon, who had never forgotten the

left above seventeen thousand dead and battle of Eylau, and the martial qualities of dying frozen and freezing. The bodies of a Russian army, saw the time was come

the former, broken up, served to stop the when Russia was either to ass:me that atti.

cavities in windows, floors, and walls; but tude, which was the object of his ambition, a

in one of the corridores of the Orear Con. settlement in Europe, which from the strale.

vent, above fifteen hundred bodies were gical properties of her position and numerous population assured her the command of the piled up transversely, as pigs of 'lead or continent, or, that she was to be dislodged, sledges to be burnt, the most extraordinary

iron. When these were finally removed on broken, repelled. and reduced, until she

figures were presented by the variety of their became again little more than an Asiatic

attitudes, for none seemed to have been power. He selected that moment to commence his operation, because he feared frozen in a composed state : each was fixed

in the last action of his life, in the last diRussia might prevail on the Turks to make peace, and that England would acquire retained the last expression, either of anger,

rection given to his limbs: even the eyes more intuence from her good offices on that occasion ; perhaps, also, he had good collected round the burning ruins of the

pain, or entreaty. In the roads men were reason to suspect, that the character of the

cottages, which a mad spirit of destrnction protracted war in Spain was reviving the

had fired, picking and eating the burnt bodies hostile feelings of mwilling allies, and connecting them in alliances of reciprocal re

of fellow men; while thousands of borses sisiance and support.

were moaning in agony, with their flesh "lo ovposition to the advice of many of mangled and backed to satisiy the cravings

of a hunger that knew po pity. In many of his best officers and statesmen, he refused to send eighty thousand more men to complete

the sheds, men, scarcely alive, had heaped

on their frozen bodies human carcasses, the conquest of the Peninsula, and disgust which, festering by the communication of the English nation with continental wars, by animal heat, had mingled the dying and the a failure of hopes so highly excited, and so

dead in one mass of putrefaction." expensively supported. He always replied,

We rejoin our author and Alexander at that it was most judicious to leave the Eng.

the close of the first campaign. lish army engaged in a country remote from one, where, in his view, they might more

Alexander, during this crisis, had disefficaciously contribute to the prejudice of played a degree of firinness which deranged his interests

all the calculations of Napoleon and his co" At the head of a confederate army of adjutors

. He pledged himself, as a sovereign above four hundred thousand men, Napoleon

and a man, that he would never treat with Accused Alexander of a violation of treaties, Napoleou whilst there was an armed enemy in and demanded their renewal."

his country; and his inflexible firmness renWe shall not enter into a detail of this

dered nugatory those attempts at negotiation,

which are reported not to bave received the campaign, the occurrences and termina

same discouragement in other quarters. tion of which are fresh in recollection. “ His views even then embraced the fuHad we a disposition to go over the ture ; and an anecdote industriously circu. ground with our author, we have no lated at a subsequent period, relative to the it in one of his bulletins, always spoke of the good justly venerated Hetman.

66

transactions at Aho, affords a memorable “ The operations of the cabinet were no and splendid proof of his prospective policy. less vigorously conducted, and no less suc

• England and Russia had determined to cessfully accomplished adopt the same line of proceeding with re- " The King of Prussia, who had disgard to Denmark as had occasioned, accord claimed the conduct of General York, and ing to the declaration of Alexander, the war who bad resolved on faithfully adhering to beiween those two cations.—Such are the bis treaties with Napoleon, at last signed the unfixed, and it may be said, revolutionary treaty of offensive and defensive alliance principles of cabineis!

with Russia; but he acquiesced only an hour “ Alexander insisted that Sweden should before the signature was affixed; and only be indemnified by Norway for Finland, in then, under the suggestion, that in case of recase Denmark refused to join the coalition. fusal, it was possible a prorisional govern.

