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coveries by experiments into greater observations, axioms, and aphorisms. These we call interpreters of nature.

We have also, as you must think, novices and apprentices, that the succession of the former employed men do not fail; besides a great number of servants and attendants, men and women. And this we do also: we have consultations, which of the inventions and experiences, which we have discovered, shall be published, and which not: and take all an oath of secrecy, for the concealing of those which we think fit to keep secret : though some of those we do reveal sometimes to the state, and some not.

For our ordinances and rites, we have two very long and fair galleries : in one of these we place patterns and samples of all manner of the more rare and excellent inventions: in the other we place the statues of all principal inventors. There we have the statue of your Columbus, that discovered the West-Indies: also the inventor of ships: your monk, that was the inventor of ordnance, and of gunpowder : the inventor of music: the inventor of letters: the inventor of printing: the inventor of observations of astronomy: the inventor of works in metal : the inventor of glass : the inventor of silk of the worm: the inventor of wine:


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the inventor of corn and bread : the inventar


sugars: and all these by more certain tradition than you

have. Then have we divers inventors of our own of excellent works; which since you have not seen, it were too long to make descriptions of them; besides, in the right understanding of those

1 descriptions, you might easily err. For upon every invention of value, we erect a stalue to the inventor, and give him a liberal and honourable reward. These statues are some of brass; some of marble and touchstone; some of cedar, and other special woods gilt and adorned; some of iron; some of silver ; some of gold.

We have certain hymns and services which we say daily, of laud and thanks to God for his marvellous works; and forms of prayers, imploring his aid and blessing for the illumination of our labours; and the turning of them into good and holy uses.

Lastly, we have circuits or visits of divers principal cities of the kingdom; where, as it cometh to pass, we do publish such new profitable inventions as we do think good. And we do also declare natural divinations of diseases, plagues, swarms of hurtful creatures, scarcity, tempests, earthquakes, great inundations, comets, temperature of the year, and divers other things; and we give counsel thereupon what the people shall do for the prevention and remedy of them.

And when he had said this, he stood up: and I

as I had been taught, kneeled down; and he laid his right hand upon my head, and said, God bless thee, my son, and God bless this relation which I have made. I give thee leave to publish it for the good of other nations : for we here are in God's bosom, a land unknown. And so he left me; having assigned a value of about two thousand ducats, for a bounty to me and my fellows. For they give great largesses where they come upon all occasions.




SIR, COMING back from your invitation at Eton, where I had refreshed myself with company which I loved, I fell into a consideration of that part of policy whereof philosophy speaketh too much, and laws too little ; and that is, of education of youth. Whereupon fixing my mind a while, I found straightways, and noted even in the discourses of philosophers, which are so large in this argument, a strange silence concerning one principal part of that subject. For as touching the framing and seasoning of youth to moral virtues, (as tolerance of labours, continency from pleasures, obedience, honour, and the like) they handle it; but touching

* Sir Henry Saville, so justly celebrated for his noble edition of St. Chrysostom and other learned works, was many years warden of Merton-College in Oxford, (in which university he founded a geometry and astronomy lecture 25 May, 1620. See the instrument of foundation, Rymer XVII. p. 217.) and likewise provost of Eton. To this gentleman, as of all the most proper, Sir Francis Bacon sends this discourse touching Helps for the intellectual powers in youth; but being an imperfect essay to incite others, he places this useful subject among the deficients reckon'd up in his Advancement of Learning. Stephens.

the improvement, and helping of the intellectual powers, as of conceit, memory and judgment, they say nothing; whether it were, that they thought it to be a matter wherein nature only prevailed; or that they intended it, as referred to the several and proper arts, which teach the use of reason and speech. But for the former of these two reasons, howsoever it pleaseth them to distinguish of habits and powers, the experience is manifest enough, that the motions and faculties of the wit and memory may be not only governed and guided, but also confirmed and enlarged by custom and exercise duly applied; as if a man exercise shooting, he shall not only shoot nearer the mark, but also draw a stronger bow. And as for the latter, of comprehending these precepts within the arts of logic and rhetoric, if it be rightly considered, their office is distinct altogether from this point; for it is no part of the doctrine of the use or handling of an instrument, to teach how to wet or grind the instrument to give it a sharp edge, or how to quench it, or otherwise whereby to give it a stronger temper. Wherefore finding this part of knowledge not broken, I have, but tanquam aliud agens,

enter'd into it, and salute you with it; dedicating it, after the ancient manner, first as to a dear friend, and then as to an apt person, forasmuch as you have both place to practise it, and

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