The English minister, forgetting that ment might be established in his kingdom." Russia, by the possession of Aland, SWEA- In the month of May, an army of abont BORG, and the WHOLE GULPhs or FINLAND eighty thousand Russians, and sixly thousand AND Botunia, was, in fact, mistress of Prussians, passed the Elbe, vear Wittenberg Stockholm, agreed to an annexation, which and Dresden. surrendered a country, so important for its Napoleon, who had been no less active maritime* resources, ports, and position, to and energetic, presented himself at Lutzen; the same influence and authority. The treaty where, from an injudicious disposition of the being signed, Alexander, who, as before cavalry, and the want of simultaneous elsaid, never forgets the unintentional wrong forts on the part of the allies, he gained which he did to his nephew, developed the a sanguinary victory, which would have true object of the arrangement, by saying to ruined their armies, iť be could have brought Bernadotie, \ Napoleon fails in his attack any cavalry into the field to press the against my empire, and the French throne retreat.t becomes vacant by the result of his defeat, I “ Reinforcements replaced tbe Russian shall think no one so eligible as yourself for losses ; negotiations offered by Napoleon that station. Important words, which serve were rejected; and the battle of Bautzen as a key to explain many of the future mys- was hazarded, contrary to all military sciteries, and wbich bave not yet lost their ence and political prudence. value ; although Bernadotte does not enjoy The French, by an attack in ilank of a equal consideration in the eyes of Russia, salient position, overpowered the Prussians since he did not acquire the expected suf (who fought gallantly) and gained the frages of the French people, and afford the ground; but the retreat, ending in the affair desired opportunity for the re-establishment of Reichenbach, wbere Duroc was killed, of tbe ancient dynasty.

added in the honour of the Russians and the “ Alexander, after joining the army at confidence of the allies. Wiloa, had afforded useful encouragement to " The armistice ensued; and, during the persenal exertions hy bis own exemplary en. negotiations, above sixiy thousand good durance of privations, cold, fatigue, &c.; an troops from Odessa, and distant provinces, example, which, added to great affability, entered the Russian camps. produced, not only very beneficial effects “ Austria was still unwilling to quit the on the soldiery, but which sustained the en. position of arbitrator, and join the coalition, thusiasm of the Russian nation. In the head whilst the interests of Napoleon required quarters at Kalish he was equally remarkable peace to dissolve a confederacy which every for diligence. Couriers, with autograph let- day enlarged and cemented. Pride or des. ters, in many instances were dispatched in tiny prevailed. He would not write even a all directions to bring up the recovered conciliatory note to bis father-in-law, which wounded and sick, to advance the new re- would have sufficed to prolong the period cruits and medical stores, and to infuse the prescribed for the diplomatic answer; and ardour of the sovereign into every depart. the Austrians marched !" ment of the government.

We shall for reasons already stated “ The efforts obtained full success : volun- omit the detail and discussion of military fary contributions in men and money poured movements and successes—which are in from the nobility; and the whole em- cursorily criticised, with an air of conpire resounded with the huzzas of triumph, scious superiority, by the author of the hymns of thanksgiving, and the Pashol, or Sketch ; and shall pay no regard to marri word, 'for Poland, and Paris.' The Cossacks, enriched with the immense

the opinions and insinuations he has conbooty which their vigilance, activity, and trived to connect with them. As a spevalour, bad acquired, streamed from the cimen of his candour and judgment, it Don; and the oldest veterans, and youngest may, however, be well tomention that he boys capable of wielding a lance, were seen daily amongst be reinforcements arriving to

Napoleon, who knew this anecdote, and alluded to range themselves under the banner of their faith of the King of Prussia with much respect.

| The Russian rear guard could not pass the Elbe for ten days; during which time it was embarrassed

with the protection of tou thousand four wheeled car* It is computed that Norway furnished tea thou- riages of every description, inoving along the same saud sailors to England.

ruau

ascribes the capture of Paris, solely to acquired by his policy and mildness, the aftreachery, and thinks that Buonaparte

fections of all parties. To the Royalists he who " with sixty thousand brave and in

was the guardian of the roya' dynastyto the defatigable men, had baffled the opera

Napoleonists he was the preserver of the intions of two hundred thousand, for more

tegrity of France, and to the Constitutional. than six weeks," was just on the point of

ists he was the champion of a liberal governo

ment. But in this moment of triumph he achieving victory-when “the movement

never forgot Russia, and added largely to on St. Dizier which merited empire, lost former importations for the advancement of him his crown.

the arts, science, and industry in that counThe Allies however, having somehow try obtained possession of the metropolis, ** The negociations of Paris regulated the we are next instructed in the process by points at issue with France, and left the which the Bourbons were reinstated in

fate of Naples, Saxony, and Poland, to be the throne, and in divers other mysteries,

settled at Congress ; whilst the allotment of of which our author seems to have been Belgium, and the destiny of the kingdom of the depositary.

Italy were definitely arranged, although not

officially promulgated. Alexander had for some time been ob.

The Emperor of Austria had always deliged to relinquish the proposed arrange. clared that he would never reoccupy the ments in favour of Bernadotte, who had

Milanese states, in any event of the war; loitered at Liege, and who, in fact, had

but Alexander, resolved on the acquisition done too much for his character in France,

of the Duchy of Svarsaw, insisted on Ausand too little for his interests with the allies.*

tria's taking to fierself those provinces, as “ Alexander. personally, as it was believed,

compensating aggrandizements; thus the ill-disposed to the Bourbon family, reluctantly acquiesced in the proposition. The king kingdom of Italy, whose independence bad

so often been guaranteed by these very pow. of Prussia did not object; but Schwartzen.

ers in their treaties with Napoleon, and berg for a few instants was silent, and Tal

whose moral regeneration had been comlerand was uneasy, if not alarmed. Schwart

mensurate with its political growth, was zenberg, however, probably unwilling to

again reduced to a provincial dependence." charge himself with the responsibility of a The reply to this groan over Italy is refusal (his sovereign and Metternich being absent) did not finally withhold his assent;

anticipated. and thus, by two foreign sovereigns, a fo: Italy was a fief to Napoleon-it was so, but

"li may be said, that the kingdom of reign marshal, and an ex-minister, was Louis chosen—King of France !-legitimate decease, were never to be placed on the

not to France. The two crowns, after his pretensions, and the subsequently alleged right and litle to the throne, got in, the remotest degree influencing that choice.

Unanswerable logic! « The defection of Marmont, accompanied

“ The two crowns after his decease, with the contingent events, terminated the evere never, &c." war; and Napoleon, still an emperor, pro

Profound statesman ! ceeded to his asylum, overthrown, but not The lament over the fallen fortunes of

Italy, and the panegyric on the virtues of " Alexander, who had been ambitious at Napoleon which ensue, are most unforChatillon to stipulate for the entrance of tunately conjoined, if the writer really some battalions of his guards into Paris, ebat he might in some degree balance parades at

meant to appeal to the condolence of hothe Thuilleries against those of the Kremlin,

nest hearts; for that breast which could and whose anxiety on this point had been beat with tenderness for the miseries of one of the real obstacles to the conclusion a subjugated and degraded people, must of peace, now saw himself in possession of always throb with indignation at the the French capital, the creator of its new mention of a stern and selfish tyrant, monarchy, and the arbiter of its destinies ! whose crimes ought never to be forgotten

“ Gratified in his vanities, but not intoxi- in his punishment. cated by his successes, he sought after, and "Whilst the congress was reconstructing Eu

same head."

overcome.

rope, not according to rights, natural affiances, * Nevertheless, England was true to her engage

language, habits, or laws; but by tables of ment, nay, to the constructive spirit of it; for she em- finance, which divided and subdivided her ployed her feet, the fleet of a free people, in blocka- population into souls, demi-souls, and even tian, by famine, to receive the yoke ; although that fractions, according to a scale of the direct nation only required neutrality from England, that duties or taxes which could be levied by the she might negotiate or fight for her independence. The Swedish government seeins to have acted towards Alexander had at that time determined to make the Norwegians, when obliged to capitulate, with himself King of Poland, and recommended the Emgreat liberality and good sense : but this conduct does peror of Austria to preserve the Italian monarchy, not affect the question of the right of England to

and wear the iron crown; but the Emperor resused, make over a nation to another power, because its

as he was afraid to keep alive the recollections of in. own government refused to break its neutrality ; nor dependence. But the debarkation of Napoleon in does it mitigate the reproach of England for employiog her arms in such a service

1815, forced acquiescence in a measure, which we 05

VOL. II.-No. III.

Italians had much at heart.

acquiring state, the fostivities of victory were tain the plighted faith, as much, and even not suspended; but, if Alexander wbirled, more than she was to avenge political inafter the fashion of his country, in the cir- juries. cling dance, his head never lost its equipoise, An English nobleman, whose acquainthis revelry never encroached on his hours of ance with the public laws of nations and the business, nor did his amusements divert his duties of honour is commensurate with bis mind from more grave occupations." natural benevolence, when writing on that

The invasion of Buonaparte from Elba, subject, to produce a decision in unison with which broke up the congress, caused the his sense of justice, observed :Allies once more to occupy Paris. They

"What is passing at Paris distresses me obtained possession of this city by a con- the score of private acquaintance, though

more than I can describe for Lavalette, on vention, containing the following stipu- slight, I am much concerned ; but from relations.

gard to the choracter of our country, I have "Art. XII. Private persons and property conceived more horror at the trials and ele. shall be equally respected. The inbabitants, cutions going on in the teeth of our capitulaand, in general, all individuals, who shall be tion than mere humanity could create. How in the capital, shall continue to enjoy their can it be asserted that the impunity for politirights and liberties, without being disturbed cal conduct extends only to impunity from or called to account, either as to the situa- the allies for offences committed against tions which they hold or may have held, or them? Where ships strike-where garrisons as to their conduct or polilical opinions. surrender—do the captains or commanders

“ ART. IV. If difficulties arise in the esecu. stipulate, that the foreign conqueror shall not tion of any one of the articles of the present molest their foriner political exertions? With Convention, the interpretation of it shall be or without such stipulations, what shadow of made in favour of the French army and of the right has a foreigri enemy to punish individocity of Paris.

als for opinions held, or conduct pursued in Notwithstanding this express guarranty their own country? of oblivion and indemnity, Labedoyere, "It is clear, the impunity promised was imNey, Lavalette, &c. were arraigned by punity for crimes, real or supposed, against a the Bourbons, for their concern in the French government. If the French governrevolution, and, with the exception of the

ment was a party to that promise, by that last, who was rescued principally by the allies are bound in honour not to deliver over

proinise it must abide. If not, the other intrepidity of the reputed author of this

a town taken in virtue of it, without exacting very work, were ignominiously executed the same terms froin those to whom they dein the face, nay under the countenance, of liver it. the allied armies. We would not miti- · Had we taken Martinique in 1795 or gate the terms of reproach in which our 1794, on a promise of not molesting individuauthor vents his detestation of this dere- als for political operations or conduct, should fiction of truth and honour.

we have been at liberty to cede it, had Louis

XVIII, been tben restored, without insisting "The Royalists of France say, the king was no party; and that a king cannot be bound

on the impunity of all political offences; or, by the arrangements or promises of foreign country for such as might have so offended?

at the very least, on the right of leaving the generals, that he should not administer his own laws: but a convention, according to all the persons should be molested for their conduct

“In Egypt, the French stipulated, that Du writers on the laws of nations, and the usages

or opinions during the war. We took militeof war, is binding on those who sign and on those who benefit by the instrument; for no

ry possession of the country on those terms,

and delivered it over to the political authority party in law can select the advantage, and then reject the inconvenience by denial of Captain Pacha acting under that authority

of the Oltoman Porte. When, however, the participation in the contract. Count Maci. roni, however, says, and his assertion has against the adberents of ihe French, we not

began murdering the Beys, and proceeding never been contradicted, that Talleyrand, the minister of Louis, was present on the morn

only remonstrated and threatened, but we ing of the 4th of July, when the Duke of

actually protected the persecuted men withia Wellington, Sir Charles Stuart, and Pozzo di the British arıny in line of battle, with loaded

our lines,''* (and Lord Hutchinson marched Borgo were assembled in council; and that Talleyrand, torning to the Duke, requested

guns, on the Pacba's camp, giving to the bim to read to the Count the capitulalion they she liring and the dead in his possession:

Captain Pacha but five minutes to surrender had just concluded. "It was, however, of no consequence to the

• What would have been done by the English

commander in Spain is the troops bad sure people of Paris whether the king agreed or not. The allied commanders had guaranteed similar stipulation; and if, on the flimsy and

rendered any town to the French with a their safety against all persecutions for polilicul opinions and conduct; and, if remon

hypocritical subterfuge of a distinction bestrance failed, they were bound to protect them by force of arms! Europe was also

| Sir Sidney Smith had already consecrated in obliged to support these measures, and main- Egypt and Arabia the good faith of England

* Observation of the Author.

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